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Full text of "Pueblo Bonito"

Library of 
The University of North Carolina 



ELISHA MITCHELL SCIENTIFIC 
SOCIETY 




THE LIBRARY OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF 

NORTH CAROLINA 

AT CHAPEL HILL 




ENDOWED BY THE 

DIALECTIC AND PHILANTHROPIC 

SOCIETIES 

BUILDING USE ONLY 

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.A27 

v.27 



UNIVERSITY OF N.C. AT CHAPEL HILL 



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Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

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PLATE 1 






ANTHROPOLOGICAL PAPERS 

OF 

THE AMERICAN MUSEUM 
OF NATURAL HISTORY 

Vol. XXVII 

PUEBLO BONITO 

BY 

GEORGE H. PEPPER 

Library, Univ. of 
North Carolina 




NEW YORK 

PUBLISHED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES 
1920 





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asapif: "'f^'Hj 


® AMERICAN-MUSEUM-PRESS 9 | 



PUEBLO BONITO 
By George H. Pepper 



O 

CO 



FOREWORD 

The following pages constitute the author's report upon certain 
archaeological excavations at the ruined Pueblo Bonito in Chaco Canon, 
northwestern New Mexico. The work was begun in 1896 under the direc- 
tion of Professor F. W. Putnam, then Curator of Anthropology at the 
American Museum of Natural History, and was a part of the Hyde 
Expedition for explorations in the Southwest. Mr. Richard Wetherill, 
noted for his many discoveries of Cliff and Pueblo remains, became particu- 
larly interested in the Bonito Ruin, which to him presented the greatest 
opportunities for investigation. Having previously formed the acquaint- 
ance of Messrs. B. Talbot B. Hyde and Frederick E. Hyde Jr., he pre- 
sented his plans for the excavation of the ruin. These gentlemen were so 
impressed with the project that they resolved to finance the undertaking. 
They sought the council of Professor Putnam, who entered whole- 
heartedly into the enterprise as its scientific director. Mr. George H. 
Pepper was appointed field director. In the work of excavation he was 
assisted by Richard Wetherill and his four brothers. The excavations at 
Bonito occupied the summer seasons of 1896, 1897, 1898, and 1899. 

In planning the work, care was taken to project a method that would 
record with precision all the observations made and particularly the 
positions of objects found in the rooms of the ruin. Not only were careful 
measurements of the position of each important specimen to be made as 
found, but all the more important were to be photographed in situ. This 
precision of detail was amply justified as the work proceeded, because 
some of the most significant points as to the uses of certain objects would 
otherwise not have been attained. For example, it was this painstaking 
technique that revealed the custom of placing small offerings in certain 
kiva posts. 

A geological survey of the canon was also a part of the plan. This 
was undertaken by Professor Richard E. Dodge of Columbia University, 
whose preliminary report will be found in the Introduction. It was hoped 
that such a geological survey would provide data to be ultimately cor- 
related with cultural data obtained from the ruin and its contents. 
This correlation of geological data with the results of archaeological 
work is a much-neglected aspect of anthropological research in South- 
western United States and the fact that such geological coordination was 
planned as an integral part of this project stands as a tribute to the 
genius of Professor Putnam. 



2 A nthro pological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

The author long delayed the preparation of this report in the hope 
that further work could be taken up at the ruin and that a more ex- 
haustive study of the cultural problem of the Chaco could be prosecuted; 
but as neither of these desirable extensions of the work now seems possible, 
he decided to issue his notes in their present form as a record of what was 
done in this pioneer exploration of one of the most famous of the Chaco 
group. To this end he has given as full and detailed information upon 
each room as seems likely to be required by his more fortunate successors 
in this field. 

Something less than half the rooms in the pueblo were excavated, 
198 in all. Of these full technical descriptions have been given for all 
that were of special importance in characterizing the culture of the 
ancient inhabitants. These are taken up in serial order, their relative 
positions appearing on the groundplan, Fig. 155. It so happened that 
the various types of specimens were in the main segregated in individual 
rooms, thus making it possible to give a systematic treatment of these 
cultural characters as a part of the serial description of rooms. 

During the long interval since the last Hyde Expedition the author 
published a few brief accounts of special rooms and features of the Pueblo 
as follows : — 

Ceremonial Deposits found in an Ancient Pueblo Estufa in Northern 
New Mexico (Monumental Records, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1-6, July, 1899.) 

Ceremonial Objects and Ornaments from Pueblo Bonito, New 
Mexico (American Anthropologist, N. S., vol. 7, no. 2, April- June, 1905.) 

Human Effigy Vases from Chaco Canon, New Mexico (Boas Anni- 
versary Volume, pp. 320-334, New York, 1906.) 

The Exploration of a Burial-Room in Pueblo Bonito, New Mexico 
(Putnam Anniversary Volume, pp. 196-252, New York, 1909.) 
These have not been repeated in the present publication. 

Finalry, in justice to the author it should be noted that what is here 
published are his field notes, supplemented by descriptive data for the 
most important specimens. The author is to be commended for his 
frankness in thus placing before us his field record in full so that future 
excavators in this ruin may have before them his first hand impressions 
and observations. 
September, 1920. Clark Wissler. 



CONTENTS 



FOREWORD .... 
INTRODUCTION . 

Sections in Excavations 

Sections in Dump 

Location of Sections by Mappin 

Cliff Profile .... 

Mapping of Surface Stream^ 
EXCAVATIONS IN THE PUEBLO 
Room 1 . 

Feather-Work 

Miscellaneous Objects 

Architecture 
Room 2 . 

Worked Wood 

Basketry 

Arrows 

Miscellaneous Objects 

Pottery . 
Room 3 . 

Underground Rooms 

Room 3a 

Room 3b 

Room 3c 

Room 3d 
Room 4 . 
Room 5 . 
Room 6 . 

Room 6a 
Room 7 . 
Room S . 
Room 9 . 

Pipes 

Cloisonne Work 

Miscellaneous Objects 

Pottery Trays 
Room 10. . . 

Pipes 

Ceremonial Sticks . 

Miscellaneous Objects 

Sacrificial Breaking 

Problematic Objects 

Stone Objects 
Room 11 
Room 12. 

Pebbles and Fossil Shells 

Broken Pipes . 

Miscellaneous Objects 



Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 



Room 13. 

Altar Painting 

Shell and Turquoise 
Room 14. 

Room 14a 

Room 14b 

Architecture . 

Ceiling Structure . 
Room 15. 
Room 16. 

Kiva 
Room 17. 

Metates . 
Room 18. 

Wood-working 
Room 19. 
Room 20. 

Doorways 

Broken Metate 

Pottery . 

Miscellaneous Objects 
Room 21 . 
Room 22 . 
Room 23 . 
Room 24. 

Refuse Deposit 

Sandals . 

Pottery . 

Miscellaneous Objects 
Room 25 . 

Pottery . 

Bone and Antler . 

Skin Work 

Stone Work . 

Textiles . 

Wooden Objects . 

Feathers 
Room 26. 

Buried Kiva . 
Room 27 . 

Altar Sand 
Room 28 . 

A Pottery Cache . 

Cylindrical Pottery 

Miscellaneous Objects 

Room 28a 
Room 29. 



1920. 



Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 



Rooms 30 and 31 
Room 32. 

Pottery . 

Ornament of Hematite 

Miscellaneous Objects 

A Burial 

Pottery . 

Ceremonial Sticks 

Type 1 . 

Type 2 . . . 

Type 3 . . . 

Type 4 . . . 

Design Board 

Arrows . 

Miscellaneous Objects 
Room 33 . 
Room 34. 
Room 35 . 
Room 36 . 
Room 37 . 
Room 38 . 

Turquoise Ornaments 

Miscellaneous Objects 

Pipes 

Effigy Pottery 

Macaw Skeletons 
Room 39. 

Arrow Points 

Fireplaces 

Room 39a 

Room 39b 

Cylindrical Jars 
Room 40. 

Doorways 

Bins 
Room 41 . 
Room 42 . 
B oom 43 . 
Room 44. 
Room 45 . 
Room 46 . 
Room 47 . 
Room 48 . 
Room 49 . 
Room 50. 
Room 51 . 

Room 51a 
Room 52. 



Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 



Room 53 . 

A Deposit of Beads 
Room 54. 

Stone Implements 
Room 55 . 
Room 56 . 
Room 57 . 
Room 58. 
Room 59. 
Room 60. 

Room 60a 
Room 61 . 
Room 62 . 

Wall Pockets 

Doorways and Walls 

A Buried Floor 

Basket-Covered Pockets 
Room 63 
Room 64 
Room 65 

Doorways and Wall Pockets 

Buried Floor and Pockets 
Room 66 



Room 67 . 




Kiva 




Ceremon 


al Deposit 


Room 68. 




Room 68 


a 


Room 69 . 




Room 70. 




Room 71 . 




Room 72 . 




Room 73 . 




Room 74. 




Room 75 . 




Room 76 . 




Room 77 . 




Room 78 . 




Room 79. 




Room 80 . 




Room 81 . 




Room 82 . 




Room 83 . 




Room 84 . 




Room 85. 




Room 86.. 




Room 87. 





1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 7 

Page. 

Room 88. . . . . . 291 

Room 89 : ' . . . . . . 293 

Room 90 ' 294 

Room 91. . . . . . .297 

Room 92 298 

Room 93 . 300 

Room 94 301 

Room 95 302 

Room 96 • 302 

Room 97 304 

Room 98 308 

Room 99 315 

Room 100 . .316 

Room 101 319 

Room 102 320 

Room 103 320 

Room 104 321 

Room 105 322 

Room 106 324 

Room 107 325 

Rooms 108 and 109 . 328 

Room 110 328 

Room 111 330 

Rooms 112 and 113 . 331 

Room 114 331 

Room 115 334 

Rooms 116 to 190 339 

FIELD NOTES FOR EXCAVATIONS IN BURIAL MOUNDS . . .339 

TABULATED DATA 352 

CONCLUSION 375 

NOTES ON PUEBLO BONITO. By N. C. Nelson 381 

The Refuse Sections 383 

Pottery of the Chaco Region . 385 

Architectural Features of the Bonito Ruin 387 

The Shored-up Cliff Block 389 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Plates. 

1. Bone and Jet Objects Inlaid with Turquoise 

2. A Cylindrical Jar 

3. A Cylindrical Jar 

4. A Cylindrical Jar 

5. A Cylindrical Jar 

6. A Cylindrical Jar 

7. Two Pitchers from Room 28 

8. A Painted Board 

9. Pointed Implements of Rough and Ordinary Finish 

10. Pointed Bone Implements of More or Less Special Form and Finish 

11. Scrapers and Chisels 

12. Miscellaneous Forms 



Text Figures. 

Page. 

1. Map of William H. Jackson, Tenth Annual Report, U. S. Geological and 

Geographical Survey, 1878 facing 13 

2. Groundplan of Pueblo Bonito, William H. Jackson, 1878 .... 19 

3. General View of Pueblo Bonito taken from the Mesa North of the Ruin . 20 

4. Bonito from the Mesa, showing Excavated Rooms . . . . . 21 

5. North Wall of Bonito showing Joint of Old and New Walls .... 22 

6. Floor and Walls of Room 1 33 

7. Opening in Corner of Room 1 34 

8. Closed Doorway, Eastern Part of Bonito 34 

9. Interior of Room 3 — a Square Kiva 41 

10. Walls of Rooms 4 and 5 42 

11. Stick Wrapped with Buckskin, Room 6 49 

12. Pipes from Rooms 9 and 10 52 

13. An Example of Cloisonne Work, Room 9 53 

14. A Bone Awl of Unusual Form, Room 10 55 

15. Objects of Unknown Use, Rooms 10 and 37 56 

16. Shallow Stone Mortars, Rooms 10 and 38 57 

17. Grooved Hammers and an Arrow Polisher, Rooms 10, 20 and 29 . .57 

18. A Stone Slab and a Metate, Rooms 20 and 10 60 

19. Types of Stone Pipes, Rooms 38, 10, 12, and 26 64 

20. Tubular Pottery Pipes, Rooms 105 and 12 64 

21. Drill Point, Room 12 . 66 

22. Stone Hoes and a Dressed Stone, Rooms 12, 38 and 37 . . .67 

23. Interior of Room 14a 72 

24. Floor Boards in Room 14a 73 

25. Ceiling of Room 14b 74 

26. Interior of Kiva No. 16 75 

27. Bench and Row of Sticks in Kiva No. 16 76 



1920.1 



Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 



28. Niche in Bench, South Side of Kiva No. 16 

29. Metates in Room 17 

30. Rubbing Stones, Room 18 

31. View of Excavated Rooms, surrounding Kiva 16 

32. Sealed Doorway, Room 20 

33. Fragment of a Bowl, Room 20 ... . 

34. Sandals from Room 24 

35. Design upon a Bowl, Room 24 ... . 

36. Objects from Room 25 

37. Buckskin from Room 25 

38. Part of Carving in Sandstone, Room 25 

39. Piece of Cotton Cloth, Room 25 ... . 

40. Parts of Arrows, Rooms 25 and 32 

41. Room for preparing Altar Sand, Room 27 

42. Pottery exposed in Room 28 

43. Cylindrical Jars in Room 28 

44. Pottery in Northeast Corner of Room 28 

45. Forms of Cylindrical Jars, Room 28 

46. Decorated Potsherd, a Shell Trumpet, and Worked Antler 

and 22 

47. Pottery Forms, Rooms 32 and 28 ... 

48. Pottery from Room 32 

49. Bowl of Grayware, Room 32 

50. A Bird of Lignite, Inlaid with Turquoise, Room 32 

51. Ornament of Hematite 

52. Ceremonial Sticks, in situ, Room 32 

53. Ceremonial Sticks, Type 1, Rooms 32 and 33 

54. Ceremonial Sticks, Type 1, Room 32 

55. Ceremonial Sticks, Type 2, Rooms 32 and 33 

56. Ceremonial Sticks, Type 2 

57. Ceremonial Sticks, variants of Type 2, Rooms 33 and 32 

58. Ceremonial Sticks, Types 3 and 4, Rooms 32 and 33 

59. Ceremonial Sticks, Type 3, Room 32 

60. Ceremonial Sticks, Type 4, Rooms 33 and 32 

61. Curved Sticks, Room 32 

62. Curved Sticks, Rooms 32 and 33 . 

63. End of Ceremonial Stick, Inlaid with Turquoise, Room 32 

64. Curved Sticks, Rooms 55, 33, and 32 

65. Design on a Painted Board, Room 32 . 

66. A Cloth-Covered Object, Room 32 

67. Flageolets from Room 33 .... 

68. Painted Flute from Room 33 

69. Mortuary Pottery from Room 33 . 

70. Mortuary Pottery from Room 33 . 

71. Restoration of Cylindrical Basket covered with Mosaic 

Room 33 

72. Large Turquoise Pendants, Room 33 



Page. 

77 
78 
86 
87 



Rooms 28, 17, 



of T 



urquoise, 



10 



Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 



Page. 



73. Examples of Turquoise Beads, Pendants, and Inlays found with .Skeletons 

in Room 33 

74. Large Turquoise Pendants found in Various Parts of Room 33 . 

75. Turquoise Frogs and Tadpoles, Room 33 

76. Specimens from Room 33 

77. Shell Trumpet found with Skeleton 14, Room 33; Ceremonial Sticks, 

Room 36 

78. Bead of Shell with Section of a Bird Bone Inserted, Room 33 . 

79. Turquoise Pendant and Set showing Inlays of the Same Material, Room 

33 

80. North and East Walls of Room 36 

81. Masonry in Room 37 

82. Corrugated Bowl, Room 38 

83. Beak-like Object made of Chalcedony, Room 38 

84. Soft Stone Pipe of Unusual Form, Room 38 

85. Ceremonial Stick, Room 38 

86. Inlaid Scraper, Room 38 

87. Cylindrical Jars in Room 39b 

88. View of Room 42, looking Northwest 

89. Closed Doorway in East Wall of Room 43 . 

90. Shell of a Walnut, inlaid with Turquoise, Room 44 . 

91. Pottery Vessel suggesting an Incense Burner, Room 51 

92. Stone Implements in Room 54 

93. Walls of Room 54 ... . 

94. Wooden Knife Handle, Room 54 

95. Hafted Stone Knife, Room 54 

96. Handle of Pottery Vessel, Room 54 

97. Handle made of Bone, Highly Polished, resembling Ivory, Room 58 

98. View of Room 62 showing the Fallen Ceiling and Construction of the 

Wall Pockets 

99. Wall Pockets in Room 62 

100. Baskets and Pockets under the Floor of Room 62 

101. Design on a Painted Board found under Debris near Room 63 

102. Painted Stone Pestle, Room 64 

103. Floor Pockets in Room 65 

104. West Wall of Kiva, Room 67 . 

105. Hole in End of Kiva Post, Room 67, containing Turquoise Beads 

106. Kiva, Room 75 

107. Part of Room 76 

108. Northeastern Corner of Room 78 . 

109. Painted Stone Mortar in Room 80 

110. Design on Painted Stone Mortar, Room 80 

111. Curious Pottery Object with Perforations, Room 80 

112. Copper Bell, Room 83, Slightly Enlarged 

113. North Wall of Room 83 .... 

114. Under Wall, Room 83 ... . 

115. Sandal Figures on North Wall of Room 83 



171 
172 
175 
176 

177 
178 

178 
181 
182 
189 
190 
193 
193 
193 
201 
202 
204 
205 
209 
211 
212 
214 
214 
214 
220 

225 
226 
227 
228 
237 
240 
249 
250 
259 
260 
261 
265 
266 
268 
269 
271 
272 
272 



1920. 



Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 



11 



Page. 

116. Bins in Room 85 273 

117. North Wall of Room 85, showing Calcined Surface 274 

118. Specimens in situ, Room 85 275 

119. A Large Wooden Slab, Room 85 276 

120. Pottery in Place in West End of Room 85 277 

121. Large Vessel from Room 85 278 

122. Wooden Flute, Room 85 . 279 

123. Remains of a Charred Rope, Room 86 287 

124. Walls of Angular Room under Room 87 288 

125. Mealing Bins, Room 90 296 

126. Stone Pointed Drill, Room 92 299 

127. Wall of Wattle Work, Room 97 307 

128. View of Room 97, looking Northeast .308 

129. East and South Wall of Room 99 310 

130. Doorway in Room 99 311 

131. Pitchers in Corner of Room 99 312 

132. Two Copper Bells from Room 106 324 

133. Foreshaft of an Arrow from Room 107 327 

134. Hafted Stone Knife from Room 107 327 

135. Decorated Bone Scraper from Room 108 327 

136. Knife Handles from Rooms 171 and 110 327 

137. Detail of Ceiling in Room 112 331 

138. Jet Ornament with Bird Wing Design carved on Surface, Room 131 . 332 

139. Wooden Object Painted in Red, Yellow, and Green, Room 169 . 332 

140. Dipper Handle, showing Mending, Room 168 333 

141. Bone Ornament, Room 168 333 

142. Pottery Vessel 335 

143. Handle of Pottery Incense Burner Showing how Bowl was Attached, 

Room 141 335 

144. Floor of Room 159 336 

145. Interior of Kiva showing Ventilator, Room 162 337 

146. Circular Room in Eastern Court, Room 190 338 

147. Ceiling and Wall Structure of a Room in the Northern Part of the Ruin . 339 

148. Pictograph on Rock in Chaco Canon 344 

149. Outer North Wall of Bonito, looking Northwest from Within, showing 

Junction of Old and New Walls 344 

150. A Closed Doorway 345 

151. A Corner Doorway 345 

152. A Partly Closed Doorway 346 

153. An Open Doorway 346 

154. Burial in Mound No. 2, Skeleton 20 347 

155. Groundplan of Pueblo Bonito 390 




Fig. 1. Map of William H. Jacks I Tenth Annual Report, U. S logical and Geographical Survey, 1878. 



North Carolina 



INTRODUCTION. 

The ruin known as Pueblo Bonito lies between the narrow walls of 
Chaco Canon in northwestern New Mexico. Chaco Canon's greatest 
claim for attention is due to the fact that Pueblo Indians built there a 
series of great walled-in towns at a time, which, from all obtainable in- 
formation, was certainly a great many years before the Spanish Conquest 
The eastern limit of this great prehistoric waterway is in latitude 35° 56' 
27" and longitude 107° 46'. From this point it stretches westward a 
distance of twenty miles. In the canon bottom and on the cliffs that 
border it there are twelve large ruins and numerous smaller. ones. In 
one stretch, hardly a mile in length, over forty small ruins and house 
sites have been counted. 

The best general account of these ruins, including the one herein 
discussed, was published by William H. Jackson in 1878 1 . He gives a 
concise account of the group and its geographical setting together with 
large plans of the most important ruins. We have reproduced here 
(Fig. 1), his sketch map and condensed grounclplans of the several build- 
ings, to give an idea of the place of Pueblo Bonito in the group. As an 
introductory statement the following excerpt from Jackson's account 
can scarcely be improved upon: — 

The great ruins in the Chaco Canon, in Northern New Mexico, are preeminently 
the finest examples of the numerous and extensive remains of the works of unknown 
builders to be found north of the seat of the ancient Aztec Empire in Mexico, and of 
which there is comparatively little known even to this day. The first published 
account which ever appeared in regard to them is a short reference to the Pueblo 
Bonito by Gregg in 1844. His observations covered a period of eight years previous to 
1840. In 1849 a military expedition under the command of Colonel Washington, then 
military governor of New Mexico, was sent against the Navajos, who were trouble- 
some at that time, and their line of march traversed a portion of the canon. The 
report of Lieutenant Simpson, of the United States Topographical Engineers, who 
accompanied the expedition, contained the first detailed and authentic account ever 
published of these wonderful ruins, and it has been up to this time the only source of 
information. 

Prof. O. Loew visited the Pueblo Pintado in 1874, and a short description of it 
by him appears in the annual report of the Chief of Engineers for 1875. 

My visit to the canon of the Chaco in the spring of 1877 (May 7-15) was made 
with no idea of discovering anything new, but to see for myself and thus be able to 
compare more satisfactorily the highest development of ancient architectural skill 
as exhibited in these ruins with the extensive remains in the San Juan basin, and also 
with the pueblos of New Mexico and Arizona which are still occupied. 2 

'"Report on the Ancient Ruins Examined in 1875 and 1877" (Tenth Annual Report of the United 
States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories embracing Colorado and Parts of Adjacent 
Territories, being a Report of Progress of the Exploration for the Year 1876. By F. V. Hayden). Washing- 
ton, 1878. 

2 Jackson, ibid., 431. 

13 



14 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

The first to mention the Chaco ruins is Josiah Gregg, as just stated, 
but there may exist archive material not yet available to us, for Bandelier 
makes the following statement: — 

In the middle of the last century a Spanish captain of engineers, Don Bernardo de 
Mier y Paeheco, went upon a scientific and political mission for the Crown in New 
Mexico. He explored the ruins of the country, and the numerous pueblos of the 
Canon de Chaca (in the present home of the Navajos) excited his interest in the 
highest degree. When he began to concern himself about. the situation of Quivira, it 
was supposed that he had plans and documentary evidences to assist him hi finding 
the place. The measurements which he made in the ruins of the Chaca convinced the 
people that Quivira was there, and this conviction grew and spread rapidly. There 
was living at that time in Socorro on the Rio Grande an old Indian who was called 
"Tio Juan Largo." When he heard of the search of the Spanish officer, he protested 
at once against the idea that Quivira could be found in the northwest, and insisted 
that the ruins of the former mission of the Jumanos and Quiviras were east of Socorro, 
on the "Mesa Jumana." 1 

As de Mier y Pacheco's investigations were carried on in 1776, and 
Gregg wrote in 1844 this earlier account would certainly be most valu- 
able in estimating the changes that had taken place in the ruin. 

Lieutenant J. H. Simpson in his "Journal of a Military Recon- 
naissance from Santa Fe, New Mexico, to the Navajo Country" in 
August, 1849, found the ruins to be exactly as described by Gregg. 
Owing to the fact that Lieutenant Simpson's report on this great group 
was the first detailed description, it has been deemed advisable to quote 
that part which concerns Pueblo Bonito, verbatim. 

Two or three hundred yards down the canon, we met another old pueblo in 

ruins, called Pueblo Bonito This pueblo, 

though not so beautiful in the arrangement of the details of its masonry 
as Pueblo Pintado, is yet superior to it in point of preservation. The circuit 
of its walls is about thirteen hundred feet. Its present elevation shows that 
it has had at least four stories of apartments. The number of rooms on the ground 
floor at present discernible is one hundred and thirty-nine. In this enumeration, 
however, are not included the apartments which are not distinguishable in the 
east portion of the pueblo and which would probably swell the number to 
about two hundred. There, then, having been at least four stories of rooms, and 
supposing the horizontal depth of the edifice to have been uniform from bottom to 
top, or, in other words, not of a retreating terrace form on the court side, it is not un- 
reasonable to infer that the original number of rooms was as many as eight hundred. 
But, as the latter supposition (as will be shown presently) is probably the most 

'A. F. Bandelier, The Gilded Man {El Dorado) and other pictures of the Spanish Occupancy of America. 
New York, 1893. (p. 253.) 

Bandelier stated later that he had been unable to find any documentary evidence concerning the 
present location of the plans made by this gentleman, but he felt quite sure that they were in a convent 
in Zacatecas in Old Mexico. Tf these plans could be found it would add most interesting data to our 
present knowledge of this great group of ruins, for with his measurements, he no doubt gave at least a 
genera! account of the condition of the ruins 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 15 

tenable, there must be a reduction from this number of one range of rooms for every 
story after the first; and this would lessen the number to six hundred and forty-one. 
The number of estuffas is four — the largest being sixty feet in diameter, showing two 
stories in height, and having a present depth of twelve feet. All these estuffas are, 
as in the case of the others I have seen, cylindrical in shape, and nicely walled up 
with thin tabular stone. Among the ruins are several rooms in a very good state of 
preservation — one of them (near the northwest corner of the north range) being 
walled up with alternate beds of large and small stones, the regularity of the com- 
bination producing a very pleasing effect. The ceiling of this room is also more taste- 
ful than any we have seen — the transverse beams being smaller and more numerous, 
and the longitudinal pieces which rest upon them only about an inch in diameter, 
and beautifully regular. These latter have somewhat the appearance of barked wil- 
low. The room has a doorway at each end and one at the side, each of them leading 
into adjacent apartments. The light is let in by a window, two feet by eight inches, 
on the north side. There was among the ruins another room, which, on account of the 
lateness of the hour and the consequent despatch of our examination, escaped our 
scrutiny. This room having been represented by Assistant Surgeon J. H. Plammond 
and Mr. J. L. Collins (both of whom started from camp with us) as being more perfect 
in its detail than any of the others we had visited, and as indicating the use of smooth 
plank in the flooring, I requested the former to furnish me with a description of it. 1 

Surgeon Hammond's description of a room found among the ruins 
of the Pueblo Bonito is as follows: — 

Sir: At your request, I send you a description of a room that I saw, in company 
with Mr. Collins, of Santa Fe, in the ruins of the Pueblo Bonito, in the Canon of 
Chaco, on the 28th ult. 

It was in the second of three ranges of rooms on the north side of the ruins. The 
door opened at the base of the wall, towards the interior of the building; it had never 
been more than two feet and a half high, and was filled two-thirds with rubbish. The 
lintels were of natural sticks of wood, one and a half to two and a half 
inches in diameter, deprived of the bark and placed at distances of two or three inches 
apart ; yet their ends were attached to each other by withes of oak with its bark well 
preserved. The room was in the form of a parallelogram, about twelve feet in length, 
eight feet wide, and the walls, as they stood at the time of observation, seven feet 
high. The floor was of earth, and the surface irregular. The walls were about two 
feet thick, and plastered with a layer of red mud one fourth of an inch thick. 
The latter having fallen off in places showed the material of the wall to be sandstone. 
The stone was ground into pieces the size of our ordinary bricks, the angles not as 
perfectly formed, though nearly so, and put up in break-joints, having intervals 
between them, on every side, of about two inches. The intervals were filled with 
lamina; of a dense sandstone, about three lines in thickness, driven firmly in, and 
broken off even with the general plane of the wall — the whole resembling mosaic 
work. Niches, varying in size from two inches to two feet and a half square, and two 
inches to one and a half feet in horizontal depth, were scattered irregularly over the 

'Simpson, James H. "Journal of a Military Reconnaissance from Santa Fe, New Mexico, to the 
Navajo country, made with the troops under the command of Brevet Lieutenant Colonel John M. 
Washington, chief of the 9th military department, and governor of New Mexico, in 1849" (Reports oj 
the Secretary of War, 31st Congress, 1st Session, Senate Ex. Doc. Xo. 6.',, Washington, 1850, 80-81.) 



16 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII , 

walls, at various heights above the floor. Near the place of the ceiling, the walls 
were penetrated horizontally by eight cylindrical beams, about seven inches in 
diameter; their ends were on a line with the interior planes of the walls they pene- 
trated, and the surfaces of them perpendicular to the length of the beam. They had 
the appearance of having been sawed off originally, except that there were no marks 
of the saw left on them; time had slightly disintegrated the surfaces, rounding the 
edges somewhat here and there. Supporting the floor above were six cylindrical beams 
about seven inches in diameter, passing transversely of the room, and at distances of 
less than two feet apart — the branches of the trees having been hewn off by means of a 
blunt edged instrument. Above, and resting on these, running longitudinally with the 
room, were poles of various lengths, about two inches in diameter, irregularly straight, 
placed in contact with each other, covering all the top of the room, bound together at 
irregular and various distances, generally at their ends, by slips apparently of palm- 
leaf or marquez, and the same material converted into cords about one-fourth of an 
inch in diameter, formed of two strands, hung from the poles at several points. Above, 
and resting upon the poles, closing all above, passing transversely of the room, were 
planks about seven inches wide and three-fourths of an inch in thickness. The width 
of the plank was uniform, and so was the thickness. They were in contact, or nearly 
so, admitting but little more than the passage of a knife blade between them, by the 
edges, through the whole of their lengths. They were not jointed; all their surfaces 
were level, and as smooth as if planed, excepting the ends, the angles as regular and 
perfect as could be retained by such vegetable matter. They are probably of pine or 
cedar, exposed to the atmosphere for as long a time as it is probable these have 
been. The ends of the plank, several of which were in view, terminated in a line 
perpendicular to the length of the plank, and the plank appears to have been severed 
by a blunt instrument. The planks — I examined them minutely by the eye and the 
touch, for the marks of the saw and other instruments — were smooth, and colored 
brown by time or by smoke. Beyond the plank nothing was distinguishable from 
within. The room was redolent with the perfume of cedar. Externally, upon the 
top, was a heap of stone and mud, ruins that have fallen from above, immovable by 
the instruments that we had along. 

The beams were probably severed by contusions from a dull instrument, and their 
surfaces ground plain and smooth by a slab of rock; and the plank, split or hewn 
from the trees, were, no doubt, rendered smooth by the same means. 1 

Jackson's later account is more precise and presents the ruin about 
as we found it in 1896: — 

Five hundred yards below and also close under the perpendicular walls of the 
canon are the ruins of the Pueblo Bonito, the largest and in some respects the most 
remarkable of all. Its length is 544 feet and its width 314 feet. By referring to the 
plan it will be seen that it only roughly approximates the usual rectangular shape. 
The two side wings are parallel with each other, and at right angles to the front wall, 
for a distance of 70 feet; the west wing then bends around until a little past a line 
drawn through the centre of the ruin transversely, when it bears off diagonally to 
join the east wing, thus resembling in its outline a semi-oval. Instead of a semi- 
circular wall, the court is enclosed by a perfectly straight row of small buildings run- 

'Simpson, ibid., 144-145. 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 17 

ning almost due east and west, and is intersected by a line of estufas, which divide it 
(the court) into two nearly equal portions. A marked feature is the difference in the 
manner of construction, as shown in the character of the masonry and of the ground 
plan. It was not built with the unity of purpose so evident in the Pueblo of Chettro 
Kettle and some others, but large additions have been spliced in from time to time, 
producing a complexity in the arrangement of the rooms difficult to follow out. I 
spent several hours in endeavoring to unravel the intricacies of the foundations, and 
with better success than I imagined possible. The left-hand wing consists of three 
rows of rooms, eight in each row, 12 to 15 feet wide and from 12 to 20 feet in length. 
The outer walls are entirely demolished, but some of the interior walls reach to the 
top of the second story. In front of this wing and facing the court are the remains 
of what were probably three circular, partially subterranean rooms, probably estufas. 
The section adjoining this wing is in the shape of an almost perfect quarter-circle, and 
consists of five tiers of rooms, with nine rooms in each. The walls are standing quite 
generally as high as the second story. The outer tier of rooms of this section, which 
are only about 4 feet in width, seem to have been built on merely to assimilate this 
portion of the building with the rest, for they are evidently of different periods. 
The middle section is the most ruinous of all, but the great depth of the debris which 
covers several perfect rooms indicates that it originally possessed an equal height with 
the adjoining walls. The outer wall thus far is entirely ruined, hardly a stone re- 
maining in place, but in the section that lies between the central line of ertufas and 
the right-hand wing it rises up to the fourth story, and is in a remarkably well-pre- 
served condition. Portions of it are evidently a quite late addition in the history of 
the ancient pueblo, some of the outer rows having been spliced or joined to the last 
wing in a manner which will be better understood by a reference to the plate than by 
any description. Several of the interior parallel and transverse walls are also standing 
fully 30 feet high. Many of the vigas, which are in excellent preservation, still retain 
their places and protect a number of rooms on the first floor. The outer wall of the east 
wing is in fair preservation, while the interior walls are in excellent order for at least 
two stories; the apartments in this and the adjoining section are of unusual size, and 
the walls of the ground floor are of a fine massiveness that has preserved them remark- 
ably well. Within this wing are two estufas, one of which came up with and formed a 
portion of the second story. Across the front of the court there are two tiers of rooms 
about 25 feet in width, their fallen walls making a mound of debris 5 to 8 feet in depth, 
indicating that they were of considerable height. Every transverse wall could be 
easily distinguished. Interrupting this about midway is a solid parallelogram 65 by 
115 feet in dimensions, in which are two estufas each 50 feet in diameter. A low mass 
of ruins connects these with two more somewhat similar estufas that adjoin the centre 
of the main building. 

Having thus roughly sketched in the external forms of the ruin, I will devote 
some space to a description of some of its details. 

The masonry, as exhibited in the construction of the walls, is quite dissimilar in 
the different portions, showing clearly that it was either built at different periods, or 
that it had been once partially demolished and then rebuilt. The three kinds of 
masonry shown in Plate LXII [Fig. 1], appear at various places throughout the 
building, and, in addition, there is considerable rough-laid plastered wall, like that 
which appears in many of the old ruins, and which is also characteristic of all the 
Moqui pueblos. In that part of the external wall which is now standing a different 



18 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

method of laying the stones is observed in each story. The first or lowest story is 
built in the manner of No. 2; the second as No. 1; while in the third story it is a 
repetition of the first. The straight row across the front of the court was built almost 
entirely like No. 2, and the buildings immediately adjoining partook of the same 
character. Most of the interior walls, especially in the east wing and the section ad- 
joining it, were built in the manner of No. 1 ; but of larger stones. A large number of 
beams of wood were used to strengthen the walls; round sticks of three and four 
inches in diameter were built into the wall transversely, the ends trimmed off smooth 
and flush with the two outer surfaces, and larger timbers of from 10 to 15 feet in 
length and 6 to 8 in diameter were embedded longitudinally. We observed these in 
the outer wall only. The estufas in this ruin form an important feature, both from 
their number, size, and the excellent manner in which most of them were built. Re- 
ferring to the plan (Fig. 2), the first that attract our attention are those in the centre, 
Nos. 1 and 2, which have been already referred to. Neither these, nor in fact any of 
the others, with the exception probably of some of the more indistinct ones, which are 
indicated by dotted lines, appear to have been subterranean. No. 3 is 40 feet in 
diameter and No. 4, 26 feet, both are considerably elevated above the general surface. 
The masonry in the circles of these four central estufas is yet perfect around their 
entire circumferences, and the only others in like condition are the two in the east 
wing, Nos. 5 and 6. Besides these six, there are at least fifteen others in various 
degrees of demolition. Nos. 7, 8, and 9 are unmistakably of the same character as 
the preceding, and also those numbered from 10 to 17, the last six especially, having 
considerable portions of their cylindrical walls remaining. The remaining ones have 
only great mounds of stones and earth to mark their sites. The interior of the court 
is very uneven, there being no level ground whatever. This, as in the case of the 
Pueblo Pintado, I think, indicates that it was occupied with many subterranean 
rooms. There are a number of rooms, the coverings of which have resisted the great 
weight of fallen walls, and are now in excellent preservation. These do not differ 
materially from those already mentioned, and, as Lieutenant Simpson and Dr. Ham- 
mond describe two that are in this ruin with considerable minuteness, I will say but 
little in regard to them. In one of these, a small room in the outer tier of the north 
side, which we entered by a small hole which had been broken through the exterior 
wall, we found the names of Lieutenant Simpson, Mr. R. H. Keen, and one or two 
others, with the date, August 27, 1849, scratched into the soft plastering which cov- 
ered the walls, the impression appearing as plainly as if done but a few days previously. 
The pueblo was built within aboiit 20 yards of the foot [of] the bluff, but a talus of 
broken rock occupies all of this space, excepting a narrow passage next to the northern 
wall, through which the trail passes. To the east of this are the ruins of several small 
buildings built upon a bench close under the rocks. The bench has been extended 
some distance by a wall of 6 or 8 feet height, built of alternating bands of large and 
small stones. A short distance beyond is a mass of ruins measuring 135 by 75 feet, 
in the centre of which are two circular rooms. From the east side of this a line of wall 
ran due south about 300 feet, meeting at a right angle another wall 180 feet in length, 
which was an extension of the south front of the pueblo. 1 



Jackson, ibid., 440-442. 



The walla here nre quit 




□! 
D! 



□□□□rv 




PUEBLO BONITO, 

Chaco Canon, 

N. M 



Fig. 2. Groundplan of Pueblo Bonito, William H. Jackson, 187S. 









*> : « *» 



~«l» • «»■ 




Fig. 4. Bonito from the Mesa, showing Excavated Room 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 23 

The appearance of the ruin before excavations were begun is shown 
in Fig. 3. Professor Richard E. Dodge made a preliminary survey of 
the ruin as a basis for the construction of an accurate plan. Unfortu- 
nately, the writer was not able to return to the canon to make the final 
survey necessary to such a compilation, but recently Assistant Curator 
Nelson of the American Museum of Natural History made an independ- 
ent survey and drafted the general groundplan of the pueblo. Upon 
this plan as a basis, with my field notes and room plans, Mr. B. T. B. 
Hyde constructed the detailed outline in Fig. 155. The numbers on this 
plan show the rooms excavated and also refer to the corresponding text. 
Professor Richard E. Dodge made a preliminary study of the canon 
from whose field reports the following excerpts are taken: — 

I was occupied in work at the ruin from August 14 to September 9 (1900), 
inclusive. In outlining the problems presented, it seemed to me that there were three 
separate topics to be studied. First, the geographical conditions at the time of the 
Pueblo occupation, as compared with the present conditions; second, any evidence of 
climatic or geographical change ; third, any evidences as to the lapse of time since the 
desertion of the pueblos by their ancient inhabitants. 

My first thought was that the best solution of these problems might be found in 
a careful study of certain particular conditions to be seen in the walls of the arroyo. 
These evidences consisted of lenses of pottery, bones, beads, rolled adobe balls, etc., 
at a depth below the present plain surface, of from 14 to 17 feet. A careful study of 
an exposed section something more than thirty feet in vertical height in several 
places in the arroyo showed me, however, that the lenses of pottery, etc., could be 
interpreted in at least two different ways with equal truth. I therefore gave up 
further study in the arroyo for the time being, thinking it more advisable to study 
evidences about the ruin itself, hoping therefrom to get testimony that would aid the 
work in the arroyo. 

My work at the ruin consisted, first, of a detailed study of the comparative weath- 
ering of the different rocks used in the pueblo walls, particularly at the top and the 
bottom of walls which are standing to a height of three stories; secondly, a study of 
the deposits about the ruin to a sufficient depth to reach pure sand; thirdly, a study 
of the deposits in the large dump heap to the south of the ruin; and fourthly, a study 
of any traces of the deposits to be found on the walls of the exposed rooms. I also 
made a careful lithological section from the foot of the cliff to the extreme top of the 
mesa, and collected specimens from the different layers so as to have material for 
studying the unweathered rocks similar to those used in the pueblo walls. 

As a result of my reconnaissance I was convinced of the great length of time in 
which the ruins were occupied, as shown by the great depths of adobe and water and 
wind accumulated sand containing evidences of human occupation, to a depth of 
nearly twenty feet. It should be noted that the fragments of pottery found at the 
bottom of such sections were evidently of a similar type to those to be seen in great 
abundance over the surface. 

A study of the exposed layers in several deep pits gave evidence of very striking 
changes in geographical conditions at a considerable period anterior to the desertion 
of the pueblos, particularly as shown by accumulations of gravels, clearly of water 



24 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

origin, at a depth of more than ten feet beneath an overlying accumulation of adobe, 
and wind blown sand, in the top layers of which were evidences of several formerly 
occupied floors at different levels. Certain small remnants of water made gravels in 
the small recesses on the sides of some of the rooms on the south side of the ruin, and 
the very general stratification of the layers in the large dump heap also suggest ex- 
tensive water action. These are some of the problems, the solution of which is at 
least suggested, but which must be determined by later, more extended, careful work. 
The method of study of these deposits was purely geological, all measurements 
being made in reference to a chosen floor level, to tenths of a foot, and drawn in note- 
book to scale of tenth of an inch. Extensive collections were taken for office study. 
One of the difficulties in correlating the various water levels was due to the absence 
of an established base line, which is, I believe, contemplated for another year. 

From the report on the second field trip: — 

My attention was devoted to five lines of investigation as follows : — 

a. Study of sections in excavations dug during previous winter at southeast 
corner of ruin and south of center of dump. 

b. Study of section through eastern portion of dump and holes in eastern and 
western sections of dump, extending down to clean sand. 

c. Mapping of dump and holes studied this year and last. 

d. Study of rate and method of erosion of cliff face of northern mesa. 

e. Careful mapping of surface wet weather streams draining into arroyo, and a 
rough study of arroyo deposits for one mile, for the purpose of locating deposits of 
human origin. I shall consider these several phases of work in turn. 

Sections in Excavations. The sections of clean sand studied during the last two 
years number six in all, including the two mentioned as situated in dumps. The 
sections have been drawn to a scale of one-tenth of an inch to one-tenth of a foot, and 
have been plotted with care. As nearly as possible the datum plane is the same in 
each case, so that it will be possible to draw up a series of sections that will enable 
one to correlate the different layers found. Tentative correlation would seem to 
indicate an old water course running close to the front of the ruins at a depth of ten 
feet. Evidences of human remains occur to a depth much greater than this and reach 
more than twenty feet in one instance. 

Sections in Dump. The western dump was sectioned horizontally last year and 
seemed to indicate widespread action of standing water during its formation. The 
longitudinal section in the eastern dump this year seems to corroborate the evidence, 
though it has not been possible to be sure as yet of the identity of the more evident 
water layers in the two sections. The height of the top water layers in the dump has 
been projected to and marked on a large rock on the south side of the Chaco Arroyo, 
but no time was available for search for water laid deposits on that side of the canon. 
It is expected that careful leveling will enable us to correlate certain water laid 
deposits in the south tier of rooms in the ruin with the dump sections. 

Location of Sections by Mapping. A careful plane table map was made showing 
location of several sections studied and of related ruins for the purpose of furnishing 
data available for working out grades of strata in office correlation of deposits. This 
mapping required a day's work, but seemed essential as giving the best available base 
for careful lateral measurements. 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito, 25 

Cliff Profile. A study was made of the cliff profile on the northern side of the 
Chaco Canon for the purpose of securing evidence as to the presence or absence of 
talus at different points in the cliff, and as to the relation of the ancient people to the 
talus deposits. The form of the cliff front is very peculiar near the ruin, but it has 
not been possible as yet to determine the reasons for the cliff profile, or to locate the 
fault in the Chaco Valley and the departure of the cliff front from the fault line. 
Evidence along this line should be very valuable in the future. 

Mapping of Svrface Streams. My studies of last year of the deposits shown in the 
arroyo walls above and below Pueblo del Arroyo suggested to me that the deposits 
were not formed, as has been suggested, during the aggrading period of the arroyo 
plain, but during the subsequent and present period of degradation. A study of the 
arroyo walls seemed to indicate that the human remains are restricted to a small 
stretch of the arroyo wall, as noted above. I therefore mapped the path of all the 
small streams entering the arroyo from above the eastern end of the Ruin down to the 
under cliff ruins at the western end of the fenced field, near "Joe's Hogau." This 
mapping showed that all the drainage of water from the vicinity of Bonito enters the 
arroyo somewhere within the section included between the side arroyo entering just 
upstream from the well marked lense of pottery, beads, etc., and the arroyo that 
enters just east of Joe's Hogan. This indicates that the present arrangement of 
drainage is such as would bring materials from Bonito to the particular places in which 
human remains are found in the arroyo walls. I consider this the most satisfactory 
single bit of testimony thus far secured. 

These reports show clearly the value of geographical and geological 
studies in solving the problems arising from the excavations of such 
ruins and we hope that they may ultimately be carried to a definite 
conclusion. 

Though of doubtful value some note may be taken of modern Indian 
traditions as to the history and fate of Bonito. 

During the early part of the season of 1896 two Navajo Indians 
came into camp. One was an old man of about seventy, who knew no 
English, the other was a younger man who had been educated at Car- 
lisle and who had traveled to some extent in the east. His name 
was Thomas Torlino and he was one of the interpreters used by Dr. 
Washington Matthews in his Navajo studies at Fort Defiance, Arizona. 
The older man gave considerable information concerning the old Pueblo 
people. He stated that his ancestors had been in touch with the old 
people of the Chaco region. At that time there was no arroyo in the 
center of the Chaco; it was a level plain and the Pueblo people cultivated 
all of the space between the canon walls. 

Simpson says: — ■ 

The soil in the Canon de Chaco, though now very arid, seems to possess the ele- 
ments of fertility; and, probably, when the ruined pueblos along it were instinct with 
life, it was cultivated. 1 

'Simpson, ibid., 86. 



26 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII , 

Pueblo Alto, the ruin lying just north of Pueblo Bonito, on the cliff, 
was the "Chief's house." From its high position he could view the sur- 
rounding country for miles; then too, by going to the edge of the mesa 
almost all of the pueblos in the canon could be seen. In this way he 
could keep an eye on his own people and his sentinels could note the 
approach of any hostile bands. He said that this was the richest "House" 
in the region and that his people, the Navajo were in the habit of ex- 
changing game for corn and other produce with them. According to the 
statements of his fathers the old people left the region on account of 
the scarcity of water and that there were no records of the Navajo having 
fought with the Pueblo people who occupied this group of buildings. 
There were no irrigating ditches in the canon, the people relying on the 
rain for their crops and for their drinking water. Regarding the big 
logs which were used in the houses he said that they came from large 
pine trees that formerly grew in the side canons which branch from the 
Chaco and that they were hauled to the building on little wagons made 
of a small tree, having at either end a cross-section of a log for a wheel 

Bandelier states : — 

. . . .When Mr. Simpson inquired of Nazle, the well known Jemez Indian, about the 
ruins of the Chaca, he replied "that they were built by Montezuma and his people 
when on their way from the north to the region of the Rio Grande and to Old Mexico." 
When, a few weeks ago, I interrogated an Indian from Cochiti concerning the same 
ruins, he confirmed what I had been told years ago; namely, that Push-a-ya had 
built them, when on his way to the south. After inhabiting the Chaca villages for 
some time, Pushaya went to Zuni, and thence into Sonora and Mexico. 1 

With this brief and inadequate introduction to the mysteries of 
Pueblo Bonito, we turn to the details of excavation. When the Hyde 
Expedition began work in the Chaco Canon in 1896 camp was made 
near Pueblo Bonito, that ruin being the first objective. The refuse heap 
in front of the pueblo, that is to the south, was worked in an endeavor to 
determine whether burials had been made in it. There are two refuse 
heaps in front of the ruin. A large one, which was partly explored and a 
smaller one to the eastward of it. After the refuse heaps had been ex- 
amined, attention was directed to the burial mounds near the base of the 
mesa on the southern side of the canon. Two of these mounds were 
mapped and all of the burials in them photographed and the specimens 
removed. As this part of the work has no special bearing on the investi- 
gation of Pueblo Bonito it will be left for the final chapters of the report. 

'Bandelier, A. F., "Final Report of Investigations among the Indians of Southwestern United 
States, Carried on Mainly in the Years from 1880 to 1885, Part II" (Papers of the Archaeological In- 
stitute of America . American Series, IV, Cambridge, 1892), 304. 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 27 

When the excavations in the mounds were finished the actual work in the 
pueblo was begun. In describing these investigations the arbitrary field 
numbering of the rooms will be adhered to. These numbers merely 
designate the sequence of rooms opened, but they will serve to locate 
their positions and show in what part of the ruin excavations were made. 
Three of the rooms of the outer northern series were open. These 
places had been used by sheep herders and cowboys who happened to be 
in these parts, and some of them were used by Colonel Washington's 
troops when they were located in the Canon during their Navajo cam- 
paign. One of these rooms was cleaned and used as a kitchen and store- 
house for provisions, a second was fitted up as a darkroom for photo- 
graphic work, and a third was used as a general storeroom. The clean- 
ing of these rooms consisted in the removal of the accumulation of 
sand on the floors; no other changes were made in their appearance. 



EXCAVATIONS IN THE PUEBLO. 

The first series of rooms to be considered is one in the north central 
part of the pueblo. The rooms composing this series form a line extend- 
ing east and west and are of the old style of architecture. They form a 
portion of the third row of rooms from the north and have been numbered 
1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10, as may be seen by the plan (Fig. 155). 
Room 3 is in another part of the ruin in a series of underground rooms 
which were partly open when discovered. 

Room 1. 

Room 1 was opened in order that the general type of architecture in 
this part of the ruin might be determined. The walls were composed of 
roughly quarried stones, loosely laid with a mortar of sand containing 
adobe. The masonry proved to be of very crude workmanship as com- 
pared with the adjacent outer walls, which represent the latest addi- 
tions to the no doubt constantly changing pueblo. 

Sand and fallen wall stones were removed to a depth of over four 
feet before anything of interest was found. In the debris removed, there 
was an occasional potsherd, but not until the floor was reached did the 
artifacts appear. Over the floor, which was made of carefully smoothed 
adobe, there was a deposit of closely matted material composed of the 
original contents of the room, left when it was abandoned, to which 
were no doubt added such objects as were suspended from the ceiling, 
and portions of decayed twigs that formed the retaining layer of the 
upper floor. To remove this layer, work was begun at the eastern end of 
the room. 

The objects found were lying about in a state of disorder, none pre- 
senting the appearance of having been placed. They were well preserved 
and therefore can be studied in detail. The preservation of the destruc- 
tible objects was in many respects equal to that of specimens obtained in 
the caves and cliff- dwellings. 

Feather-Work. Feathers and quills were found in various parts of 
the floor area. There were four, the quills of which were practically 
perfect, and forty -five that were fragmentary. Ten quills have the proxi- 
mal end prepared for the attachment of cords by means of which they 
could be attached to ceremonial paraphernalia, and of these, nine have 
the cords in place. All were from the wing feathers of the golden eagle. 
In preparing these feathers for suspension, the proximal end of the quill 
was flattened and then bent over upon itself, the flap measuring from 

29 



30 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

half an inch to an inch in length. Around this double portion, and in 
some cases passing through the opening formed by the loop, was a two- 
strand cord of yucca fiber. There seems to be no definite form of proced- 
ure in applying this cord, as it differs in the number of knots as well as 
in the attachment of the last one, the cords from which were twisted and 
formed the two-strand attaching cord. Only one specimen retains this 
cord in its entirety (H-197). The manner of applying the knots to the 
feathers is similar to methods observed both in North and South Ameri- 
ca. 1 These 'feathers were evidently worn in clusters, suspended either 
from the hair, or from ceremonial garments or paraphernalia. The 
remains of two such clusters were found with the feathers. The best 
preserved has the remains of three quills and three sets of knots from 
which quills have fallen. The cord ends were tied in a loose knot, then 
the ends were brought together and tied in a flat knot. Tying the ends 
in this way left a loop about half an inch in diameter through which a 
cord could be passed in attaching it to another object. 2 A second speci- 
men of the same nature was not as well preserved. The quills were 
missing, but from the five sets of knots which remained it would seem 
that the feathers employed had been much smaller than those used in 
the other one. They may have used the down feathers of the eagle 
in this group, as the two-strand yucca cord is much smaller than in the 
other specimen. A sixth cord was found in the bunch and, although 
devoid of the knots at the end, it seems quite probable that it once held 
a feather. If there were six in this set, it may be that this was the number 
usually employed in these feather pendants. Feathers grouped in this 
form have been found in other parts of the Southwest, especially in the 
caves and cliff -dwellings where such objects are better preserved than in 
the ruins of the open country. 

Fragments of feather bands, such as are made and used in cere- 
monies by the Maidu 3 of California were found in this room. The largest 
section contains twenty quills. The quills used are those of the red- 
shafted flicker, Colaptes cafer (Linn.). The feathers of the same bird 
are used by the Maidu, but are arranged in a different manner. In the 
Pueblo Bonito specimen the quills alternate, whereas the Maidu start 
with three or more quills all the tips of which lie in one direction and 
then place a second layer composed of a smaller number of quills with the 



'Mead, vol. 1, this series, 13; Kroeber, A. L., "The Arapaho" (Bulletin, American Museum of 
Natural History, vol. 18, 1907), 322. 

2 For a similar cluster in modern work see Kroeber, ibid., 334-Ed. 

3 Dixon, Roland B. "The Northern Maidu" (Bulletin, American Museum of Natural History, vo 
17, 1905), 149-154,219. 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 31 

tips reversed. The manner of fastening the quills seems to be the same 
in both regions. The quills are laid side by side and three cords are 
passed through them; one through the central portion, the other two 
being equidistant from it and within half an inch of the ends. In the 
Bonito specimen this cord is composed of human hair and has two 
strands. From the appearance of the individual quills it would seem 
that the greater part of the webbing had been detached before they 
were fastened together. From the appearance of one feather which was 
found with the other specimens, it is quite probable that the web on 
the tips of certain feathers was left for decorative effect. 

Miscellaneous Objects. A number of pieces of rawhide and buck- 
skin were found in the floor covering, but none of them had been shaped; 
if used at all, they must have been in their natural condition. The tail 
of a mountain rat, or some other mountain rodent had been carefully 
skinned and the hair removed, but there is no evidence that this had been 
used by the Indians. 

Cords made of yucca fiber of various sizes and degrees of fineness 
were found. They were of the two-strand variety, and some of them 
retained the original knots. 

Carefully smoothed twigs, 4 to 5 mm. in diameter, and 20 cms. in 
length were also found. There were three of these, one perfect, the other 
two broken. One of them (H-155) has a piece of yucca cord bound to its 
surface with sinew. These sticks were- evidently used for some cere- 
monial purpose. A great many of them were found in Room 32 (p. 140). 

Among the other objects found in this room was a natural pebble of 
dense hornblendic schist, measuring 9 by 11 cms., with a thickness of 3 
cms. The naturally rounding sides have been worn until they are 
perfectly flat. In addition there were found two proximal ends of 
three reed arrows, in which the notching is well preserved, and on one of 
which there still remains an appearance of the feathering; fragments of 
pumpkin rinds, a small flat circular bead of light-colored stone, the claw 
of a mountain lion, fragments of two ceremonial sticks, a fragment of 
a sandal, and corncobs. 

Architecture. In Fig. 6 the sides and a portion of the floor of the room 
are shown. The adobe forming the floor at the eastern end of the room 
had been broken into pieces by the falling of the walls and was therefore 
removed with the objects mixed in the debris. The floor beams, as here 
shown, are solid branches of pine, but compared with those found in 
other parts of the ruin, are very crude and do not show the usual care in 
selecting and trimming. The view in the accompanying photograph is 



32 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

toward the west. The rough irregular north and south walls are shown, 
the masonry being of a type denoting an intermediate period in the 
history of the pueblo. The blocks are made of cretaceous sandstone, the 
greater part of which was no doubt quarried on the mesa quite near the 
Pueblo on the north. In the western end of the room the character of the 
debris may be noted. It is composed of fallen wall stones, mixed with 
sand and adobe mortar, adobe from the floors, and portions of the almost 
decayed ceiling beams. The mass was chinked with sand which had 
blown from one part of the Canon to another, whenever there was a 
heavy wind. Heavy rains and showers, which are quite prevalent in the 
fall, have aided in solidifying this mass. These several agencies have 
worked so successfully that the resulting composition is almost like con- 
crete. 

In Fig. 7 the northwestern end of this room is presented. The 
composition of the northern wall is shown to much better advantage 
than in Fig. 6. On the western wall, the plaster of sand and adobe is 
shown in a good state of preservation. In the angle of the floor formed 
by the north and west walls, an opening was found which connected 
this room with the one below it. It was five inches square, and had been 
covered with the flat stone, which lies beside it. When found it was in 
place. 

In shape the room is rectangular. It is 11 feet 5 inches long, 5 feet 
1 inch wide on the east end, and 5 feet 9 inches wide at the west end. 

Room 2. 
Room 2 lies directly west of Room 1 and is separated from it by a 
narrow wall. It is 10 feet, 3K inches long, 5 feet, 4% inches wide at the 
west end, and 5 feet 1% inches at the east end. The walls were standing 
to a height of over six feet above the floor level at the time the room was 
explored. The room itself was similar to Room 1 in form and style 
of masonry. The series composed of Rooms 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, and 6a were 
divisions made with narrow walls between two parallel lines of soid 
masonry (Fig. 155). These division walls were carefully laid, abutting 
against the north and south walls, but never interlocking with them. 

This room was filled with debris, the surface being on the same level 
as in Room 1. Nothing of interest was found in clearing the debris 
from this room, until a point about a foot and a half above the floor level 
was reached. The great depth of the deposit points to the fact that 
there had been a great many objects on the floor of the room directly 




Fig. 7. Opening in Corner of Room 1. 




Fig. 8. Closed Doorway, Eastern Part of Bonito. 



34 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 35 

above this one. These fell with the floor and floor covering, when this 
part of the building was destroyed. Owing to the fact that the deposit 
was so thick, it was divided into two layers, one about a foot in thickness 
being removed before the one directly upon the floor was taken up. 
There were, of course, no definite areas that would differentiate the upper 
from the lower floor material, but the removal of the deposit in the way 
mentioned greatly facilitated the work. Among the two hundred and 
forty numbered specimens. found in this room, a few directly upon the 
floor deposit may have been in the original positions in which they were 
placed by their owners, but the greater part of the material was scattered 
throughout the deposit by the falling of the beams and stones of the 
upper rooms. In describing this material only those specimens which 
seem to have retained their original positions will be mentioned as hav- 
ing been found at a particular point in the room. It will, therefore, be 
understood that all other specimens were found in the general deposit 
covering the floor. 

Worked Wood. Among the first objects encountered were pieces of 
wood, cylindrical in form and with ends flattened. There were in all 
fifty-seven of these sticks, and seventeen of a similar form, but shorter. 
The longer sticks averaged 20 cms. in length, and 1.2 cm. in diameter. 
The ends are flattened and in most cases have been smoothed by grind- 
ing; some, however, remain practically as they appeared when finished 
with a stone knife. They are of almost uniform size, with their surfaces 
carefully denuded of bark and traces of branches. This suggests their 
use as gaming sticks, but the ends show no chamfering such as would 
be in evidence had they been used in a game similar to that of " sholowe " 
as played by the Zuni. Then too the sticks are not marked in anj r way 
that would permit their use in such a game. On the surface of prac- 
tically every stick there are incisions made with some sharp implement. 
These marks form spirals which, by their position, suggest that the sticks 
may have been used in cutting buckskin. To do this the strips of buck- 
skin were wrapped around the stick and then revolved with the left 
hand while the right held the edge of a chalcedony or obsidian blade 
against it. The pressure of the blade on the buckskin and against the 
hard unyielding surface of the wooden cylinder would result in a cut 
much more accurate, it would seem, than in any other way. The 
smaller sticks are from 3 to 5 cms. in length and average about the 
same as the larger ones, with the exception perhaps of the diameter 
which is less than that of the larger specimens. There are no knife 
marks on the surface of these sticks and it would therefore seem that they 



36 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History . [Vol. XXVII, 

had been used in playing some game. One of them is shaped like an 
hourglass, but most of them maintain the same diameter throughout 
their length. 

Also a stick used by living Indians in what is known as a kicking 
game, was found; it is 10.5 cms. long and 2.7 cms. in width. 

A slender ceremonial stick similar to those occurring in Room 33 
was found here. The entire surface, from end to end, is marked with a 
spiral formed by holding the blade in the right hand and revolving the 
stick with the left. Finally, a number of fragments of worked sticks were 
found associated with other material. 

A puzzling series of wooden objects, twenty-six in number, was found 
associated with the long and short sticks just described. They are flat 
on one surface with slightly rounding sides and a rounding top; they 
resemble the ends of bows. They range from 1.2 cms. to 7 cms. in length; 
the width and height varying, the greatest width and height being 1.7 
cms. by 1.5 cms. One of these objects is decorated with a cross-hatch 
design, but none of the others show decorations of an} r sort. The Navajo 
Indians who were employed as workmen called these sticks Tsin Takah, 
and claimed that they were used with a basket tray in gambling. The 
Navajo name translated means wooden cards. The Navajo claim that 
the Pueblo people formerly used these objects in the same manner as 
the bone dice which are found in some of the rooms. 

Matting made of reeds was found, but it had decayed to such an 
extent that only fragments could be preserved. Fragments of yucca leaf 
sandals were also found. A torch made from a bundle of cedarbark came 
from this room; one end was burnt showing that it had been used. 

Basketry. Basketry was represented in the fragment of what was 
no doubt a meal or gambling tray. It is of the two rod coil type and has 
a herring bone edge on the angle of the rim. The tray must have been 
over 1^2 feet in diameter. Another basket was found on the floor; it is 
5 cms. in diameter and 1.3 cms. high. It had no doubt been filled with 
material when it was left, as the remains of the former contents reach 
almost to the rim at the present time. 

Arrows. Evidently there had been a number of arrows in this 
room, and some of them remained in such a state of preservation that 
they could be removed. Among these there are six tang ends and other 
fragments of reeds, which have formed parts of arrowshafts. There is 
one specimen which still retains the end of the wooden foreshaft. Those 
that still retain fragments of feathers show that three were used; this 
was no doubt the usual complement for the regular arrows used in this 






1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 37 

pueblo. Some of the shafts show that they have been painted at the 
point where the feathering was adjusted. One especially, (H-319), has 
been covered between the points where the feathers are attached with 
what seems to be a sort of lacquer. This was applied either in the form 
of bands or else there has been a wrapping of fine cord which has caused 
ridges to appear in its surface. There are two wooden foreshafts of 
arrows, both in a fragmentary condition. The stone arrow points found 
in this room were of the narrow tapering form. There were seventeen of 
these and one small chalcedony knife; six of the arrow points were of 
black obsidian, the others being of chalcedony. 

Miscellaneous Objects. In working out the material a great number 
of quids of corn-silk were found; at the time it seemed that they had 
been used as tobacco might be used by white men, but Mr. F. H. Cushing 
thought that the corn-silk had been chewed to obtain certain juices, 
as by the modern Pueblo Indians in dyeing arrows. 

In one corner of the room a mass of over seven hundred pieces of 
chalcedony and other stones were found; they were chips such as are 
used in making stone implements. Many of them were quite small but 
there were no flakings to indicate that arrow points had been made in 
the room; neither were there flaking implements. The only objects of 
bone encountered, were a bone awl and what seems to be a fragment of a 
bodkin. The latter, however, might have been used as a flaker. 

There were several small balls of pifion gum and one large piece of 
the same material; two galena crystals were also found. Small pebbles 
of azurite and malachite were scattered through the sand, and some of 
them had been used for paint-making. Yellow ocher was seen in various 
parts of the room and one ball of this material had retained its form, 
showing conclusively that it had been placed in a bag, probably buck- 
skin, when it was in a pasty condition, as the marks of the bag may still 
be seen on the upper part where the crimping of the skin left deep im- 
pressions. 

One of the few pieces of native copper found in the ruin came from 
this room; it is a nugget of irregular form and the sides show that it has 
been pounded to some extent. At the point were the pounding has been 
most severe the specimen measures 7 mms. in thickness. Very little 
turquoise was found; there were in all two small circular beads, one 
pendant, and fourteen inlays, and fragments of a turquoise matrix. 
Few animal bones were found, those of the rabbit and deer being the 
only ones represented. Pumpkin seeds, corncobs and pifion nuts were 
in evidence, and one shell of the cafion walnut. The latter had evi- 



38 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

dently been gnawed by chipmunks or other rodents. In the debris 
on the floor were also found a yucca cord with end knotted for the attach- 
ment of a feather; a disk of squash-rind perforated in the center and 
possibly used as a spindle whorl; a semicircular stick bound at either 
end and at the central part with yucca cord, used probably in one of their 
games; a bundle of roots; a flattened ball of yucca fiber containing 
leaves; and two stems of a whip cactus. 

Among the most interesting of the stone implements were five 
rasping stones made of a rough friable sandstone of light color. From 
their appearance they must have been used in fashioning wooden objects. 
Four of them were no doubt employed' in working on cylindrical objects, 
such as game sticks; whereas the fifth had a perfectly flat surface, such 
as could be used in smoothing boards or tablets. There were also four 
irregularly shaped hammerstones, also a hammer made of a natural 
pebble. A very thin form of sandstone jar cover was found, the largest 
being 10.5 cms., and the smallest 6 cms. in diameter; the thickness 
ranging from 2 to 5 mms. There were six perfect ones and twelve frag- 
ments; most of them had been carefully smoothed and the edges either 
rounded or ground at right angles with the surface. A large jar cover 
measuring 23 cms. in diameter, and another having about the same 
measurement, but almost square, represent the general types. Both were 
of sandstone with the edges chipped. The latter, though having sides 
which were almost square, maintained a general rounded form. 

Pottery. A number of pieces of pottery found in this room retained 
remains of their former contents. One, a bowl with a handle near the 
incurved rim, has a hard compact mass covering the entire bottom, 
but the nature of the material has not been determined. This 
bowl was found in an upright position in the center of the room, with one 
of the small jar covers near it. Another fragment of a bowl contains a 
sedimentary deposit which, from its nature, seems to have been yucca 
juice. There were fragments of five bowls, all of grayware. Of the more 
perfect specimens is a bowl 12 cms. in diameter at the top and 6.5 cms. 
deep ; it is decorated on the inside with a terrace line and wave designs 
in black. This bowl was found in the eastern part of the room near the 
east wall. There were three other bowls, two of grayware, decorated on 
the interior with black designs, and one of undecorated blackware. All 
of these were small and were restored from fragments. A fragmentary 
dipper having a bowl 9 cms. in width was decorated on the interior 
and on the upper part of the solid handle. A bowl which formerly had a, 
handle over the opening was found on the floor near the north wall about 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 39 

1 feet from the west wall. It is of the incurved type and has four pro- 
jections which were no doubt made to represent breasts. On each of 
these is a decoration composed of four concentric circles. The handle 
was evidently broken when the vessel was in use and the irregular sur- 
faces have been smoothed by grinding. 

Another vessel which was restored from fragments is of. a form 
seldom found in the Chaco region; it is a bowl with a broad flaring rim, 
the bowl itself is 7 cms. in diameter and 4 cms. deep. The rim is slightly 
cupped from the top of the bowl itself to its outer edge. This flaring 
portion gives the top of the vessel a diameter of 13 cms. The only 
decoration shown is a band on the upper surface of the rim, another where 
the rim joins the bowl, and terrace decorations connected alternately with 
the two rim decorations just mentioned. The color of the design is black. 

From the character of the material found in this room it appears 
that it may have been a workshop. It may also have been used as a 
storeroom for certain materials, such as the stone chips which were to be 
used in making arrow points and other stone implements. There were 
no evidences of the raw material that may have been used in the room, 
and in fact, in all of the work in Pueblo Bonito no room has been found 
in which there were enough flakes to justify one in thinking that stone 
implements had been made there. There is only one place near Pueblo 
Bonito where there is conclusive evidence that such work was carried on 
and that is on a level stretch south of Pueblo Alto, situated on the mesa 
directly north of Pueblo Bonito. The natural conclusion would be that 
the room in question had been used as a workshop by some member of a 
family who occupied a series of rooms in this part of the building. 

Room 3. 

Underground Rooms. While the work in Rooms 1 and 2 was in 
progress a number of Indians were set to work in an underground room 
in the northwestern part of the building, this room being known as Room 
3. It was one of a series of open rooms, the roofs of which had with- 
stood the weight of the debris from the fallen walls of the rooms above. 
It was reached through a series of open rooms, extending in a north- 
easterly direction. 

When Room 3 was entered, it was found to be filled to a depth of 
from 2 to 3 feet with sand which had washed in from the surface. Em- 
bedded in the sand, and in some cases completely covered by it, were 
skeletons of rabbits ; which had no doubt fallen into the room and, 
being unable to escape, had died there. 



40 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

The ceiling was supported by four heavy beams which averaged 1 
foot in diameter and extended from the east to the west wall. Crossing 
them from north to south were small poles from 2 to 4 inches in diameter. 
These were strapped together in a number of places with yucca strings. 
Above them was a layer of split cedar which acted as a support to the 
adobe floor of the upper room. 

In the south wall there was a niche 3 feet 4 inches long and 1 foot 
8 inches high, and extending into the wall, a distance of 2 feet. It was 1 
foot 10 inches above the ceiling beam and 2 inches from the east wall. 
Its top was composed of boards and the sides were plastered. The side 
walls of this niche were 1 foot 2 inches thick. There is a rounding corner 
at the back of the opening and the plaster extended through and joined 
that of the wall of the next room. 

The walls were not well preserved and from the thick smoke layer 
on the surface of the plaster, it seems possible that this room had been 
used a great deal. There were numerous layers of plaster on the walls; 
in some places the accumulation was 4 inches thick. The stone work was 
rough and the east wall was of the post variety, with stones between the 
posts. The stones had not only been placed between the posts and cross 
beams, but small ones had been fitted around the posts. This, with the 
cover of plaster, gave the wall the appearance of one of the usual type in 
which stone only was employed. Owing to the fact that some of the 
surface had fallen, the unusual character of this wall was revealed. 
Six inches from the south wall and 3 feet 6 inches from the east wall, a 
fireplace was found, as shown in Fig. 9. It was composed of flat stones, 
set on edge, and was 2 feet wide on its broader axis, and 1 foot 6 inches 
wide on the sides extending east and west. On a line with the fireplace 
and 1 foot to the east of it was an opening, 1 foot square, that had 
formerly been an entrance to a passageway. This passage extended 
eastward under the east wall and thence to the surface. Directly below 
the eastern edge of the opening, a number of upright sticks had been 
placed, but for what reason, it is impossible to say. x4.s these passage- 
ways are found in most of the estufas in these ruins, as well as through- 
out the Pueblo and Cliff-Dweller area, it would seem that this room, 
although of an angular instead of circular form, had been used as an 
estufa or council room. Wherever these openings and passageways are 
found there is generally a wall directly in front of them. The wall, in 
this instance, had evidently been made of flat stones, one of which may be 
seen in place. 



|s; 



& '■■/■•>•<* • 




Kf| 




1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 43 

The doorway in the western end of the east wall was 6 feet 8 inches 
from the east wall, 2 feet from the ceiling, and was 3 feet high and 1 foot 
6 inches wide. It had formerly extended almost to the ceiling, but had 
been built in with stones to the place indicated by the measurements. 
This door led into another room which was proportionately filled with 
sand and which will be described later. One foot north of the south wall 
and about the same distance from the east wall, was an opening in the 
ceiling by means of which this room could have been reached from the 
one above. It was 3 feet long and 2 feet wide, and, when found, was 
sealed with matting and bunches of cedarbark tied with yucca leaves. 
Upon this foundation a layer of large flat stones had been placed. 

The dimensions of the room were as follows: 12 feet 6 inches long, 
north wall; 11 feet 5 inches long, south wall; 15 feet long, east wall; 
15 feet 4 inches long, west wall. The distance from the ceiling poles to 
the fireplace was 8 feet 5 inches. 

The only specimen found in position was a pottery bowl, which is 
shown in Fig. 9. This bowl has an incurved top and was found on the 
floor near the east wall, less than two feet from the entrance to the pas- 
sageway. 

The specimens in this room were in the material that had accumu- 
lated on the floor. There were five manos, and a fragment of a sixth. 
There were two pottery feet, one of an animal which from the bifurcation 
was evidently a part of a figure of one of the ungulates, the other was the 
foot and lower portion of the leg of a human figure. The leg in this in- 
stance was of solid pottery, while the first was hollow. Bones of the deer, 
rabbit, and turkey were found, some of which had been broken to ex- 
tract the marrow. A fragment of a deer antler was also found. These 
objects with a number of corncobs and pieces of yucca cord complete the 
list. One of the yucca cords is worthy of mention, owing to the fact that 
it is bound to a piece of skin which from its thickness, and from the hair 
which still remains, is evidently that of a bear or some other large animal 
having dark brown hair. 

Room 3a. The room directly east of and adjoining Room 3, which 
for convenience' sake will be known as Room 3a, was the second of the 
series mentioned in the description of Room 3. Owing to the fact that 
no work was carried on in this room, the description will be confined to 
its general appearance, at the time that the work was being carried on in 
Room 3. The north wall was 14 feet 4 inches long; the south wall, 12 
feet 6 inches, the east wall, 10 feet; and the west wall, 10 feet 2 inches. 
Ten feet from the south wall and joining the east wall was a partition 



44 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

about 8 inches thick, which extended northward 4 feet 4 inches, reaching 
to the ceiling at all points except the extreme western end, which was 5 
inches below the ceiling beams. This wall was composed of poles placed 
in a perpendicular position, to which cross beams were tied, the whole 
being covered with mortar. The east wall of the main room was of this 
type, but on a larger scale. This room was probably on the same level 
as Room 3, but water had partly filled it with sand and debris until the 
ceiling beams were only 3 to 4 feet above the sand. The beams 
extended from north to south, were from 2 to 4 inches thick, and sup- 
ported a layer of poles and brush. There was a door in this room which 
had been covered with matting, part of which was still in place. The 
ceiling beams in the central part of the room had been broken by the 
accumulation of the debris above them. There was a doorway in the 
western wall which was 2 feet 6 inches wide, and 2 feet below the ceiling 
beams. There was a small post in each of the southwestern and south- 
eastern corners. These posts averaged 3 inches in diameter and ex- 
tended through the ceiling. There were supporting beams extending east 
and west, about 10 inches thick, built into the top of the north and south 
walls. In the northwest corner of this room 3 feet 7 inches below the 
ceiling beams, there was a door or passageway to the next room. Owing 
to the fact that it was directly in the corner, the western wall of the room 
formed one side of it. This doorway was really the entrance to a passage, 
which was 4 feet long. The opening in Room 3a was 1 foot 6 inches wide, 
but on the opposite, or north end of the passage, it was 6 inches wider. 
The room to which the passageway led will be known as Room 3b. 

Room 3b. The second room of the underground series, north of 
Room 3, is Room 3b. This room was 10 feet long on the north side, 12 
feet 1 inch on the south side, 6 feet on the east side, and 6 feet 4 inches on 
the west. There is a doorway in the south wall 5 feet 8 inches from the 
west wall which was 2 feet 6 inches in height. The ceiling of this room 
was composed of logs, ranging from 3 to 6 inches in diameter, which ex- 
tended north and south. Above these was a layer of twigs. Two feet 
4 inches from the south wall and at the west end of the room was a post 8 
inches in diameter, which supported a beam running east and west. This 
room was partly filled with sand and was not worked. 

Room 3c. This room is directly west of Room 3b and will be known 
as Room 3c. The entrance was through a hole which someone had 
broken in the west wall. This room measured 12 feet 4 inches on the 
north, 10 feet 5 inches on the south, 10 feet 9 inches on the east, and 10 
feet 9 inches on the west. Five feet 5 inches east of the west wall was 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 45 

a doorway, 1 foot 5 inches wide, 1 foot 10 inches from the ceiling. One 
foot 10 inches from the west wall and 3 inches from the south wall there 
was a post 9 inches in diameter which supported the only beam running 
east and west. This beam entered the east wall but had been broken off 
one foot from the west wall. Owing to the fact that none of the other 
ceiling beams had been burnt, it seems quite possible that fire had been 
employed to sever the log before it was put into the room. The ceiling 
of this room was composed of beams 3 inches in diameter, running from 
north to south. There were three poles protruding from the north wall; 
these probably extended through the wall from the next room. 

Room 3d. Directly above Room 3c was another room which has 
been named Room 3d. The north wall was 10 feet long, the south wall 

10 feet 5 inches, the east wall 5 feet 8 inches, and the west wall 5 feet 11 
inches. In the south wall, 3 feet west of the east wall there is a doorway 
which is 2 feet 8 inches wide and 4 feet 8 inches high. This wall is 1 
foot 6 inches thick, measuring from the floor to the ceiling beams. The 
room was well plastered; as in most of the other rooms the corners were 
rounded. In the western end there is a platform of clay about 1 foot high, 
extending from north to south. This platform was 3 feet broad. The 
ceiling beams extended from north to south and were from 2 to 3 inches 
in diameter. Above them were a number of rushes, most of them very 
small, and above these was a 2 inch layer of grass. There were two long 
loops of yucca leaves pendent from the ceiling at the eastern end of the 
room. These loops had probably been used for the suspension of ob- 
jects. The door in the south wall seemed to be an entrance to a passage- 
way as it was worked on either side and there were large beams above it. 
There is a possibility that it may have been a small room or closet, but 
owing to the fact that it was full of stones and debris, it cannot be de- 
finitely determined since the work in the north series of rooms claimed 
our entire attention after the work in Room 3 had been finished. 

Room 4. 
Continuing westward with the work in the series of which Rooms 1 
and 2 form a part, Room 4 claims attention. It is rectangular in shape, 

11 feet 5 inches long on the north side ; 10 feet 11 inches long on the south 
side, 5 feet 4 inches on the west, and 5 feet 5 inches on the east. The walls 
and general style of masonry are the same as in Rooms 1 and 2. The 
specimens from this room were scattered throughout the debris, as the 
floor of the room above it had been burned and thereby allowed the 
material to fall into the room below, causing the specimens to inter- 



46 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

mingle with the stones and portions of the burnt ceiling beams. The 
specimens of this room were of very little importance. They consisted 
of utilitarian objects, associated with a few ornaments. In the former 
class there were fragments of pottery bowls of gray ware, a jar cover 
made of sandstone 10 cms. in diameter, five hammerstones most of which 
were natural pebbles, a fragment of a combination hammer and smooth- 
ing stone, the sides of which are worn to such an extent that the object 
must have been used for many years. 

There is one specimen, made from a natural pebble, which has been 
drilled in an interesting way. It is 5 cms. long, 4.7 cms. wide and 1.3 
cms. in thickness, and tapers from the central portions to the edges on 
either side. The edges are rounded and there are four holes, 1 mm. deep 
and 3 mm. in diameter, placed equidistant on the edge. These places 
were probably drilled for the reception of inlays which, judging from the 
materials used in this pueblo, were of turquoise. The stone which forms 
this ornament is of a hard granitic structure. 

Fragments of chalcedony, obsidian, azurite, malachite, turquoise, 
and fossil shell were found, also two small fossil shells of the spirifer 
family. A potsherd had been ground to a rectangular shape and as one 
side of it was decorated it may have been intended for a pendant; if 
so, the hole for suspension had not been drilled. A small pendant of red 
stone and a pendant formed of a hinge of a bivalve shell, completes the 
smaller objects from this room. There were five pointed sticks, averaging 
about 1 cm. in diameter, the ends of all of them having been burnt. 
Sections of individual willows showing the cutting and grinding of the 
ends, were found with the above mentioned sticks. 

Room 5. 

When the lower part of Room 4 was reached it was found that there 
had been a severe fire here. When half of the material had been removed 
from the room, the mass being composed principally of burnt ceiling- 
beams and the adobe from the floor above it, it was found that the room 
had contained a mass of corn in the ear. As the work advanced, quanti- 
ties of burnt pifion nuts were also found. As nothing in the way of 
ornaments or implements came from this room, it is safe to assume it 
was used for storage. 

The measurements of this room varied somewhat from those of the 
room above it. Measuring at the floor level the north wall was 10 feet 
9 inches long, the south wall 10 feet 6 inches, the east wall 8 feet 3 inches, 
and the west wall 8 feet 2 inches. The height from the floor to the 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 47 

ceiling beams was over 8 feet and this, with the walls of the upper room, 
made a height of over 1 14}£ feet. In Fig. 10 Rooms 4 and 5 may be seen. 
The character of the masonry is the same as in the other rooms of this 
series. The western wall, the lower part of which is plastered, shows the 
joints of these division walls to good advantage. In the southern wall 
*at the left of the picture a doorway may be seen. It is of the rectangular 
type which is the ordinary form of doorway in this pueblo. In the lower 
part of the room the dark mass formed by the burnt corn and pifion 
nuts is shown. 

The opening in the west wall, in which a boy may be seen, leads to 
Room 6 which is directly west of Rooms 4 and 5. 

Room 6. 
Room 6 was partly filled with sand that had drifted through the 
crevices in the walls. There was at least three feet of open space between 
the roof beams and the top of the drift. When the sand had been re- 
moved, ths floor layer was reached and in it, a number of animal and 
bird bones were found. None of these were worked and they were 
evidently the remains of meals. There were also pebbles, fragments of 
stones, several pieces of bone, and one piece of calcined bone. There 
was also a small fragment of a basket, fragments of wooden implements, 
squash-rinds and pifion nuts. The remaining objects were evidently 
used for ceremonial or artistic purposes. In all parts of the floor area 
fossil shells were found. Most of these are small, being under 3 cms. in 
length. They have been cleared of matrix adhesions, and anion, over 
one hundred and thirty specimens there were twenty that had been 
covered with a red or yellow ocher, showing that these specimens had 
been used in ceremonies. One of the shells had been broken open, ex- 
posing the calcite crystals in its interior. Several crinoid stems were 
found with the fossil shells, two chalcedony concretions of fantastic 
forms and the end of a strombus shell trumpet. Among other shell objects 
was a bead made from an olivella shell, a fragment of a large shell brace- 
let, a circular shell bead, and two shell pendants. In the debris there 
were also thirteen small pieces of stone, one being turquoise. There 
was also a small piece of iridescent iron ore which had no doubt appealed 
to the Indians on account of its brilliant colors. Lying directly on the 
floor but in various parts of the room were ten cedar sticks which had 
evidently been used as torches; there were also seven pairs of sticks 
tied together. These pieces had been split from a larger piece of cedar, 
the edges remaining in a natural condition, but the ends of some of them 



48 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

had been cut and squared. When found, some of these pieces still re- 
tained evidences of yucca cord, which had formerly bound them to- 
gether; perhaps they were cut into lengths in order that they might be 
the more readily split for torches. Among these wooden pieces one of 
the long sticks such as were described from Room 2 was found; it had 
cuts on its surface similar to those from that room. 

Room 6a. Room 6a which was directly over Room 6 contained a 
number of specimens but most of them were small. There were twenty- 
seven chalcedony concretions similar to those found in Room 6. Many 
of them are almost transparent and, owing to the beautiful forms and 
colors, it is little wonder that primitive man should employ them for 
religious purposes. There was one massive piece found in the debris, 
which may have been used in making ornaments. A mass of calcite 
crystals protruding from the main block so as to form a rosette 
would naturally appeal to a primitive people in the same way as did the 
concretions. Such a specimen was found in this room. There were also 
worked pieces of gypsum, pieces of galena, ten in all, pieces of azurite 
and malachite, two turquoise beads, pieces of turquoise prepared for 
inlays and several pieces of turquoise matrix. There was also a broken 
chalcedony arrow point, a triangular shell inlay, a pendant made of 
haliotis shell, and a fossil bivalve covered with red ocher. 

The base of a firedrill set, found near the floor level, was 
similar in form to some of the pointed sticks that have been noted from 
the preceding rooms. It is cylindrical in form save at the pointed end, 
and in the opposite end there is a cup-shaped cavity which is blackened 
from use. Six of the gaming or cutting sticks similar in size and form to 
the large ones found in Room 2 were taken from the floor layer. Three 
of them have the cuts on the surface, one shows no cutting, and the other 
two are in such a poor state of preservation that it is almost impossible 
to tell whether they have been used or not. It appears, however, that 
there had been no such cuttings on them. There are two sticks of the 
smaller form and four other fragments of the same diameter all of which 
show the crude cutting on the ends to good advantage, but none of them 
are finished implements. There is a ceremonial stick from this room 
which has the end fashioned into the form of a bear claw. It is nearly 
13 cms. in length, but it is similar in form to those which were found in 
Room 32 (Fig. 55), which will be described when that room is under 
consideration. Another pair of the thin ceremonial sticks such as was 
described from Room 1 comes from this room. These sticks are slender, 
carefully formed pieces of uniform length, having rounded ends and are 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 49 

generally found in pairs; comparative study will not be entered upon, 
however, until Room 32 is reached for, as already stated, they are found 
in this room associated with a great deposit of ceremonial sticks (Fig. 52). 
In the floor deposit of Room 6a there was also a heavy two-strand yucca 
cord; braided and twined cord made of human hair carbonized by fire; 
a mass of seeds similar to those of the wild sunflower; pieces of squash 
rind and eagle feather quills; and a pottery foot, evidently of an animal 
figure. The figure itself must have been a very large one as the foot 
measures over 5 cms. in length, and 3 cms. in width with a correspond- 
ingly heavy leg; the wooden end of a baby board and a ceremonial 
object made from the skin of a small rodent completes the list of objects 
of general interest. There is, however, one specimen worthy of special 




Fig. 11 (2865). Stick wrapped with Buckskin, Room 6. 

attention. This object (Fig. 11) is 25.5 cms. long and the wooden part 
is evidently made of one piece. On the distal end the stick broadens 
and assumes a form similar to that of a deer foot. Directly below this 
foot there is a wrapping of sinew. In the central portion of the stick 
there is a wrapping of buckskin, which seems to be superimposed upon 
other layers of the same material. The end has been bound with sinew, 
and then carried upward toward the hoof end of the stick. It encloses 
a number of buckskin strips in the ends of which knots have been tied. 

Room 7. 
Room 7 lies directly north of Room 1. Because of additions to the 
pueblo at this point, the rooms here are irregular in form and taper to a 
point. The north wall is 14 feet 11 inches long, the south wall 12 feet 7 
inches, the east wall which is convex on the side of Room 7, is 5 feet 6 
inches long, and the western wall 3 feet 4 inches. The south wall, as seen in 
Fig. 6 showing Room 1, is irregular and laid up with roughly quarried 
stone. The north wall is built in a far more compact way, as is also the 
west wall. If the investigations had been carried westward from the line 
of the west wall, a heavy piece of masonry would no doubt have been 
encountered; for, owing to the fact that the space was only three feet 



50 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

in width, it does not seem probable that an open space would have been 
left at this point. The eastern wall is rather peculiar in that it 
forms not only the eastern wall of Room 7, but the northeastern part of 
Room 1 , which is built with rough-edged stones, such as were used in the 
series running from Room 1 westward. 

In Room 7 nothing of interest was found. There were five fragments 
of large smooth stones such as are used for work tables, a complete 
stone that had evidently been used as a door sill, and two arrow points. 
These specimens were found scattered through the debris, and are only 
worthy of mention as having been found in this particular room. 

Room 8. 
Room 8, lying directly east of Rooms 1 and 7 is irregular in form. 
The west wall is concave and measures 7 feet from the point of juncture 
with the north and south walls. The east wall is composed of stakes 
which had been plastered with mortar, making a serviceable, though not 
very strong, division wall. This wall is 6 feet 8 inches long, the distance 
from its center to the opposite wall being 7 feet. These measurements 
show that the room was almost square. The specimens found in this 
room are a bone knife, made from the leg bone of a deer, two distal 
ends of reed arrows which contain fragments of wooden foreshafts, and 
a piece of adobe from the cross wall showing the imprint of small willow 
sticks which were used over the heavier poles. 

Room 9. 

Room 9 curves in a southeasterly direction from Room 8. Owing to 
the changes made in this part of the building, this room is somewhat 
irregular in form. It measures 13 feet 7 inches on the north side, 14 
feet 8 inches on the south side; it is 7 feet wide at the western end and 
increases in width to 8 feet along the eastern wall. The masonry was 
similar to that of the rooms just described, but of slightly better work- 
manship. The room was filled with the usual debris, composed of stones 
from the fallen walls mixed with sand and adobe plaster. 

Pipes. A number of very interesting objects were found in the 
upper layers, showing that they had formerly been in one of the upper 
rooms. Nothing of special interest was found until the depth of 2 feet 
had been reached in the southwestern corner, where within the radius 
of a very few feet, five pipe fragments were found. One of these, as 
shown in Fig. 12b, is made of steatite. The stem and a small portion of 
the bowl were the only parts found; the stem is 5 cms. long and tapers 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 51 

from 1 cm. at the mouth end to 1.3 cm. where the stem joins the bowl. 
The material is a coarse green steatite; the surface has been smoothed to 
such an extent that it retains a high polish. The stem of this pipe had 
been broken while it was in use, and had been mended in a rather in- 
genious way. The two pieces were put together and a groove 1 cm. deep 
and 1.5 cm. long cut on the upper side, half of which was in either 
fragment. A similar groove was then cut on the under side. These 
grooves were perfectly straight, following the median line of the stem. 
From other objects of a similar nature found in this pueblo, it is safe to 
affirm that pieces of bone or wood were placed in these grooves and the 
stem wrapped with cord. There is a discoloration at the point of bind- 
ing showing that the wrapped area was 2 cms. long. Steatite pipes from 
the Chaco area are rather uncommon. The bowl of this one formed an 
obtuse angle at its juncture with the stem, as may be seen in the illus- 
tration. 

The stem of a heavy stone pipe was also found in the southwestern 
part of the room with the one just described. The fragment as found 
measures 5 cms. in length and 2.6 cms. in diameter. The greater part 
of the bowl was found in Room 10 (p. 54). Another fragment found 
with the above is the major portion of the stem and bowl of a pottery 
pipe. The fragment is a little over 5 cms. in length; the clay is of the 
usual gray color, covered with a white slip. 

The stem and a portion of the bowl of a very short-stemmed pipe 
completes the list of the pipe fragments from the southwestern part 
of the room. The specimen in its entirety is 4 cms. long. The stem from 
the opening in the bowl to the mouthpiece is only 3 cms. in length. The 
general form and character of the pipe may be seen in Fig. 12c. The 
surface has been ornamented with black designs. The pipe itself is of the 
same kind of clay as the one just described and has the white slip upon 
which the design is painted. 

Cloisonne Work. In the same part of the room in which the pipes 
were found and at about the same depth was a cloisonne object: the 
base for the design work is composed of sandstone. It is 6 cms. long and 
the fragment shows a rounding edge. From the contour it appears that 
the shape had been similar to that of the jar covers. This specimen may 
have been an ornate form of jar cover that was used in ceremonial ob- 
servances. A similar specimen was found in another part of the ruin 
which seems to justify this identification. The work as shown is dis- 
similar to any known technique of the prehistoric Pueblo Indians. The 
nearest approach to this style of work is in the Panuco region of the 



52 



Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 



State of Vera Cruz, Mexico; it has also been found, in both cases 
on pottery vessels, in the State of Jalisco, Mexico. The designs on the 
specimen from Room 9 are in black, red, yellow, and white; the colors 
used to a great extent by the ancient Tarascan Indians of Jalisco. The 
basic color seems to have been black. This layer was probably allowed 







Fig. 12. Pipes from Rooms 9 and 10. a (773), sandstone; b (769), 
steatite; c (772), pottery; d (935), pottery. 



to dry, after which the designs were formed by cutting out such portions 
of the black pigment as were to be filled with other colors. The design 
covers the entire face of the specimen. The rim portion of the design 
extends over a centimeter on the under part of the object. This speci- 
men is shown in Fig. 13 ; the shaded portions show the areas occupied 
by the different colors. 



1920. 



Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 



53 



Miscellaneous Objects. Among the other objects found in the debris 
from the upper rooms were two pieces of fossil shell and a section of an arm 
or leg of a pottery figure, probably a human form. This section is 3 cms. 
long and of solid construction; it is of gray ware and has four black bands 
spanning a part of its circumference. An object of antler 4.5 cms. long- 
was made in a flattened cylindrical form and was probably used as a 
gambling stick. The remaining objects found in the upper layers were 
twenty-five small water-worn pebbles and two larger pebbles of the same 
nature. The larger ones could have been used for hand hammerstones, 
but none of these specimens had been worked. 

When the floor level was reached two manos 
and a stone slab, that was evidently used as a lap- 
stone, were found. All of these specimens were 
made of close-grained sandstone, the last named 
specimen having yellow ocher on the surface. 
There was also in the floor layer a small fossil 
shell, a chalcedony concretion, and a small hand 
hammer made of petrified wood. 

Pottery Trays. Two fragmentary bowls of 
a very interesting form came from the floor 
deposit; they are of light-colored ware, corru- 
gated on the exterior and smooth on the interior. 
They were made of a very hard compact pottery 
and are shaped like the basket trays used by the 

Pueblo Indians of the present day. When complete these vessels must 
have measured at least 25 cms. in diameter and their depth could not 
have been over 4 cms. There is a partially smoothed band on the under 
rim and on the inner rim there is a painted band in black of about the 
same width. Corrugated bowls of gray ware are found to some extent 
in the Chaco region, but these incomplete bowls with a few other frag- 
ments from other parts of the ruin are the only evidences found of shal- 
low corrugated vessels of this nature. 

This room is the first one in which milling stones were found, but 
owing to the fact that there were no metates it would seem that the 
manos had been used for other purposes. The finding of so many pipe 
fragments and especially the cloisonne object, suggests that the people 
who occupied this room were closely associated with the ceremonial life 
of the pueblo. 




Fig. 13 An Example of 
Cloisonne Work, Room 9. 



54 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

I 

Room 10. 

Room 10 was 13 feet 2 inches long on the north side, 12 feet 6 
inches on the south, 8 feet 4 inches on the west, and 7 feet 3 inches on the 
east. The masonry was similar to that of Room 9. From the evidence 
obtained in excavating, it appears that the materials from one or more 
floors were piled upon that of the lower one. The layer containing speci- 
mens was over four feet in thickness. Through this, and on the floor 
itself, were scattered quantities of broken shells and other material. 

Pipes. In describing the specimens from this room, the stone pipe, 
a portion of which was found in Room 9, will be the first to receive atten- 
tion. Four fragments of the bowl were found in various parts of the 
room. These pieces have been assembled and with the stem from Room 9 
complete the greater part of the pipe as shown in Fig. 12a. The material 
from which this pipe is made is a compact chert, probably from the 
cretaceous sandstone of this region. It is 8.2 cms. long and 4.7 cms. high 
at the bowl end. The stem is 2.7 cms. in diameter at the mouthpiece. 
The drilling tapers from the mouthpiece to the bowl, decreasing from 1 
cm. to 4 mms. in diameter. The diameter of the top of the bowl is 3.2 
cms. The peculiar angle of the bowl may be seen in the accompanying 
illustration. It bends backward upon the stem at quite a noticeable 
angle. This pipe is particularly massive for this region, but several of a 
similar nature were found in other parts of the ruin. 

Another massive pipe (H-937) of the tubular type was also in a 
fragmentary condition, the five pieces having been scattered though the 
debris. Four of these pieces were discolored by fire. The greatest 
length of this pipe fragment is 5.3 cms., its greatest diameter, 3.9 cms. 

Fragments of the bowls of seven pottery pipes, also from the debris, 
show what seems to be conclusive evidence that these objects were used 
in ceremonies and then broken. The finding of fragments of pottery 
pipes would excite no comment, but when massive stone pieces such as 
the tubular and large pipe with bowl, already described, are found, a 
reason is naturally sought. These pipes may have been broken in a 
sacrificial way during some religious ceremony and the fragments pre- 
served either to keep them from being profaned by the hands of those who 
were not members of the priesthood or else for future ceremonies. 

A pottery pipe of rather peculiar form is shown in Fig. 12d. Only a 
portion of the bowl remains. The fragment in its entirety measures 6 
cms. in length; it has evidently been through the fire, but there still 
remains a broad band design in white on a dark background on the stem 
which is 2 cms. high and 1.5 cms. broad where it joins the bowl; from 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 55 

this point it tapers to the mouthpiece. Another fragment of a tubular 
clay pipe is 4 cms. long and 2 cms. in diameter at the bowl end. Unlike 
most of the tubular pipes, the opening of which tapers from the bowl end 
to the stem, this pipe has a separate bowl 2 cms. deep, from which a 
small hole extends toward the mouth end. This specimen is of dark gray 
and there are no decorations on the surface. Still another fragment of a 
pipe is represented by a pottery piece which may be a part of one of the 
long tubular pipes; it is light gray in color and the hole through the stem 
preserves a uniform diameter of 6 mms. throughout the length of the 
fragment. 

There was another stone pipe of the tubular form (Fig. 19d). It is of 
easily worked stone, although of fine structure, 5 cms. in length and 2.3 
cms. in diameter at the bowl end. The opening tapers from the bowl to 
the mouthpiece. This pipe was in three pieces when found and the 
fragments were in different parts of the room; the mouth portion and 
part of the rim are still missing. 



Fig. 14 1,977). A Bone Awl of Unusual Form, Room 10. Length, 9.7 cms. 

Ceremonial Sticks. Further evidences of a ceremonial nature were 
the finding of a small ceremonial stick which had been painted a bright 
green, probably with paint made from malachite; the fragment of a 
small ceremonial stick, a portion of which is carved in the shape of an 
hourglass; and the end of one of the large ceremonial sticks, great 
numbers of which were found in Room 32 (p. 140). The carved portion 
of this stick was over 12 cms. long, but the specimen in its entirety must 
have been over 60 cms. in length. There is another stick bound with 
yucca cord, also a ball of wood 2.5 cms. in diameter. The only remain- 
ing object of wood to be noted is a stick 37 cms. long; it was quite thick 
and had a rounded end, but no evidence of its function could be found. 

Miscellaneous Objects. Animal bones of various kinds were repre- 
sented and there were two bone implements, presumably awls. One of 
these (Fig. 14) is an uncommon form and may have been used as a hair- 
pin or for fastening garments, as similar objects were formerly used by 
the Inca of Peru. This specimen is 9.7 cms. long, the head measuring 
1.3 cms. in width. The greatest thickness of this specimen is only 3 
mms. If the lower or pointed half of this implement were cut off, it 
would be almost a duplicate of the other specimen mentioned. 



56 



Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 



The lower jaw of a beaver was made into a pendant, the condyle 
having been removed, the irregular edges ground smooth, and a hole 
drilled through the upper part. A large bear claw, found near the floor 
level, shows no evidence of having been used, but it may have been 
attached to some ceremonial object by means of a strip of buckskin. 

A peculiar object made of antler is shown in Fig. 15a; it is 7 cms. long 
and 2.3 cms. in diameter at the central part. It tapers toward either 
end and is similar in form to the corks that professional runners carry in 
their hands. The use of this object by the Pueblo Indians is unknown. 
Fragments of turquoise objects and turquoise matrix, chalcedony con- 
cretions of small size, gypsum, chalcedony flakes, obsidian flakes, a mass 
of malachite, limonite, and a number of natural pebbles constitute the 
stone and mineral products as represented by this room. 





Fig. 15. Objects of Unknown Use: a (1065), antler, Room 10; 
b (5082), chipped stone, Room 37. Length of o, 7 cm. 



The breast bones of nine turkeys were scattered in the debris, but 
none of them show signs of having been worked. Two pieces of limonite 
show evidences of having been worked and one was evidently intended 
for a pendant. 

Sacrificial Breaking. It seems that the breaking of specimens was 
not confined to the pipes, for among the 180 arrow points found in the 
deposit there is hardly one that is not misshapen or broken. The 
majority of them show clean breaks as though the points had been 
snapped between the fingers. A portion of a chalcedony knife shows 
evidence of having withstood extreme heat, the break in this speci- 
men also is clean as though it had been made intentionally. 





a b 

Fig. 16. Shallow Stone Mortars: a (1150), Room 10; 6 (5204), Room 38. 






Fig. 17. Grooved Hammers and an Arrow Polisher: c, (1164), Room 10; 6 (2733), Room 20; 
c (4156), Room 29. 



57 



58 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

The breaking of ceremonial material is responsible for the fragmen- 
tary condition of a ceremonial mortar shown in Fig. 16a. This mortar 
was made from a cherty nodule and is 18.3 cms. in diameter at the top, 
the rim being 3.5 cms. high. It is beautifully smoothed on both the top 
and bottom, and the side slopes gently outward from the base. A slight 
depression near the edge of the upper part causes a rim, which would 
retain paint or other material that was being ground. Its last use prior 
to its destruction was the grinding of red ocher, traces of which still 
remain upon the surface. Shallow mortars of various forms are repre- 
sented from this pueblo, but most of them are made of a much softer 
stone than that employed in making the specimen in question. The 
bottom and four pieces of the rim were found in Room 10; two of the 
largest pieces were found in the debris in Room 9. 

There are several other stone objects evidently of a ceremonial 
nature, but as only fragments of them remain it is impossible to say 
what they represented. One, whose cross-section is wedge-shaped, having 
a length of over 12 cms., seems to have been a ceremonial knife. There 
are fragments of two other objects of similar form; other objects either 
broken or in a fragmentary condition, are two blade ends of a jasper 
implement, broken in three pieces and discolored by fire; a broken stone 
jar cover; fragment of a pottery shoulder, evidently of a human effigy 
vase; the broken handle of a pottery vessel; and a natural pebble which 
shows the action of fire. 

Among the perfect implements were three crude grinding stones; 
one of fine grained sandstone which had been worn smooth on both 
sides, two rasping implements of white sandstone, two hand hammers, 
one made from hard compact sandstone, the other from a natural 
pebble, and a hard close-grained stone with grooves which had been 
used in sharpening bone and stone implements. Of the unworked 
objects there was a cup-shaped concretion, five natural pebbles, a piece 
of petrified wood, and a stone on the surface of which were rows of black 
crystals . 

A lapstone whose surface has been used to such an extent that it is 
as smooth as though the polishing had been intentional was broken into 
three pieces. Fire has left its mark on this specimen, especially near the 
edges. The stone, when perfect, was over 28 cms. long, 16 cms. wide, 
and 4 cms. thick. 

A large metate shows no evidence of fire, but one end has been 
broken in such a way that it seems intentional. It is of the usual slab 
form, common to the Chaco region, and the worn surface is not very 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 59 

deep; both sides, however, have been used. In one part of the room a 
thick red pigment was found; it had evidently been a covering for some 
ceremonial object, presumably on cloth; certain portions of this were 
painted with green. Pigments of the same color and consistency were 
found in place on the floor of Room 13 and will be described in detail 
with the other material from that room. 

Problematic Objects. Ceremonial objects play a prominent part in 
the life of any Indian tribe and in the old ruins many objects of this 
nature are encountered. Their uses cannot always be determined, but 
the method employed in the manufacture of the material can as a rule 
be ascertained. Yet specimen H-968 presents an object, probably 
ceremonial in nature, that almost defies explanation. In shape it is 
like the basal end of an arrow point; it is porous and the specific gravity 
is so low that it floats readily on the surface of water. The inner struc- 
ture is a pure crystalline white; the surface, however, presents a vitreous 
appearance and is slightly darker in color. The material is so light that 
it can be crushed between the fingers; from its appearance it would 
seem that it would fuse quite readily, but when put under the blow-pipe it 
required a heat of over 1500 degrees to make any impression on it 
whatever. Even then the result was merely the appearance of a few 
beads on the extreme edges of the detached fragment. The conclusion 
derived from blow-pipe analysis is that it is an extremely hard silica 
formation, volcanic in origin. From the appearance of the object it 
would seem that the material had been formed into this shape while in a 
fused condition. There are two points and fragments of two others 
of a similar material, but instead of being white they are black and have 
an appearance of porous volcanic glass. These objects float. 

Stone Objects. A met ate which was probably used for ceremonial 
purposes is shown in Fig. 18b. It is 45 cms. long, 26 cms. at one end, and 
24 cm. at the other, with a uniform thickness of 3 cms. There is a groove 
for grinding which is 14 cms. wide and 28 cms. long at the narrow end 
of the stone. There is a depression which was no doubt used for holding 
the materials to be ground. The bottom and sides of this depression 
are worn perfectly smooth. The grinding trough still shows a pecked 
surface in all parts save the central. The rectangular depression at the 
narrow end may have been used as a mortar; if so, the grinding has been 
very uniform, as the bottom is quite regular. Ceremonial metates are 
not uncommon from Pueblo Bonito and a number of them will be 
described from other rooms. 



60 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

A double pointed hammer is shown in Fig. 17. It is 14 cms. long 
and has a deep groove in the central portion. This object was made 
from a piece of volcanic rock and great care has been exerted in fashion- 
ing it. On either side of the groove is a ridge, flattened on three parts of 
its circumference, the flattened places being equidistant. One end of this 
implement is broken. 





a I) 

Fig. 18. AStoneSlabandaMetate: a (2737), Room 20; b (1162), Room 10. 

As though to account for the great mutilation of both the ceremonial 
and utilitarian objects in this room, we have twenty-three grooved 
hammerstones. Most of these hammers were made of natural pebbles, 
quite uniform in size. The greatest extremes in length are 12 and 6.5 
cms. The grooves have been pecked quite deep and encircle the entire 
stone. In three of the specimens the groove is more shallow, only the 
edges being pecked deeply. Some of them have been used to a great 
extent, but most of them show no signs whatever of battering, they may 
therefore have been used for the ceremonial breaking or "killing" of 
the objects found in this and nearby rooms. 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 61 

Among the objects which were undoubtedly broken to procure 
material for making ceremonial and other objects were over twenty- 
three fragments of murex and strombus shells, probably brought from 
the Pacific coast; most of them had been broken into small pieces. 
Associated with these pieces of shells were fifty-eight fossil shells com- 
posed of spirifers and other bivalves. 

There was one piece of aragonite, worked to a considerable extent, 
the outer rim of which had been colored by iron-oxide through in- 
filtration. It was concavo-convex in form, the convex side having 
received the greatest amount of polishing. It is similar to two other 
specimens found in this ruin. One of them, which was made of 
pottery, will be described under Room 80. It had been drilled for sus- 
pension, but whether the specimen from Room 10 had been drilled cannot 
be ascertained as the fragment is evidently but a small portion of the 
complete object. 

Room 11. 
Room 11, just east of Room 10, is another member of the series of 
lateral rooms under consideration. It was found to be 13 feet 5 inches on 
the north wall, 15 feet 8 inches on the south, 7 feet 9 inches on the east, 
and 6 feet 8 inches on the west. The upper rooms had fallen, leaving only 
the lower one to be considered. Its original height from the floor to the 
ceiling beams was 6 feet. Artifacts were found in the upper layers and 
it was not until the floor layer was reached that the few specimens found 
in the room were obtained. 

Among these were two manos, one of which had been used for 
grinding red paint and a piece of calcite, two surfaces of which had been 
ground either to obtain the material for other uses, or else the stone had 
been worn away while the implement was being used as a polisher. 

There were two pieces of turquoise matrix, a semicircular stick 
evidently used for ceremonial purposes, which was 8 cms. from end to 
end. Midway between the ends a hole had been drilled. There were a 
number of twigs bent in a circular form, but they were so rough and in 
such a broken condition that their use could not be determined. There 
was also the handle of a pottery dipper of the usual grayware, a number 
of bird bones, two bone awls made from splinters of deer bone, and the 
end of a pottery pipestem. 



62 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVIL 

Room 12. 

Room 12, directly east of Room 11, contained a mass of material, 
probably used for ceremonial purposes. It was rectangular in fofm, 
measuring 12 feet 6 inches on the north side, 12 feet 4 inches on the 
south, 9 feet on the east, and 8 feet 2 inches on the west. It may be well 
to state, before entering upon the consideration of the materials that 
were found in this room, that the walls of this series were standing to a 
much greater height at this point than in any of the other rooms 
described. The specimen-bearing layer was 5 feet deep, showing that the 
materials from two or more rooms had been added to the deposit on the 
floor of the lower room. When the lower floor was reached the distance 
from it to the top of the north wall was over 14 feet. 

Pebbles and Fossil Shells. Of the great variety of objects in Room 
12, fossil shells were the most numerous. There were over a thousand of 
these small fossils, many of them covered with red and yellow ocher. 
One of these shells (H-2552) had been drilled, no doubt for suspension, 
but it was the only one found in the room that showed any evidences of 
having been worked. The grooving of the hinge part may have been a 
secondary consideration, but in its present state it has the appearance of 
an owl's head. The openings formed by the drilling represent the eyes, 
the beak is formed by the point of the hinge, and the mouth represented 
by the hinge itself which had been accentuated by grinding. The 
feathers are represented by the natural fluting on the sides of the shell. 
The shells found in this room are from the coal measures and are com- 
posed of spirifers and other small bivalves. Another fossil that seemed 
to appeal to the Indians was the crinoid stem, over 300 fragments of this 
material being found. There are no evidences that these stems have 
been worked, but as is the case with the fossil shells, many of them still 
retain a coating of red and yellow ocher. A great many large and small 
water-worn pebbles had been collected and were found in the debris. 
There were over 140 of these stones, but very few of them had been 
used in any way that left its mark upon the surface. If they were used 
in a ceremonial way it must have been without any ocherous decorations 
as none of them show traces of this paint. Cushing states that water- 
worn pebbles were used as water-guides and that many of the old irri- 
gating ditches in the Zufii region had lines of pebbles along their banks, 
their office being to guide the water in the direction required. The 
pebbles found in rooms that contain ceremonial material may have been 
used in a similar way in some ceremony pertaining to the water supply 
or irrigation. Natural pebbles are used at the present time on the altars 
in some of the Pueblo ceremonies, but never in great numbers. 



1920.! Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 63 

From the appearance of the stones found in this room it would seem 
that they had been selected for their peculiar forms, or for the beauty of 
their structure. There were between fifty and seventy-five pieces, in- 
cluding masses of quartz crystals, quartz containing iron pyrites, 
quartz crystals stained with copper salts, large quartz crystals in single 
form and in groups, large pyramidal calcite crystals, masses of iron ore 
showing iron pyrites and other crystals, a piece of goethite, iron- 
oxide belonging to the hematite family, and water-worn pebbles of chal- 
cedony. These, with pieces of petrified wood and variously colored clays 
from the "Bad Lands," complete the list. 

Chalcedony concretions were also well represented, there being more 
than 125 pieces, ranging in size from a mass weighing two pounds, to 
small delicately formed lace-like pieces. Shell fragments, mostly of the 
murex, were associated with these specimens. These shells probably 
came from the California coast. There were 125 fragments, but no 
whole shells were found. 

A number of chalcedony and other stone chips were found, and six 
perfect arrow points and fragments of four others. 

There were two clusters of quartz crystals, one of which was covered 
with red ocher and the other with some black material. Red ocher is 
sometimes deposited on quartz crystals by nature, but the appearance of 
this material suggests that it had been applied by the Indians. What the 
black material is cannot be stated, but there is a bubbling spring situated 
near the "Bad Lands," about twenty-five miles from Pueblo Bonito. 
which exudes a black liquid. The Navajo state that this material has 
been used by them in a ceremonial way for many years; it may be that 
the black deposit on these crystals is composed of the same material. 

Broken Pipes. Five pipes were found in this room, all of them 
broken. Four were made of pottery and one of stone. The stone pipe is 
of tubular form and was found in a fragmentary condition as shown in 
Fig. 19f. It measures 5 cms. in length and 2.6 cms. in diameter at its 
widest part which is at the point where the bowl begins. The pipe is 
flattened, the shorter axis, at the point just mentioned, being 2.2 cms.; 
the material is aragonite. The hole in the stem maintains a uniform 
diameter throughout its length. The stem of another tubular pipe 
(H-2576) was found. It is 6 cms. long and 1.8 cms. in diameter at the 
bowl end. 

Another pipe with a different style of bowl is shown in Fig. 20b. 
The pipe is of undecorated clay. The length of the fragment is 4 cms. ; 
the stem is 1.8 cms. in diameter, and the flaring bowl measures 3.5 cms. 







Fig. 19. Types of Stone Pipes; a (5110), Room 38; 6 (5112), Room 38; c (7209); d (952), 
Room 10; e (2570), Room 12; / (2880), Room 26; g (5109), Room 38. 






a b c 

Fig. 20. Tubular Pottery Pipes: a (8117), Room 105; 6 (2571), Room 12; c (2569), Room 12. 



64 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 65 

at the rim. The bowl is very shallow, as the illustration shows, and 
from the discoloration it is safe to assume that it has been smoked. 

A pipe of slightly different form is shown in Fig. 20c. It is made of clay 
covered with a white slip and has a decoration in black extending to the 
rim of the bowl. The decoration, as shown in the illustration, is composed 
of two lines which extend from the bowl to the mouthpiece on opposite 
sides of the stem and are joined by two other lines which encircle the 
pipe. On the under side there are additional lines, one set near the stem 
and the other near the bowl. The stem of the pipe has a decided curve 
and is flattened laterally. The measurements at its central part are 1.6 
cms. by 1.8 cms. The bowl is flaring, but is flattened laterally in con- 
formity with the stem. The rim is outlined with a line of black paint. 
The measurements of the bowl from rim to rim are 3.1 cms. by 5.6 cms., 
it is 1.5 cms. deep at the central part. The hole in the stem is quite 
large for a pottery pipe; it is irregular in form, its average diameter 
being 5 mms., the same size of opening being preserved throughout its 
length. The flaring bowl brings up a question as to the use of this pipe 
for ordinary smoking purposes. The flattening of the bowl would not 
admit of the use of much tobacco, and it is a question whether it could 
be smoked at all in such a shallow bowl. Again, the form of the bowl 
suggests the squash flower, the emblem used on the end of flutes and in 
certain ceremonial objects among the Hopi. The squash flower is a 
symbol of purity among these Indians and it may be that this pipe was 
used as a " Cloud-blower " in some ceremony of purification or in con- 
secrating sacred paraphernalia. 

A tubular clay pipe (H-2573) was found crushed into a score of 
fragments. The parts that could be put together give a fragment 8 
cms. in length so that in its entirety it must have been several centimeters 
longer. From the fragments of the bowl it would seem that this part 
had been over 3 cms. in diameter. The clay is dark in color and the 
surface, a glossy black; its general appearance suggests pipes made by 
the Indians of some of the northern Rio Grande pueblos of the present 
day. 

Miscellaneous Objects. A few bird bones were found in the room, 
also four bone awls. One of these was made from a splinter of deer bone 
and was very crude; two of the others were of the same material. One 
of them was merely a fragment, the point end, and showed that, like 
the other specimens in question, the point had been long and tapering. 
The fourth was a slender tapering perforator, made of deer bone, 12.2 
cms. long and 3 mm. in diameter at the central part. This specimen 



66 



Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 



(H-2547) has been carefully smoothed and still retains a slight polish. 
The prong of a deer antler and the end of a crudely made ceremonial 
stick were found. The antler, at the point where it had been severed, 
had been ground until the end was perfectly flat. 

Slabs of gypsum were found in the debris, also crystals of azurite 
and malachite. A piece of trachyte with a layer winch had formed 
a part of a vein of turquoise attached; a peculiar sandstone concretion 
the base of which had been ground into circular form; a drilled lime- 
stone concretion, drilled for suspension and a torpedo-shaped piece of 
quartz crystal, ground into shape ; two rectangular sets, or inlays, prob- 
abby from a mosaic; a small shell inlay, probably for the same purpose; 
a fragment of a shell ornament; and a bead made of an olivella shell com- 
pletes the list of smaller objects. 

One drill made of chalcedony was found; it is 4.5 
cms. in length and is shown in Fig. 21. 

A dried frog was found in the debris, but whether 
it had been used by the old people or had found its way 
into the room after it had been abandoned cannot be 
stated. 

There was one piece of pottery (H-2517) made of 
the usual gray material covered with a white slip. The 
vessel consists of three bowls joined together in the form 
of a clover-leaf. The rims of these bowls are outlined with 
black paint and there are decorations in the same paint 
on the interior of each bowl. The individual bowls 
average 5.5 cms. in diameter and 3 cms. in depth. One 
of these has a design composed of cross-hatching, forming 
a sort of lattice work figure. Another has a series of 
four rings which encircle the bowl ; the third has a series 
of five triangles extending from the rim toward the center, each of these 
being filled with fines giving a hachure effect. Vessels of this nature are 
used by the Hopi at the present time for holding different colored paints, 
and this specimen retains a coating of green paint made from malachite. 
Among the larger stone implements were two hammerstones of 
natural pebbles; a hammerstone of compact sandstone; a grooved 
stone hammer; a small lapstone made from a flat, water-worn pebble; 
a small sandstone slab; and the end of a moccasin-shaped stone. This 
was a large specimen, the rounding portion of the toe having the peculiar 
jog which is so prominent in specimens of this type from the cliff ruins of 
Utah and Colorado. It measures 15 cms. in width at its widest part and 




Fig. 21 (2548). 
Drill Point, Room 
12. 



1920.1 



Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 



67 



its greatest thickness is 1 cm. It is made of fine compact sandstone and 
has been carefully ground and smoothed (H-2577) . 

An object resembling a stone hoe was found. It is made of hard 
cherty sandstone and is shown in Fig. 22. It is 16.5 cms. long and 11 
cms. in width at the widest part. It is made from a thin plate of sand- 
stone, the greatest thickness being 1.2 cms. The cutting edge is slightly 
chipped, as are also certain other portions of the edge. The grooves in 
the edge of the stone for attachment to a wooden handle have been 
broken and left in a very crude state. The sides of the implement show 
no work whatever and from the condition of the edge it appears that it 
had not been used to anv extent. 






Fig.22. Stone Hoes and a Dressed Stone: a (2606), Room 12; 6 (5220), Room 38; c (5101), Room 37. 



Room 13. 
Room 13 had suffered from fire, the eastern and part of the southern 
walls having crumbled from the effects of the heat. The room was 8 
feet 6 inches long and 8 feet 4 inches wide. It contained a number of 
bird and animal bones, but none of them had been worked. Fragments 
of pottery bowls were scattered through the debris near the floor. They 
were bowls of small size, averaging about 12 cms. in diameter and of the 
type having a black design on the interior and outer rim. All of the 
fragments have dots or lines on the edge of the rim, and the pottery itself 
is of a very fine compact ware. One of the fragments has two handles 



68 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

near the rim which would show that originally there had been four. 
Fragments of another bowl bear painted designs in the form of bird 
feet. There was one fragment of red ware with black interior which 
seems to have been part of a very deep bowl of the type that widens 
gradually from the base to the rim. 

There were eighteen arrow points in the floor deposit, all but two of 
obsidian. These points are of the usual tapering type. 

Among the other objects of general interest was a natural quartzite 
pebble; a fragment of a highly polished stone object; a number of thin 
sheets of mica; a piece of cannel coal; and a small transparent quartz 
crystal. 

Altar Painting. When the floor level in the eastern part of the room 
was reached, several detached pieces of red pigment were found; they 
bore on their under surface the imprint of cloth. Further investigation 
showed that these were the remains of a ceremonial object, oval in form. 
The greater part of the original pigment remained in position and it 
was thought desirable to endeavor to solidify the mass of sand upon 
which it rested in order to transport the object to the Museum. To do 
this the individual pieces which had curled from the heat of the burning 
room were moistened with a solution of gum arabic and allowed to fall 
back into place. When this was accomplished the entire surface was 
soaked with a solution of the same material. When the solution had 
penetrated to a depth of over an inch, layers of cheese-cloth were soaked 
in a solution of glue and applied to the surface, the cloth being carried to 
within an inch of the edge of the pigment area; the next step was the 
cutting away of the sides. When this was completed it was found that 
decayed vegetable matter formed part of the deposit which left openings 
which had to be filled with the cement composed of sand and glue. 
It required the greater part of a week for the solution to dry and before 
it was safe to turn the solidified mass of sand on edge. When this was 
accomplished the under part was covered with the cement of sand and 
glue and the whole mass, with the exception of the pigment itself, was 
covered with several layers of cheese-cloth which had been treated in 
the same manner as the ones previously used. When these had hardened 
the upper part was covered with layers of cotton batting and the mass 
enclosed in a box lined with sheepskins. In this condition it reached the 
Museum, where it is now on exhibition. The pigment-covered 
textile in its original form was no doubt used for some ceremonial 
purpose. The cloth was probably made of yucca although no traces of 
it remained. There are evidences that a band of green pigment had 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 69 

formed a border which encircled the object, but only a small portion of 
it remains, as before noted. In its present form the pigment averages 
3 rams, in thickness. 

Shell and Turquoise. Six inches below this object in the north- 
western corner of the room a shell trumpet was found. It is the shell of a 
strombus, variety galeatus (Swainson) and was probably obtained in 
exchange from tribes living on the Pacific Coast. In making this trumpet 
the upper end of the columnella was ground off to form a mouthpiece. 
About 8 cms. of the lid of the shell was cut away and two holes were 
drilled near the edge of the remaining portion. These holes were no 
doubt used for the attachment of a cord by means of which the trumpet 
was carried. A mouthpiece made of clay, such as has been found on 
some of the murex shell trumpets in this pueblo, was found near by. 
A fragment of another mouthpiece of similar form was found near the 
floor level. 

A number of fragments of strojnbus shells were scattered through the 
debris, many of them had been worked on the edges and some were 
drilled. One in particular has a design in hachure effect on the edge. A 
section of the edge of a basket bowl retains a covering of red pigment. 
This material had been applied to both the outer and inner surface of the 
basket, and may be a portion of one found in a fragmentary condition 
in an adjoining room. 

Fragments of turquoise and small turquoise inlays were found asso- 
ciated with inlays of pink stone, forming rectangular and semicircular 
inlays, also flat pieces from which these specimens have been cut. There 
were two circular inlays of this stone. These specimens average 1.1 
cms. in diameter. There was another made of jet which was about the 
same size; with it were a number of irregular jet inlays of angular form. 
There were three small beads made from azurite and one small bead made 
from an olivella shell. 

Room 14. 
Room 14, the easternmost of the series under consideration, proved 
to be one that had suffered greatly from fire. The material with which 
it was filled bore evidence of the great heat which caused even the walls 
to crumble. (See p. 283, where this room is numbered 85.) Work in 
this room was carried to the depth of five feet and then, owing to the ruined 
condition of the walls, it was decided to discontinue operations. The 
western part was the only section of the room that received attention, 
but in it a few specimens were found. One of these was a ceremonial 



70 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vo 1. XXVII' 

stick with a carved head found in the uppermost layers, showing that it 
had been in one of the upper rooms and had thereby escaped the fire. 
There were three olivella shell beads, two blackened by fire, and a pottery 
bowl whose color had also been changed by the heat. This bowl (H-2703) 
is 12.5 cms. in diameter from rim to rim and 4.5 cms. in depth. The 
vessel was, no doubt, of the ordinary whiteware with decorations in 
black. The decorations retain their original color, but the vessel has 
changed to a dark red cream color. The design is in the form of meanders 
and dots, and extends to the rim which projects 3 mms. from the edge of 
the bowl. 

Specimens of adobe showing impressions of cornstalks, reeds, and 
willow stalks which had been used as a part of the ceilings and floors, 
were taken to show the action of fire. Some of them are burnt to a brick 
red color, others to a black, probably from the action of dense smoke. 

Room l^a. When work in Room 14 was discontinued, it was de- 
cided to devote the balance of the season to investigations in other parts 
of the ruin, but an accident caused the removal of the debris from the 
room between Room 10 and the room used as our storeroom and kitchen. 
There was a doorway in the south wall of the room, which will hereafter 
be known as Room 14b, and after each heavy shower there would be a 
pool of water on the floor of this room. Filling up the doorway with 
stones and masonry did not help matters, so the room into which this 
doorway led was cleared. Room 14a (over 14b) is shown in Fig. 23. 
The debris from the upper levels was cleared away, disclosing the floor 
and heavy beams that supported it. These beams spanned the shorter 
axis of the room, thereby causing them to lie in a north and south direc- 
tion. The view shown in the photograph is toward the north. The wall 
in the foreground is of the old type, the stones being irregular in form 
with unworked edges. The north wall of the room is of a later period, 
the stones being shorter and thicker and having their faces dressed. 
Between these stones was chinking, composed of thin laminae of sand- 
stone. The adobe floor is shown to very good advantage in this picture. 
The surface was smoothed originally, but in falling from its natural 
position it cracked to the extent here shown. The material under the 
adobe was cedar bast, or shredded cedarbark. A very thick layer of this 
materia] had been scattered over the floor boards, before the adobe 
had been applied. These boards are best seen in Fig. 24. They are 
made of pine and the sides and ends have been carefully ground with 
sandstone rasps. The poles which upheld the floor boards may be seen 
directly under them. 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 71 

The construction of floors of this kind is rather uncommon in Pueblo 
Bonito, due to the fact no doubt that the manufacture of boards of this 
nature was a somewhat tedious task. Most of the floors were sustained 
by poles, willow stalks, or branches with twigs. These are found in 
various parts of the ruin and will be described as the work progresses. 

Room IJfi. Room 14b is one of the rooms mentioned in the first 
part of this report as undoubtedly one of the last ones added to the 
pueblo before it was abandoned. A view of the north wall of the pueblo, 
showing the entrance into Room 14b, is shown in Fig. 5. A new type of 
masonry is shown in the photograph. The finishing of the larger stones 
and the chinking of the layers received the most careful attention from 
the old masons. In the section of wall shown, three doorways appear, 
which were closed at the time the wall was built. 

Architecture. The ceiling of this room is worthy of attention. 
The room is rectangular and its longer axis is east and west. The beams 
ran in the opposite directions, their ends entering the north and south 
walls. The ceiling beams are made of pine and above them rested a layer 
of individual willow stalks. The ceiling as here shown (Fig. 25) is one 
of the most ornate found in the pueblo. The bark had been removed 
from the ceiling beams and also from the willow stalks, causing them to 
appear in strong contrast with the dark walls which surrounded them. 

The southern wall was in a good state of preservation, plaster half 
an inch thick covered the greater part, and scratched into the soft 
surface were numerous names and dates, showing that the room had 
been open for years. Where the plaster had been torn off, the wall, 
thus presented to view, was made of large stones, the chinks being filled 
with thin pieces of sandstone. The doorway was plastered on the sides 
and the lintel composed of seven poles, 2% inches in diameter and laid 
close together. The facing of the doorway was square, but the plaster 
had been rounded a trifle. The wall was bulged to some extent at the 
eastern end, but not enough to crack the plaster. 

The northern wall was in good condition but almost all of the plaster 
had been washed off. This wall was similar in construction to the south- 
ern one, having large stones with the interstices chinked with smaller 
ones that often formed layers 2 inches thick, but it was not the regular 
layer wall. About 1 foot west of the doorway, and running from the 
floor to the ceiling in a zigzag line, was a crack that opened over 1 inch 
in some places. The doorway was a little to the east of the center and 
the bottom was 11 inches above the present floor level — the Original 
floor was probably 1 foot or 1% feet lower than the present one, which is the 



ww**^?--' 





I S 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bovito. 79 

debris that has accumulated. All the measurements were made to the 
present floor surface; therefore, in order to get the exact height, the 
above-mentioned distance must be added. The lintel of the doorway was 
composed of logs about 2 inches in diameter and over 5 feet in length. 
Three of these are intact, and a fourth has part of the eastern end in 
position. The sides of this doorway are very even, the chinks being filled 
with such care that the present surface is almost smooth and devoid of 
open spaces. The sides had originally been plastered, as had also the 
bottom. The lintel was no doubt originally as it now appears. 

The wall at the side of the doorway is 2 feet 4 inches thick, the outer 
part forming the exterior wall of the building. The eastern wall still 
retains most of its external plaster, but it is seared with marks, and water 
has greatly roughened the surface. It is composed of the same material 
as the sides of the room, and is built after the same fashion. 

The lintel of the doorway is composed of round poles, 3% inches in 
diameter, that reach across the room, the ends being buried in the side 
walls. Originally there were three, but only the front pole now remains 
intact; this doorway was also plastered, but only small pieces now cling 
to the sides. The wall at the side of the doorway is 1 foot 6 inches thick. 

The western wall had a large crack running from the northern end 
of the upper part of the doorway to the ceiling; otherwise, the wall 
was in a fair condition of solidity. The plaster adhered to the stones 
over the greater part of the surface; the wall was of the same material and 
construction as the other three. The doorway, as in the other cases, had 
been plastered, but very little of the plaster remained. The lintel was 
composed of five sticks, about 2 inches in diameter, laid so as to touch 
each other. For some reason this doorway had been walled up and 
plastered to a distance of 10 inches from the present floor level, which 
would be over 2 feet from the original floor. The wall on the side of the 
doorway was 1 foot 6 inches thick. 

Ceiling Structure. The ceiling of this room is composed of logs that 
measure from 4 to 6 inches in diameter. These run transversely and 
are from 2 to 3 inches apart. They are imbedded in the masonry with 
small pieces of sandstone packed around each end. The fifth and 
sixth logs from the western end have been removed ; otherwise, the ceiling- 
is in good condition. Above these logs, and resting on them, are small 
willow sticks, these measure from 3 to 4 feet in length, and most of them 
are but a trifle over % inch in diameter. These sticks are placed so close 
together that it would have been almost impossible to find a place large 
enough to insert a pencil when the ceiling was new. The number lying 



80 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII. 

side by side in a section about the center of the room were counted and 
it was found that there were one hundred and sixty-three. Resting on 
these willows was a layer of ceclarbark that supported the adobe floor 
of the room above. 

The entrance to the upper room is situated in the southern corner. 
From the appearance of the ends of the two logs that have been cut off, 
one would be led to think that this opening had been made after the 
completion of the ceiling. The ends of the logs are very irregularly 
cut and on the under part are places where pieces have been stripped 
off as though the operation had been a difficult one. 

Running parallel with the large timbers, but above the small sticks, 
are flat willows lying with the rounded side up; these are so placed that 
they occupy a space equidistant from the large beams; over these split 
pieces, at intervals of about 6 inches, are strips of yucca leaves, some of 
which have the ends tied. There are one hundred and fifty -one of these 
strings pendent from the ceiling, and it is highly probable that the room 
was used for drying meats or produce. The large beams were of pine 
and spruce, pine predominating. All of the pieces are bright and clean, 
and are entirely devoid of bark. They are all sections of young trees 
and were peeled while the bark was green. Some of them are badly 
checked, but the majority are quite solid. The small sticks are all in- 
dividual willow growths, carefully peeled, and the butt end of each stick 
ground until it presented a flat surface. This was probably done with a 
piece of sandstone. Some of the willows measure ){ inch at the butt end, 
but most of them are under this figure. All of them taper, but each one 
has the whip end removed. In placing these sticks the butt ends were 
laid in a line, when the next layer was put in position, with a lap of about 
2 inches. This form of ceiling was solid and compact, and, from an aes- 
thetic standpoint, the finest found in the ruins. 

Room 15. 

Very little work was done in Room 15, in fact, only a few feet of 
earth were removed. Developments in Room 16 necessitated trans- 
ferring the men from Room 15 and the ceremonial problems presented 
by this and nearby rooms and the attempt to ascertain the character of 
rooms in various parts of the ruin, employed all the time that remained 
in the season of 1896. 

The investigations in the following years carried the work to 
the walls of Room 15, but the room itself, with the northern part of the 
ruin, has never received attention. 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 81 

Room 16. 

Kiva. The great central court of Pueblo Bonito is divided into 
two parts by a single series of rooms extending from an estufa (kiva) 
situated near the southern wall of the pueblo, northward to another 
estufa, directly in front of the semicircle formed by what was no doubt 
once the terraced part of the pueblo. This estufa will be known as 
Room 16; its exact position in the ruin may be seen in the diagram 
(Fig. 155). 

This room was filled with debris when the work was begun, but it 
proved to be mostly of drift sand and portions of burnt ceiling timbers. 
Nothing of importance was found in the debris, with the exception of an 
obsidian arrow point of the usual tapering form; an ornament of stone 
made from a natural concretion; and a fragment of a mano made from 
honey-combed volcanic scoria. The room, after the debris had been re- 
moved, is shown in Fig. 26, which gives a general idea of its floor space, 
structure, and general appearance, but the individual parts can be 
seen to better advantage in the sectional photographs which 
precede. The diameter of the floor space was found to be 20 feet 6 inches; 
this, with the benches, gave a diameter of 24 feet 7 inches from face to 
face of the enclosing wall. 

The room itself was well built, of the usual circular type; the wall 
was intended to be perpendicular and in most cases was almost so. 
Originally it was plastered, the coating which may still be seen in places, 
being half an inch in thickness. The bench that surrounded the entire 
circle was of uniform height, except on either side of the niches at the 
north and south, where it was slightly lower than the other parts, the 
descent being gradual and although not great, was readily seen. This 
bench was made of carefully selected stones; they range from 2 inches to 
over a foot in length and were on an average 1 inch thick. They were of 
the usual gray sandstone and were laid with a thin plaster, but so close 
that the space between them was hardly noticeable. On the surface of 
the wall face of this bench there was a layer of pure white plaster which 
was in some places fully 3 inches thick. The plaster on the main wall 
was of the ordinary brown variety and therefore the white must have 
stood out in strong contrast. 

There were fourteen sticks imbedded in the bench at the south- 
eastern part of the estufa. They were greatly decayed and had been 
broken to within a foot of the bench level. Their diameter, as near as 
one can judge from the decayed pieces that remained, must have been 
originally over 5 cms. These sticks stand in a line, following the contour 



82 .4 nthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

of the wall and are on an average about 18 cms. apart and 13 cms. from 
the main wall. The use of these sticks cannot be given. Uprights in 
pairs are used in some of the modern estufas as loom supporters, a great 
deal of weaving being done by the men when no ceremonies are in pro- 
gress, a use for such a series as is here presented does not suggest 
itself. 1 

The southeastern part of the estufa showing the bench, two beam 
supports, and the fourteen sticks is shown in Fig. 27. This picture gives a 
good idea of the stones employed in the building of the wall and bench. 

There were niches in the bench at the north and south side of the 
estufa as shown in Fig. 28. The one in the north end was 20 cms. above 
the floor, whereas the one at the south side started at the floor level 
(Fig. 28). These openings virtually divided the bench into two sections 
or semicircles and on each of these divisions there were three supports 
for pillars. These supports average 65 cms. in length, 50 cms. in width, 
and were 31 cms. in height. They were built around and over circular 
logs made from trees having the heart intact and the sides and upper 
part were plastered. These supports were built of small pieces of sand- 
stone, thereby making a very compact mass, as the stones were readily 
fitted to the rounding portion of the log and conformed to any irregulari- 
ties that were presented. The logs were from 13 to 16 cms. in diameter, 
and extended from the face of the support to a point nearly a meter 
beyond the face of the estufa wall. Directly back of these supports there 
have been rectangular openings which have had poles across the top 
similar to the lintels of doorways. These openings may have been made 
that the beams might be set in the main wall, but the reason for placing 
the poles over them cannot be conjectured. All of these openings had 
been filled with masonry similar to that of the surrounding wall area. 
The openings averaged 81 cms. in width and the poles which spanned 
their upper parts were from 47 to 63 cms. above the top of the bench. 
Most of the poles had been destroyed by fire. 



'One of the Navajo workmen employed in excavating this estufa, said that the meaning was quite 
plain to him as he had heard the old medicinemen of the Navajo describe such poles as having been 
used by the old Pueblo people. His explanation, although bearing little weight in a scientific way, was 
nevertheless interesting. He said that they had originally projected 1.26 m. above the bench level, 
and then, regardless of the fact that he was supposed to be explaining a Pueblo altar, be proceeded to give 
the Navajo names of the gods as represented by the sticks. It is well-known that there has been an 
interchange of ceremonies between the Navajo and the Pueblo, but it hardly seems possible that Navajo 
god-names would be given to prominent objects of this kind in one of their ceremonial rooms. He said 
that beginning with the southern end their names were as follows : First haste yalte ; second ; haste, yebecae ; 
third, haste yebaad, and so on through the series using the gods already mentioned until the fourteenth 
was reached and this one he named tonilili, who is the water-god of the Navajo. This Navajo said that 
the sticks formed the background of an altar, and that a mass of white sand found directly under the 
•low of sticks was used in making sand or dry paintings in front of the row of gods. 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 83 

The logs in the supports on the bench, with one exception, had been 
destroyed by fire, but in the cylindrical openings which remained, a 
number of interesting objects were found. Beginning with the support 
at the east, which is numbered, one, the contents of each opening were 
sifted with the following results : — 

No. 1 contained twenty-two turquoise beads, thirteen of which were cylindrical 
and nine of the usual flat form. There were also ten made from olivella shell beads, 
ten flat stone beads made in the shape of a figure eight, and five shell pendants. 
All of these specimens had been blackened by fire. 

In support No. 2 there were seven cylindrical turquoise beads; ten of the flat 
circular form, half of which were turquoise; also thirteen stone beads of the figure 
eight form; seven olivella shell beads, and three shell pendants. The objects in this 
deposit had been so changed by the action of the fire that it was hard to tell in many 
instances just what the material was. 

In support No. 3 there were twenty cylindrical turquoise beads; twelve flat 
circular beads; twenty-four shell beads of the figure eight form; seventeen olivella 
shell beads, and seven irregular shell pendants, all of which were blackened from the 
fire. 

In support No. 4 there were three cylindrical turquoise beads, and two of the flat 
circular form, one of which still retains a bright green color. With these were fourteen 
olivella shell beads and twenty-one stone beads in the form of a figure eight. With 
the exception of the bead mentioned all of the objects were blackened. 

In support No. 5 were five cylindrical turquoise beads; one flat circular turquoise 
bead; two stone beads of the figure eight form; one olivella shell bead, and one shell 
pendant. The specimens in this deposit had evidently been shielded in some way 
from the fire, for all of them preserved their natural colors, with the exception of a 
few pieces of turquoise which had become bleached to a certain extent by the fire; 
none of them, however, were blackened. 

In support No. 6 there were two cylindrical turquoise beads; three of the flat 
circular form ; three stone beads of the figure eight shape; fragments of two oliiella 
shell beads; and two shell pendants. The fire had blackened all of these objects, 
as was the case in most of the other supports. 

On the bench between supports No. 3 and No. 4 there were four 
cylindrical turquoise beads; two of the flat circular form; ten of the 
figure eight form; ten of the olivella shell beads; and one shell pendant. 
These pieces were lying directly upon the surface of the bench, but 
originally they may have been covered with plaster. From various other 
parts of the bench there came one cylindrical turquoise bead; one of the 
flat circular type; two olivella shell beads; and three shell pendants. 

Were it not for the fact that other estufas in this ruin had been in- 
vestigated, the manner of disposing of the objects in the supports would 
be uncertain. From the investigations, it is safe to assume that these 
objects had been deposited in a ceremonial way in small openings or 
depressions which had been prepared for their reception in the top of 



84 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

each log; they were no doubt ceremonial offerings to the house-god. and 
will be described in detail when Room 67 is being considered. 

From the objects found in these deposits it would seem that there 
had been a reason for selecting certain forms of beads. The cylindrical 
turquoise bead, although found in other parts of the ruin, is not at all 
common in this pueblo and yet there were several of these in each support. 
The olivella beads and those of the figure eight form are found in many 
of the rooms, but the only place in which the irregular shell beads were 
found in numbers was in one of the burial rooms known as Room 3. 

The manner of roofing these ceremonial rooms is interesting to the 
student of primitive architecture. There were no evidences of ceiling 
beams save those in a fragmentary condition. They were found, however, 
in Room 67 where a study of this type of building as shown in Pueblo 
Bonito will be given. 

Owing to the fact that rooms of this type were used for ceremonial 
purposes, objects, except of a ceremonial nature, are seldom found in the 
debris, unless as in the case of Room 67 where the estufa has passed into 
disuse and become a receptacle for sweepings from the rooms and terraces. 

All of the estufas excavated in this ruin have a fireplace in the central 
part, or at least a point near the center of the floor area. The fireplace 
in this one is nearer the south side, about a meter south of the center. 
It was over 63 cms. in diameter and its sides had been built up with thin 
blocks of sandstone, the work being done in a very careful manner. 

Room 17. 
M elates. A little to the southeast of Room 16 and adjoining it at 
that side was Room 17. It was the first room on the north of the series 
that stretched southward across the court. The position of this room 
may be seen in Fig. 155 . The eastern and southern walls had been carried 
away in the general disintegration of this part of the pueblo, leaving 
portions of the north and west walls standing. Owing to the fact that 
there was very little material covering the floor, it was not long after 
the investigations in the room were begun before the tops of two large 
metates or grinding stones were found. They proved to be very large 
ones and when the floor level was reached several others were found 
partly imbedded in the floor. The room in its entirety is shown in Fig. 29. 
This view is toward the west, showing the western and northern part of 
the room. The stone work indicates an intermediate period in the his- 
tory of the pueblo. The stones are not faced to any extent, but greater 
care has been used in selecting them than is shown in the older type of 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 85 

walls. White plaster is still in evidence on the lower part of the west and 
north walls and there were evidences of white meal in all parts of the 
room. 

This was essentially a grinding room and from the evidences it may 
well have been a room used for the grinding of material to be used in 
ceremonies. The floor space was almost covered with metates, used to 
such an extent that the central portions of the troughs had been broken. 
Three of these may be seen in the foreground; two of them had been 
placed in such a position that they would catch the meal from one of the 
larger metates. Between the large grinding stones, a stone slab was 
let into the floor; it was 94 cms. long, 67 cms. wide, and 3 cms. in 
thickness. The edges of this slab had been worked by grinding and the 
surface smoothed to some extent. Directly behind the large milling 
stone, at the left of the picture, was a small metate. It too had been 
used until a hole had been worn through the bottom. In its present in- 
verted position it was evidently used as a bench upon which the grinder 
kneeled. Another broken metate is standing on edge upon this one, and 
resting against the west wall. 

The two large metates seem to have been the only ones in use when 
the room was abandoned. The larger one, containing three grinding 
troughs, was a block of hard white sandstone, as were all the other 
metates in the room. Its length at the widest part is 94 cms., its width 
71 cms., and its thickness, 18 cms. The mealing troughs had been worn 
to an average depth of 8 cms. This metate was covered with a thin layer 
of cornmeal and under the front part there was quite a deposit of the 
same material. The metate containing four depressions was 76 cms. 
long, 63 cms. wide and 18 cms. thick, the depth of the troughs averag- 
ing 8 cms. On the floor, which was made of adobe, two perfect and two 
fragmentary manos were found. 

In the northwestern corner of the room directly behind the metate 
with four depressions, a trumpet made from a murex shell was found. The 
lip had been cut away to some extent and near its upper part two holes had 
been drilled; one of these had been filled with bitumen or some black 
gum which is still in place (Fig. 46). Four fragments of murex shell were 
found with the trumpet and judging from the fact that one of these is 
part of a mouthpiece, it may be the fragments are part of a second 
trumpet. These were the only small objects found in the room. 

Owing to the fact that there is a depression in the court at this point, 
the southern end of the room has been washed away and its length, 
therefore, could not be determined. A short distance west of this end of 



86 



Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 



the room, another large metate containing three grinding troughs was 
found. There is a possibility that it may have been originally one of the 
grinding implements of Room 17, but from its position it is hardly prob- 
able. 

Room 18. 
Room 18 is an angular room situated at the northeastern side of the 
square which surrounds Room 16. It is really a room which fills this 
particular corner. Its longest wall is that on the western side which 
measures 7 feet 2 inches long, the eastern is 4 feet 11 inches, the north 
which separates it from Room 19 is 6 feet 2 inches, and the south, where it 
approaches the arc of the estufa, is 2 feet 6 inches. The walls were stand- 
ing to a height of 5 feet 7 inches above the floor level. 




Fig. 30 abc (2802, 2804, 2800). Rubbing Stones, Room 18. 

Wood-working. This room was evidently one devoted to the manu- 
facture of wooden objects. Only three specimens of wood were found in 
the room, one in the shape of a knife, the second a curved ceremonia 
game stick, and the third a fragment of one of the long ceremonial sticks 
with carved ends. There was a lapstone made of a hard fine-grained 
sandstone of a dark color, the surface of which has been smoothed from 
use. Another large piece of sandstone having a gritty texture and a 
light color was found on the floor; one surface had been worn as though 
it had been used for grinding objects of irregular shape. One of the 
sides, however, was flattened and had no doubt been used as a rasp in 
grinding the surfaces of wooden slabs or tablets. With these large stones 
were found twenty-six small implements made of the same gritty 
sandstone as that described. From their shape and from the various 
grooves and depressions in their surfaces, it seems quite evident that 
they comprised the outfit of a wood-worker. A series of these objects is 
shown in Fig. 30. 

There is doubt concerning the use of these small rooms around 
the estufas. In this case it would seem that they had been devoted to the 
preparation of materials to be used in ceremonies in the estufa. 




Fig. 32. Sealed Doorway, Room 20. 



88 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 89 

Room 19. 
Room 19 is north of and adjoins Room 18. Its position in relation 
to the estufa (Room 16) may be seen in Fig. 31. The room was some- 
what irregular in form and the walls were in a rather poor state of pre- 
servation. This part of the building had once been an old estufa which 
had passed into disuse and the space had been divided into small rooms. 
In these small rooms were found five manos, two large metates and 
three grinding stones; a small sandstone slab, probably used as a lap- 
stone, one surface of which shows continued use; three sandstone jar 
covers; three hammerstones, such as are used for pecking the surface of 
stone implements; pieces of turquoise and azurite; a fossil shell; the 
fragment of a clay pipe; three arrow points; and two bone awls. There 
was a narrow passageway leading northward from the small rooms and 
in it four metates, two manos, and two rubbing stones were found. From 
the condition of the room it would seem that it was but little used. 

Room 20. 

In an endeavor to determine the character of the material in various 
parts of the ruin, the operations were shifted from the northwestern part 
of the pueblo to the eastern and southwestern parts. The first work was 
done in Room -20, which, as shown by the plan (Fig. 155), is situated in 
the northeastern part of the ruin. This room was almost square, the 
measurements showing the north wall to be 12 feet 6 inches long, the 
south wall 12 feet 3 inches, the east wall 10 feet, and the west wall 10 
feet 7 inches. The masonry was of a solid compact form and was in 
many respects similar to that shown in the northern series of rooms; 
that is, the rooms of the later period. The stones employed were of the 
short thick form and the spaces between them were chinked with the 
same material, but the work in its entirety was not as carefully done as 
that shown in the outer rooms. The difference, however, may be due to 
individual skill, as the technique is the same. The walls retain a goodly 
portion of the original plaster. There was a doorway in the north wall, 
as well as one in the west. The one in the north wall was rectangular 
and steps made of stones covered with adobe were used as an approach to it. 
This was necessitated by the fact that the doorway was some distance 
above the floor level. These steps were still in place and were well 
preserved. 

Doorways. The doorway in the west wall as shown in Fig. 32 had 
been filled with masonry and the interior plastered, forming a niche. 
This doorway is rectangular, having poles for a lintel and a slab of sand- 



90 A nthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

stone for a sill. This slab projected some distance from the wall and 
thereby formed a shelf and was no doubt used as such after the doorway 
was closed. The plaster on the sides of the doorway was thick and thus 
enabled the builders to round the corners in a very artistic way. The 
greater part of this plaster was in place on the south side of the doorway. 
(The objects on the stone slab, as shown in the photograph, were found 
on the floor of the room). The room was excavated to a depth of 12 
feet before the floor was reached. It seems to have been abandoned and 
used as a receptacle for refuse. 




Fig. 33 (2731). Fragment of a Bowl, Room 20. 

Broken Metate. Perhaps the most interesting object found in the 
debris was a broken metate of the usual form. It was in a fragmentary 
condition and the seven pieces recovered were found scattered through 
the material that filled the room. Some of the pieces were near the 
surface, others came from a point only a few feet from the floor level. 
It would seem that this metate had been broken and portions of it car- 
ried away to be finally thrown into this room. This seems to be the only 
way to account for the widely separated fragments. The stone itself is 
65 cms. long and averages 45 cms. in width; there is however, a slight 
taper from top to bottom. The trough is 47 cms. long, 26 cms. wide, 
and 3.5 cms. deep at it deepest part. The area surrounding the central 
portion is decorated with a scroll design which has been pecked into the 
surface. There are no decorations on the edges nor on the back. The 
trough is covered with red paint showing that this material was probably 
the last to be ground, or perhaps mixed in the trough before it was brok- 
en. The slab is of hard compact sandstone, and its greatest thickness is 
5 cms. 



1920.J Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 91 

Pottery. Among the pottery objects of special interest was a cor- 
rugated jar 5.5 cms. deep and 4.4 cms. in diameter near the mouth. This 
jar was made of light colored clay and is a perfect reproduction in minia- 
ture of the large storage jars made of the same material. 

The head of a vessel made in the shape of a frog is shown in Fig. 33. 
The material is a light colored clay and the decoration, about the eyes 
and around the rim, is in black paint. The eyes and mouth are accentu- 
ated, the eyes having a bulging form common in the Chaco region. 

Among the pottery fragments were several of bowls made of gray- 
ware, decorated on the inside and corrugated on the exterior. There 
were also fragments of corrugated bowls of blackware with a highly 
polished interior; one fragment has a figure of a snake, or worm, in relief 
near the edge; there were also fragments that had been worked. There 
was one object of pottery that had evidently been part of a vessel. 
This specimen is 24.5 cms. long and 1.6 cms. in diameter. On one side 
there is a ridge nearly a centimeter in height which is decorated with 
black dots. The entire length is not shown by these two pieces as there 
is a section missing. From the rounded ends and from the fact that 
the inner surface is devoid of the white slip which covers the remaining 
portions, it would seem that this object had been attached to some figure 
or vessel. In technique it is similar to the arms of the human effigy 
vases, but what the form of the vessel was of which this piece was a part, 
cannot be conceived. There was also an irregular piece of clay which 
shows the imprint of the hand that pressed it into shape. 

Miscellaneous Objects. A great many animal and bird bones, also 
fragments of deer antler were scattered through the debris, many of 
them broken to obtain the marrow. These bones ranged from the large 
vertebrae of deer and elk, to rabbit and small bird bones; fragments of 
pottery vessels, such as one would expect to find in any refuse heap, 
were intermingled with the bones. There were nine manos of the 
ordinary rough form and four of fine-grained sandstone, such as are used 
in reducing meal to powder. There were also one natural pebble and a 
few obsidian and chalcedony flakes, two hammerstones made from 
natural pebbles, a grooved hammerstone, two pecking stones, a polished 
stone object of a half spherical form, and a stone slab in the shape of a 
jar cover, evidently used as a base upon which pigment or other materials 
might be ground. There were two fragments of sandstone implements, 
one of which was in the form of the end of a knife blade, the other the 
end of a small sandstone slab; a fragment of the toe part of a sandal 
stone was also found. Among the larger objects of sandstone was a slab 



92 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

probably used as a lapstone, which is shown in Fig. 18. This specimen is 
39 cms. long and 21 cms. wide at the central part, and its average thick- 
ness is 1 cm. Both sides of this slab have been worn smooth from use. A 
sandstone sharpener is shown in Fig. 17. It has three deep grooves and a 
shallow one upon the surface; one of the deep grooves is carried over 
the edge to the base of the stone. There was an arrow-smoother, made 
of coarse-grained sandstone of light color, and another grinding stone of 
the same material having large grooves on the side. There were only two 
objects of wood that could be saved. One of these was the socket stick 
of a fire set, the other a fragment of a rectangular piece, flat, with rounded 
edges, and with a hole drilled through the center. 

Among the mass of bones found in the room there were five sections 
of bird bone from which pieces had been cut for beads; five beads; and 
a fragment of a sixth which had been cut from these or similar pieces. 
There were three bone awls made from splinters of deer bone, also two 
bone bodkins, and the end of a bone implement shaped like a knife blade. 
One of the bone awls had a very fine tapering point and the larger of 
the bodkins had a hole drilled in the end by means of which it could be 
fastened to the belt of the worker. 

Although this was a room used to dump the sweepings from the 
various houses, there was not the great variety of material in the debris 
that is generally found in such rooms. Local conditions no doubt ac- 
count for this rather unusual state of affairs. 

Room 21. 
Room 21 is situated in the southeastern corner of the pueblo. Ex- 
cavations were carried to a depth sufficient to enable accurate measure- 
ments to be taken of the walls, but owing to the fact that the room had 
been burnt out the excavation was not completed. The room was almost 
square, the north wall being 10 feet 2 inches long, the south wall 10 feet, 
the east wall 10 feet, and the west wall 11 feet. No specimens were 
found in the debris removed. 

Room 22. 
Room 22 was next to Room 21 in the southeastern part of the ruin. 
This room, like its neighbor, seemed unpromising, and was abandoned 
after a small amount of work had been done. In size it was about the 
same as Room 21. A number of potsherds were found in the material 
that was removed, all showing the action of fire. Most of the fragments 
were of the ordinary grayware decorated with black, but red and black- 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 93 

ware were also represented. The only objects of a perishable nature 
found were a fragment of a carbonized sandal, and a section of an antler. 
This object, as shown in Fig. 46, had been worked to some extent, but 
whether it was made for ceremonial or utilitarian purposes is hard to say. 

Room 23. 
Room 23 is in the southwestern part of the ruin near Room 25. 
Work on this room was begun at the same time as that in Rooms 24 and 
25. The results of the early stages of the work in the other rooms men- 
tioned were so much more promising that Room 23 was abandoned. 
Nothing of interest was found. 

Room 24. 

Room 24, in the southeastern part of the ruin, was irregular in form, 
having a jog in the northeast corner. The north wall was 10 feet 6 inches 
long and then a jog extended into the room, 3 feet 5 inches southward, 
then 1 foot 4 inches eastward to the east wall which, from this point to 
the south wall, is 9 feet 1 inch; the south wall was 12 feet long and the 
west wall 12 feet 2 inches. The depth to the first floor was 6 inches; 
below this on the west side were two square rooms with a wall 1 foot 6 
inches thick between them; the walls of the southern one had been whi- 
tened with a wash, no doubt made from calcined gypsum. The work in 
these lower rooms, however, was not completed. 

Refuse Deposit. This room is another of the type that had been 
abandoned as a living room and used as a place for refuse. The specimens 
were scattered through the mass from the uppermost part to the floor 
level, and extended to the lower layers of the two rooms below. It is a 
typical refuse room, containing a varied assortment of articles. 

Among the perishable objects were pieces of rush matting of a 
coarse type, all twilled. Two badly decayed fragments of a very fine 
mesh matting may have been the ends of pillow covers such as are found 
in the cliff-houses farther north. 

Sandals. There were two sandals made of braided leaves of the 
broad-leafed yucca having yucca strands for fastening the sandals to 
the foot. The toe of these sandals was rounding and there was no evidence 
of a jog such as is shown in three sandals made of split yucca leaves prob- 
ably of the narrow-leafed variety. All three of these specimens had the 
jog at the toe end, also two-strand yucca cords for fastening them to the 
foot. There is quite a difference in the manner of fastening these 
sandals to the toe as is shown in Fig. 34. In Fig. 34a there are straps of 



94 



Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 



yucca which probably slipped over the great and the third toes. There 
is another cord at the heel which evidently tied about the ankle. In 
Fig. 34c there is a strap through which the big toe probably passed; 
from this two yucca cords were carried to the ankle and fastened to a 
strap which spanned the space directly above the heel. There were two 
fragments of woven sandals made of yucca fiber, one of these has a buck- 
skin strap at the toe end and the other loops of yucca leaves on the sides. 
There is a two-strand yucca cord which passes through these loops. 
This may be a winter form of sandal which enabled them to cover the 




Fig 34. abc (3949, 3942, 3946) . Sandals from Room 24. 

foot with some warm material, which could be held in place by means of 
the lacing; both of these sandals had the jog at the toe end. There were 
seven fragments of woven plaited sandals, and a sandal of the latter type 
in course of construction, showing the manner in which the stalk end of 
the yucca leaf is carried to the under part of the sandal. 

One of the most ornate sandals found in this ruin is shown in Fig. 
34b; it is of the woven type, 25 cms. long, and 11.5 cms. wide at the toe. 
The warp is made of a three-ply cord of carefully selected yucca fiber 
and the woof is of some very fine white vegetable fiber. There is a 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 95 

cord over the toe end; the original fastening is shown on the right side of 
the sandal, but on the left it has been broken and a piece of buckskin 
passed through the sandal and tied to the strap. In this condition it 
has been worn for a considerable length of time, as shown by the flat- 
tened end of the buckskin on the under part of the specimen. A similar 
strap at one time spanned the heel, but only the ends now remain. 
There is a jog at the toe end. The sandal is intentionally cupped, and 
there is a reinforced piece where the back of the heel would strike. The 
surface bears a beautiful design composed of interlocking frets in two 
colors, brown and orange-yellow. The brown is well preserved and the 
yellow in some parts is quite bright. The toe of this sandal is frayed from 
use and there is a large hole in the heel resulting from the same cause, 
otherwise it is in good condition. 

Pottery. A small bowl with crude but interesting designs was found 
in a fragmentary condition; it is 11 cms. in diameter at the top 
and 5 cms. deep, of grayware with rather complex black decorations on 
the interior. The first impression is that of a human figure with a peculiar 
balancing design on either side of it (Fig. 35). This rests upon the circle 
in the bottom of the bowl, a portion of which has been obliterated. 
The meaning of the roughly executed fret figures on either side, cannot 
be determined. Strange to say there is no design on the side of the bowl 
opposite the cross-like figure. The balancing design seems to have been 
a universal trait among the old potters in this region and it is seldom that 
an exception to the rule is found. 

A dipper (H-3940) shows considerable use, as the outer edge of the 
bowl, that is the one farthest from the handle, has been worn. It is 
21.5 cms. in length over all and the bowl is 4.5 cms. deep; it is of grayware 
with black designs. The decoration is divided into meander designs 
each of which occupies one of the spaces formed by cross lines, which 
divide the bowl into four parts. The handle is decorated with dots, 
possibly representing the spots on a frog. The handle is flat, of solid 
construction, with a slight bifurcation at the end. 

A portion of an olla shows a handle which still retains a fragment 
of a yucca carrying cord. Other pottery pieces are in the form of a foot 
of some small animal probably that of a deer. In addition, there were 
found, part of the hand and arm of another figure which has the hand 
painted black and a design in black dots on the arm; a fragment of a 
twisted handle of solid construction, possibly a dipper: a pottery disk 
with the edges ground ; and pieces of unbaked clay. 



96 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

Miscellaneous Objects. A small basket made of split yucca leaves, 
with a twig for the rim, measured 13 cms. in diameter with a depth of J5 
cms. There is a jar rest 15 cms. in diameter made entirely of feather 
cord, that is, yucca cord over which feathers had been bound. A frag- 
ment of another jar rest made of braided j'-ucca leaves was also in the 
debris. Associated with these specimens was a mass of two-strand yucca 
feather cord; cord made of human hair; and fragments of yucca 'cord 
of all sizes, but mostly of the two-strand variety. There was also a small 




Fig. 35 (3941). Design upon a Bowl, Room 24. 

piece of cotton cord. There were knotted pieces of yucca leaves in the 
form of a series of loops, probably for attaching ears of corn to^the ceil- 
ings. There were in fact a great many specimens of knotted yucca 
leaves. There is a bundle of plant stalks enclosed in a harness, or net 
of yucca leaves, which may have been material for basket making.^ Two 
oblong objects were found, one of which retains a netting of yucca leaves. 
They are made of twigs bound together and may have been used as 
snowshoes by the boys or girls of the pueblo. These objects, with 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 97 

bundles of cornhusks tied with yucca cord, bundles of yucca leaves and 
yucca fiber with their original bindings, pieces of cedarbark rope, 
fragments of cotton cloth, some two-colored, and a number of pieces of 
rawhide, buckskin, and turkey feathers complete the more perishable 
objects found. One of the pieces of buckskin is marked with red paint 
which may have been the guiding line of the worker in cutting out some 
garment. 

Among the wooden objects was a rather crude knife 32 cms. long, 
3.5 cms. wide, and 1 cm. thick. One end had evidently been used to 
stir the fire, as this part is carbonized. Two smaller knife-like pieces 
made from splinters of cedar were also found; they were similar in shape 
to the one already described, but very much smaller. Both of these 
pieces showed use. There was also a branch, 8 cms. in length, stripped 
of its bark for half its length and a section cut from it. The object is 
interesting as showing the method employed in obtaining material for 
ceremonial sticks and other small wooden objects. A section of a cedar 
branch 8 cms. in length and 3.5 cms. in diameter may have been used as a 
kicking stick, although it may be merely the end of a branch from which a 
piece has been cut for the manufacture of some implement. A wooden 
slab, similar to the one described from Room 20, is 6.5 cms. long, 4.3 
cms. wide, and 5 mms. thick. It has a little hole drilled through the 
center and the sides and edges are carefully worked. Part of a similar 
slab, although much smaller and not drilled, was found. The remaining 
objects of wood were: a portion of a half round ceremonial stick, covered 
with a green pigment; the hearth of a firedrill, a section of what may 
have been the end of a flute made of cottonwood; the end of a ceremonial 
stick; and several worked pieces of wood. There were also three canon 
walnuts, one of which has the top ground off and the sides smoothed. 
There were fragments of six arrows made of reed; four of them retain 
the sinew fastenings; one showed the nocked end, another the foreshaft 
end; there were also three pieces that had been cut into sections as if 
for gaming purposes. One of these was painted red just above the feather 
binding. 

Squash and pumpkin stems were found together with fragments of 
the rind of the latter and quids of yucca leaves and fiber. 

There were a few fragments of pottery, pieces of gypsum, obsidian, 
azurite, malachite, large pieces of pifion gum, pieces of red ocher which 
had been ground to obtain paint; two sandstone concretions, two small 
sandstone disks, the largest of which was only 3.5 cms. in diameter; a 
chalcedony knife blade 4 cms. long; fragment of a jasper flesher of the 



98 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

type commonly found in the cliff-dwellings; and a piece of yellow ocher. 
Among the bone objects there are six short bodkins or blunt awls made 
from deer bones, one long perforating bodkin 20 cms. in length, with a 
fine point and with the surface polished, no doubt from wear; five awls, 
three of which are made from deer bone and two from bird bones; a 
small scraper 5 cms. long and 1.6 cms. wide at the blade; five beads 
made from bird bones; and one turkey bone 12}£ cms. long, both ends 
of which had been removed. These objects, with a fragment of a bone 
implement 16)2 cms. long and 6 cms. in diameter, carefully rounded 
and smoothed and tapering at one end, the calcined remains of a similar, 
though larger object, and a small bone die of a concavo-convex form with 
lines scratched on the concave sides, completes the list from this room. 

Room 25. 
Room 25, another refuse room, was situated in the southwestern 
part of the ruin. The measurements were as follows: north wall, 7 
feet, 3 inches; south wall, 14 feet, 4 inches; east wall, 17 feet; west wall, 
16 feet, 3 inches. The upper, or new part, of this room was built of 
short thick stones, chinked with small pieces, the north wall forming a 
break near the division line between the lower and upper room. In the 
upper wall a circular piece of sandstone appeared. Pieces of tins kind 
were found in a number of rooms; they are irregular cylinders, having 
the face carefully smoothed. Their use in the walls cannot be determined, 
as the introduction of such a piece necessitates a break in the regular 
stratification of the masonry. No unusual conditions attend their presence 
in the walls and they do not seem to be placed in any particular position as 
regards their distance from the floor or adjoining walls. There is an 
opening in the lower part of the north wall which may have been a small 
doorway, but its appearance suggests that the masonry at this point 
had been torn away, possibly with the intention of making a doorway, 
and the work never completed. The east wall is built of selected stones 
which have been faced and the spaces between them chinked. It has a 
rectangular doorway in the center, with nine poles for a lintel. There 
are no other breaks of any size in this wall and all the plaster which 
formerly covered it has crumbled. The south wall was of the same 
construction and stood to the height of the ceiling beams. The west 
wall was made of similar stones and there is a break in the southern 
part, probably a doorway. There are four holes averaging 10.5 cms. in 
width, all of which are almost square and about 5 feet from the floor; 
they may have been used as pockets. There are no corresponding 
openings in the east wall, which would have been the case had small 
beams been stretched across the room for any special purpose. 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 99 

Three feet ten inches from the north wall the face of the west wall 
crosses an old wall below the floor level of Room 25; this old wall runs 
northwest by southeast. The angular space thus formed was filled with 
masonry, making a support for the upper wall; this filled-in place was 
over \% feet thick. The old wall below the floor level is of very rough 
construction and may have been merely a foundation wall built to allow 
the north wall to be started on a level with the others. 

West of Room 25 is Room 105. There is an angle wall forming a 
part of this room, which extends in a southeasterly direction and passes 
under the south wall of Room 25; it is built of large rough stones and 
chinked. One foot nine inches south of the room surface of the south wall 
and under it, is the south wall of the lower room. It abuts on the southwest 
wall and extends eastward past the east wall of the lower room. It is 
built of large uneven stones and in some places chinked, but the chinking 
is irregular. The east under wall is built in the same way. In the north- 
east corner there is an opening where a beam has rested; it is 4% inches 
in diameter and extends 11 inches into the wall which is plastered 
and the plaster filled with pieces of sandstone which have been 
pressed into it while moist. This hole is about 2 feet 6 inches below the 
floor level. The east wall abuts the north one. The thickness of the 
south wall is 1 foot 3 inches, the other walls could not be measured. 
This under room was filled with stones and dirt to the level of the floor of 
the main room. The walls forming the upper rooms gave the following 
results when measured for thickness: north wall, 1 foot, 11 inches; 
south wall, 2 feet, 5 inches; east wall, 2 feet, 6 inches; west wall, 2 feet, 
2 inches. 

Pottery. In this room there were a great many potsherds, the 
majority of gray decorated ware. With these were many fragments of 
corrugated jars, also of red and blackware. No perfect pieces of pottery 
were found. One vessel (3042) in the form of a water jar has the upper 
part and a portion of the side complete; it is of gray ware with traces of 
black decorations. The vessel in its perfect state must have been about 
12 cms. in height with a diameter averaging 11 cms. 

There were fragments of dippers, and over forty dipper handles. 
Some of these had the broken ends worked and two were of the rattle 
variety, having stones in the hollow part of the handle. One dipper of 
redware, with a black interior, had been broken and the outer edge of the 
bowl ground. Dippers of redware are not at all common in this region. 
The small forms with a solid tapering handle such as this are exceedingly 
uncommon. 



100 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

Several fragments of small pottery vessels showing realistic modeling 
were found. One is the upper part of an effigy jar, showing a portion of 
an eye and what may have been a grotesque form of eyebrow for a mask. 
Another fragment of this figure, with a similar curved portion, may have 
been meant for an eyelid. 

Another is a portion of a small vessel with handle. It is of gray ware, 
decorated with designs in black. The handle part is broken, but it had 
been made to balance a long proboscis-like piece on the opposite side 
of the vessel. There are protuberances at the sides of this piece sug- 
gesting eyes. The tips of these are black and there is a circle of black 
paint at each base. The nose is rounded; the mouth has been formed by 
making a slit in the end of the projection; the nostrils are deeply in- 
dented and the tongue is represented bj^ a broad black line in the central 
part of the under lip. This specimen is so grotesque in form that it is 
impossible to suggest the animal that it was made to represent. 

The third is the handle of a jar in the shape of an animal figure 
represented as looking over the edge of the jar. 

The fourth is a head, shaped like that of a deer. It is well modeled; 
the slip over which the design in black is painted, is a creamy white which 
forms a contrasting background for the design. The eyes are formed 
by balls of clay and arc painted black; the mouth is a deep groove and 
the teeth are represented by eight dots on the upper and eight on the 
lower jaw, there being four on either side. The nostrils are drilled and 
there are remains of either ears or antlers directly back of the eye pro- 
jections. 

The fifth is a bird form made of solid pottery, evidently a part of 
some vessel. The wings are outlined in black and black dots represent 
the wing feathers. Two lines form a band across the neck portion, three 
bands cross the nose, and similar bands decorate the tail. This figure is 
5 cms. in length and 3 cms. in width at the wing portion. 

Three fragments of effigy jars were found. 

One is a leg and foot of grayware having a decoration formed by 
two black bands and three wavy lines on the middle portion of the space 
between the foot and the knee. The foot is perfectly flat and the toes are 
represented by incisions in its upper part. This piece is of solid construc- 
tion, 10 cms. in length and 1.5 cms. in diameter. It was no doubt the 
leg of a seated figure such as was found in Room 38. 

The second is a portion of a figure showing the fingers of a hand, 
outlined with black paint. 



1920.] Pepper, Pveblo Bonito. 101 

In the last, two hands are represented as grasping some circular 
object. The hands themselves are 2% cms. in width, so the figure in its 
entirety must have been a large one. 

There is a neck of a jar of gray ware decorated in black. The vessel 
has been broken and the lower edge of the neck ground smooth. In its 
present condition its appearance suggests an ordinary napkin ring. This 
specimen is shown in Fig. 36b. 

One vessel the neck of which retained a wooden stopper was found. 
The neck was 4 cms. in width and was slightly flattened. The section of 
wood forming the stopper filled the opening completely; it was made 
from a branch of a tree and was perfectly preserved. 

In Fig. 36c is shown a fragment of a dipper handle which was 
mended in a manner similar to that shown in the steatite pipe from Room 
9. This specimen shows that the handle of the dipper had been broken 
and the edges ground until a perfect joint was obtained. At least this 
seems to be the case, judging from the ground surface of the specimen 
here shown. A small twig was then thrust into the hole in the center 
of the handle and a section of split cedar branch placed on the upper 
and another on the lower surface. The pieces of the handle were then 
put together, the central twig entering the opening in the fragment of the 
handle which was attached to the dipper bowl, the wooden splints rest- 
ing upon its upper and lower parts. The splints were fastened at the 
handle end with two loosely spun yucca cords and then a space 3.5 cms. 
wide on the handle end and at least 3 cms. in width on the bowl end 
of the break was bound with a two-strand yucca cord. Just why they 
resorted to this method of lengthening the life of this dipper cannot be 
suggested, but it shows a very clever way of mending an object of this 
nature. 

There were fragments of the smaller type of bird vessels made of 
very thin clay, having a rectangular or T-shaped opening in the upper 
part, and various fragments of corrugated jars with interesting incised 
designs. A few worked potsherds were in the debris, one in particular, a 
fragment of red corrugated jar, had the interior decorated in black. 
There were also two pottery handles which retained yucca carrying cords. 

A number of small crude objects of unbaked clay were scattered 
through the debris. These objects are what Gushing called seed offer- 
ings; he claimed that they were the sacrificial forms of pottery from 
which the potters hoped that larger and perfect pieces would continue to 
grow. The largest of these figures is 6 cms. in width and 6 cms. long at 
the point where the object is broken; the smallest measures 1.7 cms. in 






^r 



l_/l-T 




Fig. 36. Objects from Room 25: a (3016), wood carving; b (3042), pottery 
ring; c (2933), mended dipper handle; d (3068), wooden key to a trap. 



T02 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 103 

width. They are flat pieces of clay having the general physical char- 
acteristics either incised or modeled in relief. Two of them have the 
breasts modeled and the larger of the two has the nose modeled. Both 
of these specimens have the eyes and mouth formed by incisions made 
with the finger nail. The larger one has the upper part of the face 
painted red and the lower part, that is, passing below the mouth and 
ending at a point just below the breast line, painted black. 

Bone and Antler. There were, comparatively speaking, few animal 
bones in this room, but among those taken from the debris were frag- 
ments of deer antler and horn and antelope horn cores. There were no 
unusual forms of awls or bodkins. Fourteen awls and perforators were of 
deer and bird bones; only one of these was drilled for suspension. There 
were also the blade ends of two of the large bone scrapers; two spatula- 
shaped bones; and several fragments of bone implements. Four tines of 
deer antlers had been made into bodkins; the points of three of them show 
that they have been used, but the opposite ends of all are exactly in the 
condition as when broken from the antler. Nine bird bone beads, one 
section of bone from which a bead had been cut, with several fragments of 
beads, were found; also three small-sized scrapers, made from the toe 
bones of deer or elk. One shows a scraper in course of manufacture, the 
work of grinding off the condyle of the bone is about half done; the other 
shows a complete scraper. The use of these small implements has not 
been definitely determined. They have been called scrapers, for con- 
venience, but the appearance of some of the specimens suggests their 
use as polishers. 

There was a worked piece of antler 8.3 cms. long and 1 cm. in dia- 
meter at the larger end, although this part is somewhat flattened. It 
tapers from this end so that the opposite end is slightly smaller. This 
object may have been a game stick; at least, it is similar to the ivory 
sticks used by the Indians of the Northwest Coast. A skeleton of a bird, 
fragments of egg shells, probably those of the turkey, and two deer or 
elk toes which had been used for rattles were also in the debris. 

Skin Work. A number of very well-preserved pieces of buckskin 
were recovered; most of them, however, were in a fragmentary condi- 
tion and did not show the use to which they had been put. In Fig. 37 
is shown a series of worked pieces which are as well preserved as any 
pieces of similar material from this ruin. The upper one has a serrated 
edge; just above the notches there is a broad line of red paint. The edge 
opposite the notches is cut, showing that it had been detached from some 
larger piece. The lower pieces shown in the figure are evidently parts of 





Fig. 37 (3172). Buckskin from Room 25. 



104 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 105 

dresses and show the manner of fringing their edges. The larger piece 
still retains some of the original sinew sewing. This piece is at the 
present time as soft as when first tanned. There are fragments of bags 
such as were used for carrying paint and other materials, several pieces 
show cutting to good advantage, and one piece has a lacing of buckskin 
woven in and out on its edges. 

Stone Work. In exploring a room of this nature objects such as are 
used for general purposes in the home are naturally expected, but here 
there were only two manos and not even the fragments of metates. 
There were several sandstone slabs with depressions in one side, for 
grinding paint and other materials. With them were grinders made of 
coarse friable sandstone; grooved sandstone slabs that had been used for 
sharpening tools; and two of the so-called pitted stones having depres- 
sions averaging 3.5 cms. in diameter and 1 cm. in depth. There were over 
forty hand hammers, or pecking stones, a number of flat pebbles, some of 
which have been used as hammerstones, others as smoothers; a few 
fragments of stone such as are used for making stone implements; small 
sandstone concretions which maj'- have been used as sling stones; pieces 
of red hematite, the edges of which had been ground to obtain material for 
paint; red ocher, azurite, and malachite used in making paint; two 
water-worn pebbles, one of which had one side painted yellow, the other 
with its side painted red; small sandstone tablets used no doubt for 
grinding and mixing paint; eight stone jar covers, one of which had 
been used as a paint mixer; and the end of an object similar to a gorget, 
one end of which is perforated. One side of this object has scratches on 
its surface. There was a fragment of a mortar similar to the one found 
in Room 10. From the fragment it would seem that it had been about 
the same size, but the rim around the edge is very much higher in this 
than in the other specimen. The bottom of this object was flat and 
retains traces of red and yellow paint. 

Fig. 38 shows a sandstone fetich in a fragmentary condition and was 
evidently discarded owing to the friable nature of the sandstone. It is 
7 cms. long and 4.5 cms. high. There were a number of small sand- 
stone implements and broken pieces of shells and other materials; the 
blade end of a jasper scraper; the end of a stone knife; an arrow point 
of chalcedony; and a few shell and turquoise beads, one of the shell beads 
having been made from an olivella shell. Pinon gum was also found. 

Textiles. Of destructible material there was the usual variety of 
knotted pieces of yucca leaves; fragments of corn tassels; masses of 
feather cord; fragments of woven and braided sandals, one of the former 




Fig. 38 (2957). Part of Carving in Sandstone, Room 25. Length, 7 em. 




Fig. 39 (3151). Piece of Cotton Cloth, Room 25. 



106 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 107 

of which has bands in brown which evidently crossed the sole when the 
sandal was complete; a sandal made from feather cord and quilted with 
a heavy cord of human hair; fragments of two stockings made of feather 
cord, the feathers being those of the turkey; a coil of feather cord tied 
in two places with a two and four-strand yucca cord; the usual variety 
of cords made from yucca fiber; quids of corn silk and yucca; squash 
and pumpkin rinds; yucca pods; corn and beans; and a section of squash 
rind that had been cut into the shape of the heel of a shoe. Had condi- 
tions been such in this pueblo that matting and similar objects had all 
decayed, we should still have had the record of the matting, at least, 
for in this room, there were several pieces of adobe which had no doubt 
formed a part of the floor of some room upon which are perfect imprints 
of mat sections. 

Only three specimens of basketry came from this room ; two of these 
were fragments. One was the bottom of a small oval basket, 7 cms. 
long and 4 cms. wide, of the three-rod coiled variety; the other, the 
bottom of a coiled meal basket of the same type. This specimen, how- 
ever, was circular in form. A basket made of split yucca leaves, found 
in this room, was perfectly preserved. It is 19 cms. in diameter and 4 
cms. in depth. The design on the bottom is in the form of a series of 
rectangles, one inside the other (twilling). Fragments of a number of 
jar rests were found, but none in a perfect condition. 

Of special interest are some fragments of cotton cloth. Five pieces 
were found in the debris in a fine state of preservation. One piece (31 39) 
is loosely woven, but the warp and woof arc finely spun. The selvedges 
of two pieces have been sewn together with yucca cord. This weaving 
is similar to that seen in the kilts and sashes worn by the Antelope and 
Snake priests in Hopi ceremonies. The specimen shown in Pig. 39 is 
somewhat complex in weaving and is in three colors: white, black, and 
red. Work of this nature shows the high degree of culture attained by 
the old Pueblo people in the textile arts. In order to produce a figure of 
this kind careful adjustment and manipulation of the healds and heddles, 
or warp separators, is needed. The broad band running across the lower 
part of the fragment is white and three narrow bands which cross the 
broad one are red. The zigzag effect is in black and white. The old 
Pueblo people raised cotton to a greater or less extent, and the weaving 
art in the old days was developed to a high degree, especially among the 
cliff-dwellers. In the ruins in southeastern Utah have been found cotton 
balls which botanists claim to be a new species. It has been named Gossy- 
pium ahorigenevm (Millspaugh) . It is practically certain that this cotton 



108 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

plant was indigenous and the authority above-mentioned claims that it 
may be the progenitor of our tropical cotton. Note may be taken of a 
burden band made of cotton and yucca. The band is in two colors, 
brown and white. The fragment measures 21 cms. in length and 2.5 
cms. in width. The eye-hole for fastening to the burden cord appears 
in one end. Also there is a braided cotton strip 21 cms. long and 8 
cms. in width. 

Wooden Objects. Comparatively few wooden objects were found in 
this room. There were some thirty sections of twigs, showing cut ends; 
some had been used for cutting buckskin, if we may judge from the cuts 
on their sides. Then there were five rectangular pieces of cedar with 
smoothed edges. There were two sticks such as are now used for the 
kicking game, one 7 cms. long and 4 cms. in diameter, and the other 7 
cms. long and 3 cms. in diameter (H-2919, H-3004). There were three 
of the curved sticks to be described with the material from Room 32. 

There were six wooden dice, made of half rounded pieces of twigs. 
The rounding portion of two of them has been ground, thereby making 
their surface somewhat flattened. Two small cylinders of wood, the 
ends of which have been carefully smoothed may have been used for 
gaming purposes; one of these is 2 cms. long and 1.3 cms. in diameter, 
the other 2.5 cms. long and averages 1.3 cms. in diameter; this one is 
slightly flattened. An object, shaped like the end of a bow, such as 
occurred in numbers in Room 2, was found; it is 6.5 cms. in length and 
made from the same material as those from the other room. Another 
type was the long cylindrical gaming, or cutting stick. One of these 
found in Room 25 was 17 cms. in length and 1 cm. in diameter. There 
were no marks from cutting on the surface of this specimen. Nine canon 
walnuts were uncovered and two of these had been drilled for suspension, 
two holes in the upper part of each. Two utilitarian objects were a brush 
made of twigs, bound with a split twig, and the ends of a firedrill. One is 
a section of a branch, the greater part of one side having been cut away. 
Gushing identifies several such objects as keys for a figure-four deadfall. 
Among ceremonial objects may be mentioned one of the long ceremonial 
pieces which were found in pairs in Room 32. This one is 20 cms. in 
length and 5 cms. in diameter and has a line encircling it from end to 
end. A fragment of one of the ceremonial sticks with a curved end, the 
curved portion 12 cms. in length, was found ; also the end of a smaller stick, 
which from the holes in one side was evidently used as a ceremonial 
firestick; and three fragments of heads of ceremonial sticks and a 
beautiful carved object in hard wood which is shown in Fig. 36a. This 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 109 

specimen, 4 cms. in length and a little over 1 cm. in thickness at its 
thickest part, has a flattened ball over the part which was no doubt meant 
to enter some other ceremonial stick, above this there is a barrel-shaped 
object connected to the flattened ball with a cylindrical piece. There 
is a hole drilled through the lower part and the tubular top piece has a 
hole 3 mms. in diameter drilled through it. This specimen is made 
from some very hard wood, presumably mesquite. The lower half is 
painted a rich orange, the upper half, that is, the neck portion which 
joins the two parts, seems to have been painted a dull red. The neck 
of the barrel-shaped object has been covered with green paint that may 
have extended to the orange area, as there are evidences of this color 
over the red. The object in its entirety is a beautiful piece of primitive 
wood carving; the work being so symmetrical and the general effect with 
the brilliant pigments making a ceremonial object worthy of any tribe. 

Wooden flutes were represented by two pieces, one of which shows 
the distal end with part of one of the note openings. There were two 
fragments of squash rind on which a fine yucca cord had been attached 
and then a layer of thick red pigment applied. There is no decoration 
on this red layer. 

Of great interest is a series of sections of reed arrows which have 
been cut; also several sections of reeds. In all, there are eighteen pieces 
which were probably used in games. Of these eight are proximal or 
nocked ends; three are distal ends which still retain the wooden fore- 
shaft, and the others are sections which retain their color or part of the 
wrapping, thereby identifying them as arrows. A number of these 
pieces still retain colored bands of red and green which in two cases 
alternate, — there being two bands of each color. The colored area is 
6.8 cms. in length on one, but on the other it has been obliterated to such 
an extent that no accurate measurements can be taken. All of them re- 
tain a portion of the feather; one in particular (Fig. 40a) shows the in- 
terval between the sinew binding to be 9.2 cms. in length, the feathers 
themselves being 11.5 cms. long. There are three of these and they are 
placed equidistant, the feathering beginning 2 cms. from the end 
of the arrow. There were two sections of reeds averaging 3 cms. in 
length which had holes drilled, or burnt, in the sides. 

Feathers. A number of eagle and turkey feathers were found and 
one of the eagle feathers was bound with yucca cord for attachment to 
some object. Three eagle feathers were bound side by side by means of a 
two-strand yucca cord (2938). There is also a small bundle of yellow 
and blue feathers tied in a bunch with yucca cord. The individual 



^ 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito 111 

colors seem to have been grouped into smaller bunches and their ends 
tied with a series of knots similar to those described as having been 
found in Room 1. 

In general, this room contained a more varied assortment of material 
than any other room explored in Pueblo Bonito. Although it was an 
open room, the material had been preserved in a remarkable way. This 
is no doubt due to the fact that the specimens were lying in a mass of 
sand which allowed the water to percolate to the floor, thereby keeping 
the specimens in a completely dry state, which would not have been the 
case had they been lying in heavy soil. 

Room 26. 

Buried Kiva. Room 26 is really a mere excavation in the western 
court in which a few specimens were found. On reaching a certain depth 
the curved wall of an old estufa was found. The presence of this wall 
showed that the clearing of this estufa would be difficult, but an arc of 
the wall was uncovered. However, the following specimens were re- 
moved before the work was abandoned: twelve awls from splinters of 
deer bone; one awl from the leg bone of a deer; two awls from bird 
bones; two from splinters and one from a bird bone. The one made 
from a bird bone has an exceptionally fine point and one of the splinters 
has a very fine tapering point. 

There was one scraper, from the tarsal bone of an ungulate, 13.5 
cms. in length and 2.5 cms. in width at the blade end. This scraper 
had been worn on the under part of the edge of the blade as though 
used in scraping skins. There is also a fragment of a similar scraper, 
about the same size. Two sandstone jar covers, broken; a spoon-shaped 
object made from a potsherd; a piece of clay showing the imprint of a 
hand; a cylindrical piece of sandstone 5 cms. long and 3 cms. in diameter 
at the larger end; a shell bead; a piece of azurite; and the bowl of a 
pipe complete the list of the general specimens in this room. The pipe 
shown in Fig. 19 is made of clay and has an expanding bowl 3.5 cms. in 
diameter and 2 cms. deep. Near the base of the bowl there is a protuber- 
ance which may have been used in holding the pipe while it was in use. 
The inner part of the bowl is blackened and there is a deposit which 
appears to be the remains of tobacco. 

In following out a portion of the arc of the estufa a support similar 
to those found in Room 16 was encountered. In the top of this support a 
deposit of turquoise matrix and two olivella shells were found, but there 
was no cavity in the support. 



1 12 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

Room 27. 

South of Room 17 there is an open space formed by the eastern part 
of an estufa, evidently associated with Room 16 (Fig. 26). At the south- 
ern edge of this depression the series of rooms which divides the Pueblo 
is continued. In Fig. 41 the room is shown after the accumulation of earth 
and stones had been removed. As shown in this picture, the room is 6 
feet 10 inches long on the north side, 6 feet 8 inches on the south side, 11 
feet 10 inches on the east side, and 11 feet 8 inches on the west side, the 
latter wall being the long one at the back part of the picture. The highest 
wall that remained standing was 4 feet above the floor level. 

Altar Sand. This was evidently another of the ceremonial rooms 
associated with the estufas. In clearing away the stones from the fallen 
walls a mass of white sandstone was found in the southern part of the 
room and as it seemed improbable that this material had formed a part 
of a wall it was allowed to remain in place and the earth and other debris 
removed from about it. When the northeastern part of the room had 
been excavated to the floor level a stone mortar was found. There was a 
small grinding stone with a rounded surface on one side, which fitted the 
mortar cavity perfectly. This grinder had been made from a portion of 
the edge of a large metate; both of these objects may be seen in place in 
the photograph. It was quite evident that the sandstone had been 
brought to this room and had been stored there and ground for cere- 
monial purposes as needed. It is the type of white sandstone used at the 
present time in making sand paintings. The Navajo workmen were u- 
nanimous in saying that this had without a doubt been used by the old 
people in making their dry paintings in the estufas. 

The mortar is made of an irregularly shaped piece of sandstone; it 
is 42 cms. wide at its widest part and 14.5 cms. thick. The mortar 
cavity is 26 cms. in diameter and 8 cms. deep. While metates are 
very abundant in this pueblo, mortars of this type are seldom found. 

The only object found in this room, aside from the sandstone blocks 
and the mortar and pestle, was a fragment of a large corrugated olla; 
hence, it seems that this room had been used exclusively for grinding white 
sandstone as Room 17 may have been used for grinding meal. 

Room 28. 
In the north-central part of this ruin there is a well-proportioned 
room whose longer axis stretches east and west. The masonry is indica- 
tive of an intermediate period in the history of the pueblo. In appear- 
ance it differs little from other rooms; the upper strata brought forth 




« 2 




•° rt 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 117 

no evidence of rich deposits, nor was there anything on which to base a 
hope for unusual finds. Before the spade had disturbed the mass of 
fallen walls and the accumulated debris, this particular part of the ruin 
was a mound on which the greasewood thrived, and whose surface was 
covered with sand that rounded off the roughness of the fallen walls. 
The early stages of the work were productive of nothing of interest until 
a depth of two feet was reached, here, bits of worked turquoise and pieces 
in the matrix were found; then, a little deeper, a piece of hammered 
copper was unearthed. This interesting object was carefully examined, 
but it gave no evidences of having been a part of another piece. A foot 
deeper, in the western end of the room, there appeared a stratum of 
broken pottery; the pieces were collected and marked, and the work 
proceeded. The room now presented a very unpromising appearance, 
especially at the west end; here the walls were blackened, the posts, 
though in place, were but pillars of charcoal, the adobe burned to a 
terra cotta hue, and the sand and powdered adobe tinted a delicate red. 
Then fragments of a jar were found indicating a new form, which upon 
examination proved to be cylindrical. A pitcher was also found, but 
it too was broken. A little prospecting in the northeast corner of the 
western part, where these were found, served to locate another piece; this 
was over a foot and a half below the first ones. This part of the room was 
separated from the eastern section by a thin partition wall about a foot 
thick and four feet high. The lower portion of the western half was filled 
with sand that had drifted and washed in before the ceiling fell, and it is 
owing to this that the specimens were so well preserved. The sand was 
cleared away from the northeast corner of the western part, and a mass of 
bowls and vessels was found, Fig. 42. These were partly uncovered and a 
photograph taken, after which the} 7 were re-covered. From that time 
on, the work was confined to the western part of the room, the sand being- 
thrown into the eastern part and then upon the bank. 

A Pottery Cache. The work advanced rapidly toward the west wall, 
but, as it required the most watchful care, it was not until a day had 
passed that another piece of pottery was found, but after it was cleared 
there seemed to be no end to the cylindrical forms that the trowel and 
brush revealed. Pitchers and bowls were greatly in evidence, but the 
new form predominated, some on end, some in a horizontal position, 
and others presenting all degrees of angulation; in fact, there was a 
chaotic mass of pottery where once had been a well-laid pile, forced 
from their original places, and in many places crushed by the weight of 
the debris that the burning of the ceiling beams precipitated upon them. 



1 18 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

Two days were spent in removing the rubbish from above the vessels 
and then came the delicate task of preparing the mass for photographingi 
A small steel stylus and a number of various sized brushes served to 
remove the earth from about and over the vessels, some of which were in 
twenty pieces and only held together by the equalization of pressure of 
the sand about them. 

When this mass was ready for the camera, it was carefully covered 
with sheepskins as a precautionary measure against the possibility of 
stones falling from the overhanging bank above them, then the south side 
of the room received attention. Here a small four-handled bowl was 
found, also a pitcher and one of the cylindrical jars. Between the bowl 
and the other two pieces, there was a cache of stone jar covers, these in 
turn were covered, and the eastern and northeastern parts again became 
the objective point. 

A portion of a pitcher was found near a post that rested against the 
eastern wall. From this point to the north wall, there remained a heap 
of sand 3 feet high and 33^ feet in width. When this was worked down, 
over fifteen pieces of pottery were added to those already found in this 
corner, and portions of others could be seen below them. These were 
cleared and brushed for photographing, and then the first that were found, 
which were a part of this corner deposit, were fully uncovered. 

The room had now been thoroughly examined, the specimens 
brushed, but still in their original places, and the first layer made ready to 
be removed. The first picture taken at this stage of the operations was with 
a wide angle lense; the camera was inverted between boards and thus 
a bird'seye view of the room was obtained. This picture (Fig. 42) 
gives a fair idea of the pottery and its immediate surroundings, also 
the mass of debris upon which the western wall of the room is built. 
The base of this wall is outlined by a strongly defined break. It rests 
upon the remains of what was once a part of an old structure, whose 
material and workmanship are radically different from that of the upper 
part. Its age, or how long a time elapsed from its demolition to the day 
when new walls were built above its ruins, cannot be told, but it is self- 
evident that no pains were taken to form a foundation for the new wall. 
The pottery occupies the southwestern corner touching both the west 
and south walls, and seems to have been laid with cylindrical jars 
forming a row extending east and west, with the pitchers and bowls on 
either side. 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 1 19 

The vessels in the northeast corner were the first photographed; 
they followed the north wall line, and, in fact, rested against it in some 
instances, even extending into the doorway where three bowls were 
lying upon the sill; from the western side of this door they stretched in a 
southeast line to the post in the center of, and resting against the east 
wall, and from this line to the northeast corner the space was completely 
filled. This group (Fig. 44) contains twenty-one bowls, one pitcher, and 
two cylindrical jars; all of these, with the exception of one of the jars, 
were ornamented, the scroll design in simple and conventionalized forms, 
prevailing. 

A second layer was exposed and treated in the same manner as the 
first one. In this corner deposit, bowls formed the great majority, they 
were all of compact whiteware and ornamented in the interior with 
designs in black; handles were in evidence, but no exterior designs were 
found. These bowls varied greatly in size and capacity, the twenty-six 
that this corner produced, ranging from 534 inches to 1 foot 1 inch in 
diameter and 2% inches to 7 inches in depth. A resume of the forms 
gives us but three distinct types: the circular bowl, the cylindrical jar, 
and the cylindrical topped pitcher; the former predominated to such an 
extent that it was practically a bowl deposit of twenty-six pieces with an 
intrusion of two jars and three pitchers. Thus we have in this one corner, 
on, or slightly above the floor level, thirty-one pieces, making in all, 
with the jar and pitcher that were found just above the mass, thirty- 
three pieces of pottery from the northeastern part of the room, the 
majority being in perfect condition. 

The mass in the western part of the room occupied a space that 
extended four feet eastward from the west wall, and to a point five feet 
north of the south wall, thus covering an area of twenty square feet. In 
the first, or upper layer, there were forty-seven pieces, all but six of 
which were of the cylindrical type. An exposure was made with the 
specimens in situ (Fig. 43); not only the jars themselves were in place 
but in most cases the individual fragments. All the pottery that pre- 
sented even a portion to view, was numbered, and then another picture 
taken, thereby following out the scheme that was started in the north- 
east corner and also continuing the number sequence. After the vessels 
in this layer were numbered, they were removed and another layer un- 
covered. 

This layer disclosed thirty-seven specimens; the cylindrical form 
had thirty-one representatives, and there were two bowls and four pitch- 
ers. The third layer consisted of thirty pieces, seventeen of which 
were cylindrical jars, six bowls, and seven pitchers. 



120 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

The fourth layer brought us to the base of the western limit of the 
room; most of the pieces were imbedded in the debris that formed the 
foundation of the western wall. There were fourteen vessels in all, of 
which thirteen were jars, the one exception being a pitcher. One of these 
jars (3378) is of redware, the only one of that color found in the room. 

It seemed that this should exhaust the deposit, but on removing the 
jars, five more cylindrical pieces were found. 

Thus in this deposit there were one hundred and thirty-six pieces of 
pottery, embracing one hundred and ten jars, eighteen pitchers, and 
eight bowls. There were also seventy-five stone covers, evidently for the 
jars and pitchers. 





Fig. 45. Forms of Cylindrical Jars, Room 28. a, no handles; 6, with a bail; r, two lugs 
d, three lugs; e, four lugs. 



Cylindrical Pottery. In considering the cylindrical or new form, 
we find that H-3378 is made of red material and, as stated, is the only 
piece of this ware that was found. This specimen has no handles nor 
even evidences of such appendages. It is 9% inches in height with a 
diameter of 6}i inches by 6% inches at the top, 5% inches at the middle 
part, and 3% inches at the bottom. It has no decorations and no lines 
or markings of any kind appear on its surface. It is a darker ware than 
the usual red pottery of this region, and there is, therefore, a possibility 
of this piece having come from some other part of the country to serve 
as a model for the potters in making their whiteware. Two of the white 
jars are similar in form. The only embellishments on these pieces are 
four pairs of holes that served as handles. Among these people handles 
were used to a great extent, even the corrugated jars and ollas being 
fitted with them. The handle idea was developed. At all events the 




PLATE 2 
A Cylindrical Jar 
A deposit of cylindrical vessels was uncovered in Room 28, a type of vessel not 
previously known in the area. The vessel shown here (H-3241) is 25.5 cm. high and 
9.8 cm. in diameter. 









the 

1 the 

all, of 

i ■ 

moving the 

! in this de] ere wen 

i .... 

re also se 






h 



M 
6 



£ 3TAJ1 
HAL jAoiaawiJYO A 

Jog f9889V lo 9q\) a ,8£ rnooJJ ai bgravooxm sjaw slssesv Lsohbaiwo lo Jxgoqsb A 
baa ilgiif .mo 5.6S si (I£S»'8-H) 9i9fl nvrorfs 19889V 9iiT „S9TS 9ifi ni nworuf ^feuohraiq 

.•i9J9ra^ib ni .mo 8.G 



I 



I 



I 









re t'< 

The hai 



■ 




PLATE 2 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 121 

possible evolution of this cylindrical type is worthy of note. As 
these jars were no doubt used for ceremonial purposes the handles 
may have been for the attachment of feathers. 

Summing up, we have one hundred and fourteen cylindrical jars. Of 
these sixty-six are ornamented. There is one without handles, two with 
sets of perforations through which cord handles may be passed, and one 
with a handle composed of a band of pottery that arched across the 
mouth of the jar. Then follows one with two handles, twenty-three 
with three handles, and eighty with four handles ; three had an irreg- 
ular arrangement of handles, and there were three whose tops were 
missing, making it impossible to classify them. 

A number of the jars were marked, either on the bottom or the rim, 
with peculiar lines and figures, nor was this confined to the decorated 
pieces; their import, whether symbolical or decorative, cannot be 
determined. Over a dozen of the jars presented some line or series of 
lines, or some figure that was not one of the component parts of the 
decorative lines. 

The subject of ornamentation cannot be taken up in this paper, but 
the types are shown in Plates 2-7. The extremes of height and diameter 
are, however, interesting. The highest jar in the collection is 1 foot 2J.-.f 
inches high, and the smallest l}/\ inches, the greatest diameter being 
53^ inches, and the smallest 3 inches. Of this form we have one hundred 
and twenty pieces, not counting the fragmentary ones that may be par- 
tially restored. One hundred and fourteen are from Room 28, and the other 
six from a sealed series of rooms just north of and adjoining Room 28. 

Before closing a. few words may be added concerning similar jars 
from Central America. One of the greatest nations of that vast country 
was the Cakchiquel, a branch of the Maya family. A large collection, 
showing the culture of this people, was collected by one Alvarado, the 
collection being bought by Dr. Eduard Seler, and a portion re-sold to the 
Duke de Loubat, who presented it to the American Museum of Natural 
History. There is a cylindrical form of pottery in this collection that is 
strikingly similar in form to the ones under consideration which was 
found at "Finca Pompeya", a ranch near Antigua, Guatemala. They 
vary in form as do the ones in the Hyde Collection, some being uniform 
throughout their length, others small at the bottom and wide mouthed; 
one has a somewhat flaring top. Thej r range from 5 to 11 inches in 
height, and from 3 to 5 inches in diameter. One is of a light buff color 
and would readily pass as a specimen from Bonito, so nearly does it 
approach some of the specimens from Room 28. The ornamentation of 



122 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

this piece is confined to a band of decorative lines near the rim; in fact, 
almost all of the decorations are confined to this part, some have painted 
bands of solid color, some incised lines and figures, some raised lines 
Most of the pieces are dark, either a dark red or a dull black, no handles 
are in evidence, but on one of the jars there are three knobs that are 
placed in the same relative positions as the handles on the three-handled 
specimens from Bonito. 

The mass of pottery, found at a depth of 2 feet below the surface, 
was composed mostly of fragments of large cylindrical jars. There were 
fragments of large pitchers, also of a large decorated olla and a number of 
fragments of bowls, dippers, and corrugated jars; there were a few red- 
ware potsherds. Parts of eight jars of the cylindrical type were as- 
sembled, but yet these show no unusual forms in the way of ornamenta- 
tion or the adjustment or styles of the handles. None of them were 
decorated on the bottom part nor were there unusual lines on the rim, 
such as were noted in the case of some of the pieces from the jar deposit 
of the lower room. 

An unbroken vessel in the shape of a squash is shown in Fig. 47. 
A small portion of a bowl with peculiar decorations on the interior was 
also recovered. The decorations are in black on a gray surface and 
represent animals, probably deer or sheep (Fig. 46). The drawing of the 
figures is rather crude, but the specimen is interesting, owing to the fact 
that animal forms of this kind are seldom used in ornamenting pottery 
vessels, at least in the Chaco Region. 

Miscellaneous Objects. In considering the specimens found in the 
upper layer of the room, a piece of copper first claims attention. It is a 
hammered piece of what seems to be native copper, 25 cms. long, 2 cms. 
wide, and averages 1 mm. in thickness, evidently hammered into its 
present shape and one side has scratches in the form of cross hatchings. 
The edges are irregular and there are cracks in the edge such as would 
naturally result from hammering. 

A weather-worn shell bracelet and a fragment of a stone slab ; eleven 
sandstone jar covers; several pieces of turquoise matrix showing veins of 
this material enclosed in trachyte and a number of small pieces of tur- 
quoise which had been broken from the matrix, were the only objects 
found with the potsherds in the upper deposit. 

Scattered through the sand near the floor level of the lower room and 
intermingled with the pottery were seventy-eight sandstone jar covers; 
some of these may be seen in Fig. 42. They range from the crudest forms 
imaginable to carefully rounded and smoothed pieces, the majority of 



PLATE 3 

A Cylindrical Jar 
Height, 23.2 cm.; diameter, 9.2 cm. (H-3236). 



'V 






' IB VVII 

■ 
■ 

idles 
, are 

• 
face, 

. r of 
few red- 

rim, 

■ ■ 

tl • 

E 3T/J 

..--!! S.G^a^hV^S.C-M^H 

; 

- 

■ 

i its 
f cross hatchings 

. 

tones) ' 

fcur- 

: 




PLATE 3 





Fig. 46. Decorated Potsherd, a Shell Trumpet, and Worked Antler: a (4093), Room 28; 
6 (2621), Room 17; c (4738), Room 22. 



123 




Fig. 47. Pottery Forms: a (3581), Room 32; 6 (3564), Room 28; c (3583), Room 32. 




Fig. 48 ab (3589, 3591). Pottery from Room 32. 



PLATE 4 

A Cylindrical Jar 

Height, 24 cm.; diameter, 9.9 (H-3262). 




i STAvM 

haI JAOiaaraJYO A 

.(S0S8-H) 6.6 t istecaaib ;.mo £S Jd&sB 





PLATE 4 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 125 

them, however, very crude. Of the one hundred and twenty-one covers, 
sixty-eight were found in the sand, on, and slightly above the floor level; 
and six were found in a cache. These covers were evidently made to be 
used in connection with the cylindrical jars and pitchers with which they 
were found. 

Among the other objects of stone found in the room was a large 
sandstone slab, broken into fragments, but upon which there still re- 
main traces of red paint. There is also a peculiar globular concretion 
evidently of limonite, and, from the indications of the lower surface, used 
as a pestle. An obsidian arrow point; a small red jasper pebble, evi- 
dently used as a pottery smoother; and a circular piece of jet were found. 
The jet piece is 4 cms. in diameter at its widest part and flattened on one 
side; the under part is irregular in shape; the thickest part being 6 
mms. The edges are beveled and the under part is covered with a layer 
of gum, probably pifion gum ; the upper surface is smoothed and polished. 
It no doubt formed an inlay for some object. Scattered through the 
debris in the room were calcined fragments of chalcedony, many of them 
cracked into small bits; masses of sand which have been vitrified and 
formed into a slag were also found. Then too there were seven small 
fossil shells, and a small shark's tooth; three fragments of crinoid stems; 
two chalcedony arrow points, one of obsidian and one of chert; the point 
of a stone knife; a large calcite crystal; a small transparent quartz 
crystal; a piece of native sulphur; pieces of red and yellow ocher; a 
piece of silica of iron; and several thin laminae of mica. 

Scattered among the bowls and jars on the floor there were ninety- 
three turquoise beads of the flat circular form ; twelve turquoise pen- 
dants and a number of broken beads; turquoise inlays and pieces of 
turquoise matrix. Scattered through the general debris above the 
pottery were sixteen small circular turquoise beads. Among the shell 
objects found in the general debris were a number of fragments of murex 
most of which had been blackened by fire, and, on the floor level and 
scattered among the pottery vessels were sixty-nine of the figure-eight 
shaped beads; forty-three beads made from olivella shells; sections of 
shells; and nine fragments of shell bracelets, two of which are perforated 
for suspension of ornaments. Associated directly with the pottery vessels 
were four hundred shell beads, of these one hundred and five were olivella 
shells, one hundred and thirty were of the figure-eight form, and the 
balance were sections of olivella shells, flat circular beads and a few of 
irregular shape. 



126 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

There were very few bone objects in the room, two bone awls made 
from fragments of deer bone being the only implements found, but there 
were fifteen fragments of deer antler, cut into lengths averaging 7 cms. 
Most of them had rounding ends and one of them has grooves in the side 
made by some cutting implement. These objects were so calcined by fire 
that pieces had scaled from the surface, therefore, it would be impossible 
to determine their original forms. A human tooth; a few fragments of 
wooden implements; a piece of knotted yucca cord, found in the 
upper levels; and a flat piece of wood 6 cms. square and 8 mms. thick 
having a perforation in the center were the only objects of a really perish- 
able nature, found at the floor level. This was covered with sand 
and had in some way escaped the fire which had carbonized so many 
objects. The remaining specimens from this room were found in the 
vessels; a shell bracelet with a perforation through the valve of the shell 
was found in a bowl in the northeast corner of the room. A small circular 
turquoise bead was found in a bowl in the same corner; in another bowl 
there were two of the figure-eight-shaped beads and a small olivella shell 
bead; in a bowl four of the figure-eight -shaped beads, a flat circular bead 
of shell, a turquoise bead of the same shape, and a carved olivella shell 
bead were found. This carved bead has a series of elongated circles 
forming a band around the central part. There are five of these and 
each one has a dot in the center. Another bowl contained two shell 
beads, one of the figure-eight form, the other of an olivella shell, and 
another a small flat circular bead of turquoise. 

Room 28a. This was a continuation to the eastward of Room 28 
and separated from it by a wall of plastered stone 1 foot thick. This 
wall extended to the ceiling of the lower room which was 8}/2 feet from 
the floor at this end. The base on which the wall rested was composed of 
large stones. The room was floored at this depth (8^ feet) and had 
been filled in, and another floor put down at the bottom of the dividing 
wall or at a depth of 6 feet from the ceiling. The dividing wall was the 
only one on which the plaster remained; it was not very thick, but in 
good condition. The other- walls of the lower room were roughly made, 
composed of large stones carelessly laid. There was a wall about a third 
of the way up on the southern side of the room, a foot wider than the 
balance of the wall and forming a bench extending from the east to the 
west wall. A little east of the center of the lower jutting wall a large 
ceiling beam had rested. From the size of the opening it must have been 
at least 10 inches in diameter. The northern and eastern walls of this 
room were roughly laid and the south wall had large stones projecting 



PLATE 5 

A Cylindrical Jar 

Height, 18.5 cm.; diameter, 10 cm. (H-3237). 









I 












e 

■ 

jiaL jAoiiianuYO A 
.(TSS8-I-I) -.mo 01 x v,.iQiiu;iU ; .mo 0.81 Mm& 
















PLATE 5 



1920.] Pepper, Pveblo Bonito. 127 

from the surface, particularly at the ceiling level. The walls of the lower 
part were in fact very crude as compared with the work shown by those 
of the upper room which had been laid with extreme care with selected 
faced stones that were in good condition when uncovered. In the eastern 
wall there was a sealed doorway of the usual type that led into Room 45 ; 
it had been damaged by fire, especially at the upper part where it 
bulged to a considerable extent. 

The walls of the upper room showed no evidence of plaster. The 
stones of the southern wall are like those shown in the upper part of the 
wall in Room 28. The two parts which, for convenience, have been 
divided in the notes, really formed one room which extended the length 
of Rooms 28 and 28a; therefore, in studying the room the doorways and 
peculiarities of the upper walls must be considered as forming a part of 
one room only. There is a doorway of the old "T" shape in the western 
part of the south wall, one part of it is directly over the partition wall 
which separated the two lower rooms. This doorway led into Room 40. 
Owing to the fact that it was not cleared until this room was excavated, 
the measurements will not be given until that room is described. There 
was a doorway in the northern wall of the lower room, situated a little 
to the east of the center; it was very rough and higher than most rec- 
tangular doorways (2 feet 2 inches wide and 3 feet 6 inches high, the 
upper part beins - 2 feet 6 inches below the ceiling beams; its exact posi- 
tion was 7 feet 8 inches from the west wall). There was a place in the 
north wall, both at the west and east end, where a beam had been built 
into the wall, possibly for use as a support, but there were no correspond- 
ing depressions in the south wall. The one near the west end is 2 feet 2 
inches from the partition wall, 5 feet high and 6 3 ^ inches wide having a 
depth at the center of 3 inches. The one at the eastern end is 4 feet 2 
inches high, 6J-f> inches wide and 2 inches deep. The concavity is such as 
might be formed by pressing a circular beam half its thickness into soft 
plaster. There were evidences of posts having stood on the south side 
of the room opposite these depressions, but fire had destroyed them. 
From the mass of vitrified sand at the end of this room one would be led 
to believe, that it had been used as a storeroom for grain or other materials 
that would generate an intense heat as the timbers in the room would 
hardly cause enough heat to vitrify the surrounding material. 

This room was 13 feet long, north and south, sides 7 feet 10 inches 
wide on the east and 8 feet 2 inches at the west end. At the eastern part 
of the room the walls stood to a height of over 19 feet above the lowest 
floor level. The upper room in its entirety is 25 feet 7 inches long on the 



128 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

north side, 25 feet long on the south side, 7 feet 8 inches at the west 
end, and 7 feet 10 inches at the eastern end. 

One of the strongest evidences of the extreme heat generated in this 
room is the condition of the specimens. There were five stone slabs all 
of which had suffered greatly from fire, some had been burnt to a dull 
red, whereas others had been blackened by smoke; four of these had been 
carefully smoothed and used as grinding stones; two, in particular, had 
been used as metates. With them were found five sandstone manos 
of the heavy type used for coarse work, and one, that had been used for 
the finishing process, of fine-grainecl sandstone, one surface of which shows 
considerable wear A small block of sandstone 9.5 cms. long, 5 cms. wide, 
and 3 cms. thick, had all of its surfaces carefully smoothed and one side 
covered with red pigment; it had evidently been used as a grinder. There 
was also a sandstone disk, 8.5 cms. in diameter and 2.8 cms. in thickness, 
plano-convex in form and the flat surface smoothed to such an extent 
that its use as a grinder seems probable. It had been cracked by fire to 
such an extent, that the flat surface has the appearance of pottery. A 
fragment of chalcedony; a very heavy handle, evidently of a large pot- 
tery bowl; two natural pebbles; fragments of the bowl of a clay pipe; 
and a sandstone jar cover of the usual form were also found. All of these 
specimens came from the lower room, on, or near the floor. 

Room 29. 
Boom 29 was a small room west of Room 19. Its southern wall 
abutted the northern retaining wall of the estufa known as Room 16. 
Its walls were not well-preserved and comparatively few specimens were 
found in it. The specimens were mixed through the debris near the floor 
level. There was a flat slab of compact sandstone, measuring 34 cms. in 
length, averaging 15.5 cms. in width and 1 cm. in thickness; one side of 
this slab had been smoothed and the central portion shows considerable 
wear. 

A sandstone jar cover had one surface polished and had evidently 
been made from a fragment of a grinding stone. In Fig. 17 a grooved 
hammerstone is shown, it is 10 cms. in length and 4 cms. in width at its 
broadest part; it is slightly flattened and one end tapers to a point, a 
form which is rather unusual in this pueblo. Among other objects of 
stone, were a piece of galena, a number of large flakes of obsidian, and a 
fragment of chalcedony. There were three bone awls, two made from 
splinters of deer bone, and one from the leg bone of a turkey. There were 







. 










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1 










. 


PLATE 6 

A Cylindrical Jar 

Height, 25.3 cm.; diameter, 14.8 cm. (H-3260). 
















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PLATE 6 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 129 

also pieces of feather cord, two-strand yucca cord, two sections of reed 
arrows, the end of a large wooden ceremonial stick, and a piece of pot- 
tery in the shape of an animal's paw. 

Rooms 30 and 31. 

Rooms 30 and 31 were merely shallow excavations in the eastern 
court of the building, started at the time Room 28 was nearing comple- 
tion. The rinding of a closed doorway in the north wall of Room 28 led 
to such a mass of material in Rooms 32 and 33, that it was deemed advis- 
able to discontinue the excavations in other parts of the ruin and to 
devote the few weeks that remained to the careful study of the positions 
of specimens in the two rooms just mentioned. 

Only two specimens were found in Room 30, one a fragment of a 
bone implement with two holes drilled in the end, and an arrow point of 
chalcedony. In the excavation known as Room 31, one bone awl was 
found. 

Room 32. 

With the removal of the stones with which the doorway in the north 
wall of Room 28 was closed, a wall of drifted sand was encountered. 
Owing to the presence of an opening west of, and a little above this door- 
way, it had been possible to ascertain that there was an open space 
between the ceiling beams and the sand, in the western part of the room. 
To reach this open space a tunnel was cut through the sand. When the 
surface of the drifted sand was reached, a candle made it possible to 
examine the room. The drift had been from the eastward and the sand 
was piled almost to the roof at that end, but directly opposite the door- 
way in the northwest corner, was a mass of ceremonial sticks, many of 
which protruded over a foot above the surface. The sand was covered 
with various objects, carried in by pack rats, the most noticeable of which 
were spines from cactus plants. 

In the western wall there was a doorway, almost rilled by the sand. 
The ceiling beams had been crushed by the mass of debris above them, 
and in the central portion of the ceiling, following a line running east 
and west, the beams were cracked and splintered. There were supporting 
beams and posts in the northern side of the room. 

As this room had been used for ceremonial purposes, each object as 
found, was located by measurements. 

Pottery. The mug (Fig. 47a) is of grayware with black decorations 
in the form of bands, four of which encircle the vessel. These bands of 
black enclose cloud-terrace figures in white. Above the bands and near 



130 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

the rim is a series of lines and dots, and at the base of the vessel is a 
series of five narrow lines similar to those above the banded area. The 
handle is decorated with a design in black, with diamond figures in the 
center. This mug is 11.5 cms. in diameter at the base, 6 cms. in diameter 
at the mouth, and 11 cms. high. 

Fig. 47c (3583) is a grayware mug decorated with black designs, 
found near the doorway. This specimen is slightly larger than the others, 
measuring 13 cms. in diameter at the bottom, 8.5 cms. at the top, and 
having a height of 12.2 cms. The design is in the form of a meander which 
starts in the central part of the mug near the handle, extends around to 
the opposite side, then passes to the lower part of the vessel, following the 
lower edge in a straight line to the handle again, then to the upper part 
of the vessel where the meander is resumed and circles the upper rim 
ending at the handle. The handle has a simple decoration of lines, some 
enclosed in rectangles, the effect being in keeping with the general 
decoration of the object. This is a pleasing decoration quite in keeping 
with the general decorative work of Pueblo Bonito. A little to the east 
and 2 inches north of the mug just described, a pitcher was found (3585); 
it was of grayware with black decorations which formed two bands, one 
extending around the lower part of the vessel, the other starting at one 
side of the handle and extending around the neck of the pitcher to the 
opposite side of the handle. These two bands are separated by a broad 
black line which encircles the vessel, but does not cross the part spanned 
by the handle. The handle which is composed of four half round pieces 
of clay joined together, evidently represents individual willow roots, 
which were employed in this manner in making handles for basket jars. 
The handle is decorated with lines which have small dots along the edge. 
There is a black line around the rim of the vessel, but it is not completed, 
there being an opening at the point directly above the handle. This 
pitcher is one in which the neck and the lower portion are joined, in such 
a way that there is a gentle curve at the point of juncture. The pitcher is 
18 cms. in height and 17 cms. in diameter. 

Before leaving the group found at the doorway, mention must be 
made of a whiteware jar decorated in black. It was lying upon its side 
and rested near the south wall of the room; it is of the cylindrical form, 
such as was found in Room 28. The slip on the surface is extremely 
white as compared with some of the other specimens; the design is in 
the form of two bands, one at the lower part of the jar, the other on the 
level of the handle. There are four handles. The jar is 11.5 cms. in 
diameter at the bottom and 10 cms. in diameter at the rim, and the height 
is 19.5 cms. 



PLATE 7 

Two Pitchers prom Room 28 

Height of the larger 17.8 cm., diameter of the top 6.7 cm. (H-3277, H-3270). 




... 

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Ah 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 131 

Two bowls were found 6 inches west of the doorway and 9 inches 
north of the south wall (3590 and 3587) . These bowls were nested and 
rested against the western side of the basket. The former is of dull red- 
ware, undecorated, with a black polished interior. The diameter of the 
rim is 13.8 cms., and it had a depth of 6 cms. This bowl rested inside of 
the second bowl and contained remains of some material, probably food. 
It is of dull grayware, decorated on the interior with a band composed of 
a series of interlocking frets, and has ten dots on the edge of the rim. 
The bowl is 14.5 cms. in diameter at the rim and 5.5 cms. deep. 

The next object encountered, was one of unusual shape for this 
region; it was found 8 inches west of the doorway in the south wall, 
one end resting against this wall. The specimen shown in Fig. 48a is of 
dull redware, with a black interior; it is undecorated and the rim has 
crumbled, evidently from age. In form it is rectangular with rounding 
corners; only a very small portion of the original rim remains, but it is 
enough to show that this portion of the vessel, as well as a part of the 
outer edge, had been covered with a black slip; it is 25 cms. long, 14.5 
cms. wide, and 9 cms. deep. 

After the last object was removed, the work near the doorway was 
carried eastward. At a point 6 inches east of the doorway, and 1 foot 
1 inch north of the wall, a grayware bowl was found (Fig. 49) with an 
elaborate design in black, forming a band which covers the greater part 
of ths vessel. A small area at the bottom has been left undecorated, 
save the center, which has a design in the form of a maltese cross. The 
central part, however, is in the form of a square and the arms of the cross 
are attached to its corners, the arms themselves, being pyramidal, with a 
series of short lines radiating from the base of each. This cross is similar 
to the one on a bowl from Room 24, Fig. 35. There were no decorations 
on the exterior of the bowl. This vessel which is of the type ordinarily 
used for general household purposes, is 27.5 cms. in diameter at the rim 
and 13 cms. deep. 

One foot east of the doorway and resting against the southern wall, 
was found a water jar of the form common in the cliff -dwellings of 
Colorado and Utah. This vessel, as shown in Fig. 48b, is of grayware, 
extremely fine in texture, and the outer surface has been smoothed to 
such an extent, that there are practically no irregularities. The contour 
of the water jar is almost perfect, it tapers from the base to the 
point where the rim of an ordinary bowl would be, and from this 
point it is incurved toward the top, the opening left averaging 7 cms. in 
diameter. Two and one-half cms. from this opening, there is a raised 



132 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

band which rises on an average, 7 cms. above the surface of the vessel, 
and with a width at its top of 5 cms. This raised portion surrounds the 
opening. The opening itself has a broad band of black paint on its 
outer rim and then follow three smaller bands between the one just men- 
tioned and the raised portion which is also painted black. Directly below 
this part of the jar there is a band composed of five curious figures. 
This vessel is 20.5 cms. in diameter at its broadest part and 12 cms. deep. 




Fig. 49 (3575). Bowl of Grayware, Room 32. 



Directly east of and resting against the water jar just described, 
was a bowl of redware with a black interior (3588) . This bowl is of the 
usual type and was in a fragmentary condition when found; it is 20 
cms. in diameter and 6.4 cms. deep. 

Returning to the work in the western part of the room, that is, just 
west of the doorway, three bowls were found, the lowermost of which 
almost touched the end of the rectangular bowl. These (H-3580, 3575, 
3579) were nested, and are all of grayware. A sandstone metate of the 
ordinary form was found 10 inches north of the eastern side of the door- 
way adjoining the level at the lower part. 






PLATE 8 
A Painted Board 

This board, found in Room 32, bears an elaborate design upon its surfaces. The 
reverse side is shown in Fig. 65, p. 156. The face of the board measures 16.5 cm. by 
17.5 cm. and 1.7 cm. thick (H-4500). 









■ 
■ 




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■ 



. 



■ 
■ 




PLATE 8 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 133 

After finding the metate, a number of objects were encountered west 
of the doorway. The first (3576) was a pitcher of grayware with a 
design in black in the form of interlocking frets on the upper part and two 
black bands on the lower part. The handle was of the usual form and 
was decorated with zigzag lines and there were black dots on the edge 
of the rim. This specimen was 16 cms. high and 11 cms. in diameter at 
its widest part. The specimen was found 1 foot 6 inches west of the 
doorway in the south wall, lying in a slanting position on the floor, 
the mouth almost touching the south wall. 

Three inches west of this pitcher and 1 foot 5 inches from the south 
wall, a corrugated vessel of redware with polished black interior was 
found resting on the floor. This shallow bowl (H-3647) is very irregular 
in form, the corrugations are rough and the bottom of the vessel is 
indented in a number of places. The ends are rounded and there is a 
smooth rim, averaging 1 cm. in width around the oval edge. It is 18 
cms. long and 13.8 cms. wide at its widest part. The sides are not uni- 
form, one being comparatively straight, the other, quite slanting. It 
averages 5.5 cms. in depth. A jar (3577) was found 1 foot 11 inches west 
of the doorway, and 9 inches north of the south wall, lying upon its side 
upon the floor. This jar is of grayware with black designs and is of the 
tall cylindrical type; it was in a fragmentary condition when found. It 
is 26.5 cms. high and averages 6 cms. in diameter. There were originally 
four handles of the horizontal loop pattern, one of them has been broken 
and the fourth evidently broke while the jar was in use, or possibly before 
it was decorated; certainly before the present decorations was applied. 
There are two slight projections showing the place where the handle has 
been, but these have been ground almost to the level of the jar surface, 
and over them the white slip has been applied and then upon that the 
design has been drawn. The design is in the form of squares which are 
divided with a line running from corner to corner, one half of the spaces 
of each square being filled in with lines. This effect is carried out on all 
parts of the surface, with the exception of one side where the entire square 
is filled in with lines and directly below it another square has been divided 
into four parts, the opposite angles only being filled in hachure effect. 

Continuing westward along the wall, a pitcher was found (3584). It 
was 2 feet 6 inches west of the doorway and lay bottom upward. This 
part rested against the south wall with the mouth slightly above the 
level of the door in the south wall. It is almost a duplicate of pitcher 
3585, the design, the manner of forming the handle, and the general 
appearance of the vessel being the same. The life line on the rim of the 



134 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

vessel, which is somewhat flaring, is open, as was the case with the other 
pitcher, and it is quite probable that both pitchers were made by the 
same potter. It is 13 cms. high and 1 1 cms. in diameter at its widest part. 

The next object found was another cylindrical jar of gray ware. It 
was 2 feet 1 inch west of the doorway and 1 foot 3 inches north of the 
south wall. This vessel was standing in an upright position and in it 
were nine flat circular turquoise beads and two shell beads of the figure- 
eight form. The decoration on this jar was a series of narrow lines 
forming three broad bands which encircle the jar, all of them being be- 
low the handles. The handles were of the rope form and slanted upward. 
There were four in all, and they were placed on an average 3 cms. below 
the rim. The jar is 23 cms. high and averages 9.5 cms. in diameter. 

After the removal of 3646 the work was carried northward in a 
small area west of the doorway.- One foot west of this point and 9 inches 
north of the south wall, two sandstone jar covers were found, (3603 and 
3600), about 2 inches below the door level. The}" were of the usual form, 
but 3603 was more carefully finished than the average jar covers from 
this pueblo, the edge being ground until it was at right angles with the 
sides. 

Ornament of Hematite. While working in the southwest corner, a 
number of human ribs were found. They were 1 foot 6 inches north of the 
southern wall and 1 foot west of the doorway. They were mixed with 
fragments of wooden implements and other objects buried with the 
body. A little west of the ribs and 3 feet from the south wall, the right 
clavicle was found; a little west of this at a distance of 2 feet 9 inches 
from the southern wall, the left femur was located ; and a few inches north 
of this a scapula. Near the femur mentioned, the main portion of the 
vertebral column was located. 

In clearing away the debris in front of the human remains, that is, 
to the east of them, a bird form made of hematite was found. It was 
1 foot 10 inches north of the south wall and 1 foot 9 inches east of the 
west wall, and was lying at a point 4 inches above the level of the south- 
ern doorway. This bird form is shown in Fig. 50. It measures 5.8 cms. 
from the tip of the bill to the tail, 2.7 cms. in width at the middle section 
of the wings and 1.6 cms. in thickness at the thickest part, which is 
directly back of the neck portion. The back is divided into two parts by 
bands of turquoise which have been sunk to the level of the surface. 
They start from either side of the neck, extend across the back, and end 
at either side of the tail. These divisions serve to accentuate the wings 
which are over 1 mm. higher than the general surface. In each wing three 




PLATE 9 
Pointed Implements of Rough and Ordinary Finish 

Fig. 1 (H-10095) . Awl or pointed implement made from distal end of metapodial 
of deer. From Room 162. Representative of ten specimens. 

Fig. 2 (H-6146). Awl made from split half of distal end of metapodial of deer. 
From Room 67. Representative of thirty-nine specimens. 

Fig. 3 (H-6143) . Awl made from split quarter of proximal end of metapodial of 
deer. From Room 67. Representative of forty-two specimens. 

Fig. 4 (12137). Awl made from hollow leg bone, possibly of the coyote. From 
Room 162. Representative of twenty-three specimens of the general type. 

Fig. 5 (H-11756). Pointed implement improvised from the ulna or oleocranon 
bone of deer. -Pueblo Penasco Blanco. Representative of ten specimens. 

Fig. 6 (H-12136).. Awl made from the ulna of a caraivor. From Room 162. 
Representative of four specimens, including Fig. 9. 

Fig. 7 (H-11392).. Pointed implement from ulna of small mammal. From debris 
Outside the ruin. Representative of ten specimens. 

Fig. 8 (H-2399) . Finely pointed implement improvised from broken section of 
small mammal bone. Uncertain location. Representative of twenty specimens. 

Fig. 9 (H-8632) . Awl made from ulna of a carnivor. From Room 109. 

Fig. 10 (H-8630). Pointed implement made from long slender fibula of an un- 
identified mammal. From Room 109. Representative of twelve specimens. 

Fig. 1 1 (H-10686) . Awl made from radius of coyote or fox. From Room 171 . 

Fig- 12 (H-2892). Awl improvised from splinter of mammal bone. From Room 
26. Representative of 135 more or less similar specimens. 

Fig. 13 (H--10227). Awl improvised from fragment of large hollow bird bone, 
probably wild turkey. From Room 163. 

Fig. 14 (H-9574). Awl made from curved and hollow wing bone. Uncertain 
location. 

Fig. 15 (H-5984). Awl made from leg bone, probably wild turkey. From Room 
64. 

Fig. 16 (H-10103). Awl made from leg bone of a hawk. From Room 161. 

Fig. 17 (H-11396). Awl made from slender hollow bird bone. From debris 
outside of ruin. Figs. 13-17 are representative of eighteen specimens. 

Fig. 18 (H-10018). Awl made from split section of bird bone, delicately pointed. 
From Room 160. Representative of thirty-one specimens. 






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PLATE 9 



1920.] 



Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 



135 



deep grooves have been cut and into these turquoise pieces have been 
inlaid. The turquoise lines extend to within 5 cms. of the edge and from 
this point a piece of shell extends to the edge. The tail is 1.5 cms. broad 
and a piece of shell 5 cms. wide has been attached to the end, the hematite 
having been cut away so that the shell would rest on the level of the 
stone. On the extreme edge of the shell three turquoise pieces were in- 
laid, but only one of them remains at the present time, as shown in the 
illustration. The head has been carefully rounded and the front part 
pointed to form the beak. A groove encircles the neck and in this a 
series of turquoise sets have been inlaid. The eyes are 3 mms. in diameter 
and are made of half round pieces of turquoise which have been glued into 





Fig. 50 (10416). 



A Bird of Hematite, Inlaid with Turquoise, Room 32. 
See Frontispiece, Plate 1. 



holes drilled for the purpose. The under part is plain, with the exception 
of two holes which have been drilled through the breast. The manner of 
drilling these holes and a peculiar concavity between them is shown in the 
drawing. This figure evidently represents a water bird at rest on the 
surface of a pond or stream. The wings are folded over the back and the 
head is thrown forward as though the bird were swimming. 

From the position of the holes drilled in the breast, it would seem 
that this object has been suspended in some way, and may have been 
used as a neck ornament in certain ceremonies. Its position in the room 
suggests that it had been buried with the body which was found directly 
west of and a little above it. 

Miscellaneous Objects. The next object that was removed (3596) 
was a small mug; it was found 2 feet 6 inches north of the south wall and 
2 feet 5 inches east of the west wall, standing in a natural position 6 



136 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History . [Vol. XXVII, 

inches above the level of the sill of the door in the south wall. It is of 
grayware decorated with black designs, 7 cms. high and 8.5 cms. in 
diameter at the bottom. The design is dim and almost obliterated in 
parts. The handle is extremely large for a jar of this type, and as in 
similar specimens, it extends from the rim to the bottom of the vessel. 
One inch north of the mug just described and 2 feet 8 inches east of 
the west wall, the bowl of a coarsely made dipper was found. It is of 
rather peculiar shape, the handle was evidently of solid construction, 
generally cylindrical in form and attached to the bowl 1.5 cms. below its 
rim. It is 10.5 cms. wide at its widest part and 3.17 cms. deep. It is 
of graj^ware, but is discolored as though it had been through fire. 

Three feet two inches north of the south wall and 7 
inches from the west wall a bowl (3598) was found. 
It was about 6 inches above the floor level and rested 
in a natural position on a large flat stone. It is of gray- 
ware, decorated with black on the interior, having large 
black dots on the rim; it has two drilled handles. They 
are placed opposite each other and are 1 cm. below the 
rim of the vessel. 

There was a mass of cloth, matted and partly 
decayed, in this part of the room, evidently part of 

of Lignite. the wrapping of the body. Water had poured into the 

room from the upper levels and had swirled about in this 
corner scattering the lighter specimens and the bones. 
A large flat stone was found 2 feet 1 inch below the lintel poles of 
the doorway in the west wall. The debris below the stone had been 
caked from having been wet repeatedly. 

Just below this stone, a pitcher was found; it was 2 feet from the 
south wall and 1 foot 4 inches from the west wall. It was lying on its 
side. It is of grayware with black decorations in the form of interlocking 
frets and half cloud terraces. The handle is also decorated and there is a 
series of dots around the edge of the rim. This specimen (3594) is 16.5 
cms. high and 11.5 cms. in diameter at its widest part. On one side, 
near the rim, and on the opposite side, near the base, are areas that were 
blackened from fire. 

Two feet five inches from the south wall and 1 foot 6 inches from the 
west wall and at a depth of 11 inches below the level of the large flat 
stone mentioned, fragments of a grayware bowl with black decorations 
and of a cooking vessel with a heavy corrugated handle were found; 
near them a human tooth, a number of vertebrae, and a fish bone were 
found. 




PLATE 10 

Pointed Bone Implements op More of Less Special Form and Finish 

Fig. 1 (H-2720). Awl or bodkin of roughly split mammal bone, small perfora- 
tion near butt. From Room 20. 

Fig. 2 (H-8392). Bodkin of split mammal bone, original point missing. From 
Room 107. 

Fig. 3 (H-8634) . Bodkin made from split half of metapodial of deer, proximal 
end. Longitudinal perforation (not visible) through butt, above the visible trans- 
verse perforation. From Room 109. 

Fig. 4 (H-8814). Bodkin made from split metapodial of some ungulate. From 
Room 60. 

Fig. 5 (H-8237). Bodkin made from split half of metapodial of deer, distal end. 
From Room 105. 

Fig. 6 (H-7383). Bodkin, rather small, made from split metapodial. From Room 
86. 

Fig. 7 (H-12835). Bodkin made from thick mammal bone, oval in cross-section, 
incised ornamentation. From Room 170. 

Figs. 1-7 are representative of twelve specimens. 

Fig. 8 (H-10799). Pointed implement of mammal bone; long, slender, roundish 
section. From Room 173. Representative of twenty-six specimens, including 
Figs. 13, 14, 19, and 20. 

Fig. 9 (H-977). Pointed implement or pin of bone, slender, longitudinally curved, 
rectangular cross-section, expanded round butt. From Room 10. Representative of 
two specimens. 

Fig. 10 (H-2547). Pointed bone implement, very slender, slightly curved point, 
round cross-section. From Room 12. Representative of two specimens, the other 
being Fig. 18. 

Fig. 11 (H-5934). Pointed bone implement, slender, longitudinally curved, 
rectangular cross-section, squared butt. From Room 62. Representative of three 
specimens, including Fig. 17. 

Fig. 12 (H-11244). Double-pointed bone implement, possibly an arrow fore- 
shaft, though asymmetrical. Uncertain Chaco ruin. Representative of two speci- 
mens. 

Fig. 13 (H-10011). Pointed bone implement, resembling a skewer; slender, 
nearly symmetrical, round cross-section. From Room 160. 

Fig. 14 (H-6673). Pointed implement, of split mammal bone. From Room 78. 

Fig. 15 (H-5641). Awl of split mammal bone, stout, well finished. From Room 
54, Representative of fifty specimens, including Figs. 21 and 22, 

Fig. 16 (H-10695). Double pointed bone implement, very slender and delicately 
pointed. From Room 171. mJH 

Fig. 17 (H-12834). Pointed implement of split bone, slender, longitudinally 
curved, rectangular cross-section. From Room 169. 

Fig. 18 (H-10270) . Pointed bone implement, slender, curved; possibly the point 
end of a longer specimen. From Room 163. 

Fig. 19 (H-7686). Pointed bone implement, slightly curved, oval cross-section, 
rounded butt. From Room 92. 

Fig. 20 (H-10459). Pointed bone implement, nearly straight, oval section, 
squared butt. From Room 169. 

Fig. 21 (H-10458). Pointed bone implement, slightly curved, rectangular sec- 
tion, squared butt. From Room 169. 

Fig. 22 (H-10166). Awl of split mammal bone, squared butt, ivory-like polish. 
From Room 161. 




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PLATE 10 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 137 

Two stone jar covers were the next objects found, one of them on the 
same level as the large flat stone, and the other 6 inches below it. They 
are both made of sandstone and the sides of the objects have been ground 
and smoothed. 

During the progress of the work a sketch was made showing the 
general stratification of the irregular layers at this part of the room. 
The measurements were made at a point 1 foot west of the southern door 
and 3 inches north of the south wall. The inflow of sand was from the 
east; hence, the sand layers increase in thickness from this point to the 
eastern wall of the room, which was no doubt carried into the room at the 
time that the burial was made and when the objects in the room were 
put in position. This gives a general idea of the character of the layers 
that were encountered, but it must be understood that there was no 
regular stratification, save in restricted areas where the water had not 
disturbed it to any great extent. 

Layer A, sand 3 inches thick 

Layer B, soil, charcoal, etc. 5 inches thick 

Layer C, sand Yi mcn thick 

Layer D, black soil 1 inch thick 

Layer E, sand 33^ inches thick 
Layer F, soil 

A little below the western door level, 3 feet 4 inches from the south 
wall and 3 feet 9 inches from the west wall, small balls of red and yellow 
paint (4176) were found. From their form, which is rounding, it would 
seem that they had been retained in pouches, probably of buckskin. 
The yellow seems to be an ordinary ocher, but the red has a crystalline 
structure. 

A circular object of jet, probably used as an ornament, was 4 feet 
2 inches from the south wall and 2 feet 8 inches from the west wall and 
was found on the level of the lower part of the doorway of the west wall. 

Just east of the mass of ceremonial sticks and near the north wall, 
several specimens were found. A sandstone jar cover was 7 inches from 
the north wall and 3 feet 3 inches from the west wall and was lying on the 
level of the large flat stone. 

Three feet from the western wall and resting against the north wall, 
a broken bowl was found. There is a doorway in the north wall at this 
point and the fragments were directly in front of its western side, but 6 
inches below the level of the sill. 



138 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

Two sandstone balls were found 1 foot below the level of the north- 
ern doorwa3 T ; they were 1 foot 9 inches from the north wall and 3 feet 
10 inches from the west wall. 

A Burial. The human backbone and pelvis which were found in the 
southwest corner (p. 134) were the next objects to receive attention. 
They were intact and were tying northwest by southeast, the pelvis being 
toward the northern point and 6 inches above the level of the western 
doorway. The vertebrae were lying in an almost horizontal position, 
ten of them were intact and in position, as were also the sacrum and the 
pelvic bones. Three vertebrae fell in removing the surface dirt, but they 
had probably been in place when the body was found. There were eight 
sticks in the sand at the right side of the body. From their appearance, 
it seems that they had been stuck into the soil of the sand at short inter- 
vals. One end of each is pointed and the opposite end is burned, as 
though they have been used as torches. The material is evidently Cot- 
tonwood. They average 9.5 cms. in length and 1.3 cms. in diameter, 
although one of each is charred. There is no evidence of the action of 
fire on any other parts of the sticks. Scattered about in the sand were six 
pieces of similar size, but with squared ends; these, with two others with 
pointed ends, had the upper part charred in the same manner as those 
just described. With these was one which was larger than any of the 
others that have been mentioned, but owing to the fact that one end was 
missing, it cannot be determined whether it had been burned or not. 
What the office of these maj^ have been is hard to say, but they may have . 
been deposited with the body at the time of burial, and the ends burned 
for some special purpose. Wrapped about the bones and extending into 
the western doorway, there is a mass of burnt cloth, the greater part of 
which was simply woven textiles of finely spun yucca cord. The greater 
part of it was undecorated and shows no complex weaving, but there was 
one specimen, with a design forming broad bands and squares, seeming- 
ly stamped upon the cloth. In the center of each square, there is a raised 
portion caused by a deft manipulation of the threads during weaving. 
These small elevations have been dyed with the same dark color as that 
forming the bands and the squares. 

Pottery. South of the body, a distance of 2}4, inches from the west 
wall and 1 foot 3 inches from the south wall, a pitcher was found. It 
was resting on its side with its base a trifle higher than its mouth, the 
base being on the level with the lower part of the western doorway. This 
pitcher (3953) is of the usual grayware with black decorations. It is 16 
cms. deep and 8 cms. in diameter at the mouth. The handle and the 



PLATE 11 

Scrapers and Chisels 

Fig. 1 (H-6169). Scraper or fleshing tool made from humerus of deer or elk. 
Apparently for use in the left hand. From Room 67. Representative of six speci- 
mens. 

Fig. 2 (H-12106). Scraper or fiesher of deer or elk humerus, apparently for the 
right hand. From Room 173. Representative of five specimens. 

Fig. 3 (H-5116). Scraper or flesher of deer or elk humerus with condyle cut 
squarely off. From Room 38. Representative of two specimens. In addition there 
are eleven fragmentary specimens of the Figs. 1-3 type of implement. 

Fig. 4 (H-2779) . Scraper or chisel-pointed implement made from a phalangeal 
bone of deer. From a refuse heap. Representative of four specimens. 

Fig. 5 (H-7517). Common scraper (both ends used) adapted from some angulate 
rib. From R,oom 85. Representative of five specimens. 

Fig. 6 (H-7830). Fragmentary tool of the chisel -pointed variety. From Cn'aco 
Canon. Representative of six or seven specimens. 

Fig. 7 (H-7075) . Combination awl and scraper split mammal bone. From Room 
83. Representative of three specimens. 



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PLATE 11 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 139 

edge of the rim are decorated, the former with a design similar to that 
shown on the upper part of the vessel, as in Plate 7 and the rim with 
a series of dots. One and a half inches east of the pitcher just described, 
with its base about the same distance from the south wall, a jar (3595) 
was encountered. It was lying on its side with the mouth pointing 
toward the southeast and was on the same level as the pitcher described 
above. This jar is of grayware with three bands of lines encircling it, 
two below and one above the handles which are of the loop form and 
placed perpendicularly. This specimen is 21.5 cms. deep and 9.5 cms. in 
diameter at the rim. The edge of the rim is decorated with a line of 
black paint, but there are no decorations on the bottom. 

Another pitcher was found resting against the south wall, 10 inches 
from the west wall and 1 foot higher than the jar (3595). It is of gray- 
ware decorated in black. It is 16 cms. deep and averages 8 cms. in 
diameter at the mouth which has been somewhat flattened, owing to the 
careless handling during the firing process. The handle is decorated, as is 
also the edge of the rim. The line forming the decoration is open at the 
point just above the handle. 

The three specimens just described were grouped about a post, 5 
inches in diameter, which was 5 inches from the west wall and 5 3^ inches 
from the south wall; most of these specimens were within 4 inches of 
this post. 

Another specimen (3609), a jar cover of sandstone was 10 inches 
north of the post and 8 inches from the west wall, causing it to lie very 
close to the pitcher (3593), but it was 2 inches lower than this specimen. 

Another jar cover made of sandstone (3608) was found 3 inches under 
pitcher 3593 and the third 3607, was found 4 inches below pitcher 3592. 

A small bowl of grayware decorated on the interior with interlocking 
designs in black was found 1 foot 1 inch from the north wall and 4 feet 
10 inches from the west wall. It was lying in a natural position on the 
level of the sill of the doorway in the north wall and contained evidences 
of having been filled with some material, probably food. This bowl has 
had four handles near the rim, ranging in such a way, that they were 
equidistant; one of these, however, is missing. This bowl (3636), like 
many of the other specimens found in this room, has a series of dots on 
the edge of the rim. It is 9.5 cms. in diameter at the rim and 4 cms. deep. 

The next object found was also a grayware bowl (3626); it was 5 
feet 8 inches from the west wall and was resting against the north wall. 
It was lying in a natural position on a level with the bottom of the north- 
ern doorway. This bowl is the largest that was found in Room 32, it 



140 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

averages 29.5 cms. in diameter at the rim and is 13.8 cms. deep. There 
are no decorations on the exterior. On the edge of the rim there are six 
sets of dots, there being four in each set. The design on the interior is 
composed of elaborate interlocking frets and bands of hachure work. 

Just south of the bowl (3626) and touching it was a small pitcher 
(3633). It was 9 inches from the north wall, and 6 feet 1 inch from the 
west wall, lying on its side and was a trifle lower than bowl 3626. This 
specimen is of grayware decorated with irregular designs in black. The 
handle is composed of two cylindrical pieces of clay joined together and 
their ends formed into one piece, where they join the vessel. This speci- 
men is 10 cms. in diameter at its widest part and has a depth of 12.2 cms. 

In uncovering the specimens that have just been described an excep- 
tionally large cylindrical jar was found. It was 4 inches from the north 
wall and 6 feet 7 inches from the west wall. It was lying on its side, the 
mouth pointing toward the northeast and was on the level of the base of 
the northern doorway. This jar is of grayware, covered with a very fine 
white slip that had been applied to the interior as well as the exterior of 
the vessel. The smoothing on the exterior has been carried to such an 
extent that the fine finish, in some places, has caused the vessel to look 
as though it was polished and is quite noticeable. The vessel is absolutely 
devoid of ornamentation, the only embellishments being three heavy 
knob-like handles which are placed on an average of 1.8 cms. below the 
rim. These handles are perforated, the holes being punched through 
from the base upwards. This vessel (3638) measures 16.8 cms. in diam- 
eter at the rim, which is slightly irregular, there being a flattening on 
one side, and 28.6 cms. in depth. 

Four jar covers were found 1 foot 6 inches from the north wall and 
7 feet 8 inches from the west wall on the level of the base of the northern 
doorway. These covers are of the usual form and size and are made of 
fine-grained sandstone. 

A bowl of grayware (3643) found near the jar covers just mentioned 
was 1 foot 6 inches from the north wall and 8 feet from the west wall and 
4 inches above the level of the base of the northern doorway. 

A natural pebble of quartzite, which may have been worked a little 
on the edges, so that it could be hafted was found in the center of the 
rim, 3 feet below the level of the doorway in the north wall. It resembles 
slightly the head of an animal and may have been used as a fetich 
(3648). 

Ceremonial Slicks. When the mass of ceremonial sticks in the north- 
west corner of the room was reached, it was found that most of the sticks 
had decayed, except in parts that extended above the surface of the sand. 



PLATE 12 

Miscellaneous Fokms 

Fig. 1 (H-6696) . Fragmentary pendant of turtle shell, perforation in upper right 
hand corner. From Room 78. 

Fig. 2 (H-10241). Fragmentary bracelet of thinly worked bone, perforated. 
From Room 163. 

Fig. 3 (H-4173). Fragmentary bracelet of thinly worked bone. From Room 30. 

Fig. 4 (H-8599). Thin oval disk of bone, purpose uncertain. From Room 109. 

Fig. 5 (H-12814). Oval disk of bone, with simple incised decoration, purpose 
uncertain. From Room 171. 

Fig, 6 (H-6193) . Miniature circular disk or button of bone. From Room 71. 

Fig. 7 (H-6838). Condyle portion of metapodial of deer, showing clean-cut scar 
by which it was removed. From Room 80. Representative of three specimens. 

Fig. 8 (H-2783). Whistle of bird bone. From refuse heap. 

Fig. 9 (H-12057). Scraper, or longitudinally worn femur of small mammal. 
From Room 168. 

Fig. 10 (H-11286). Bead, or cut and semi-polished section of hollow bird bone. 
From Chaco Canon. 

Fig. 11 (H-6837). Bird bone with one condyle removed and a small bead in 
process of being cut off. From Room 80. 

Fig. 12 (H-6188) . Bead or cut section of bird bone. From Room 67. 

Figs. 10-12 are representative of forty-three specimens. 



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PLATE 12 




Fig. 53. Ceremonial Sticks, Type 1: a (4212), Room 32; b (42211, Room 32; c (4235), Room 
32; d (4199), Room 32; e (4187), Room 32; / (4232), Room 32; g (4413), Room 32; h (4412); 
i (4522), Room 33. 



142 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 143 

In Fig. 52 the deposit is shown when the work of removal had begun. 
The work was slow and tedious, as many of the specimens were quite 
soft, evidently from recent rains. The crossing and interlocking of the 
sticks, and the necessity of bracing the ceiling beams added new ob- 
stacles. It was, therefore, impossible to remove many of the sticks in a 
perfect condition, but it was possible to mend a goodly portion of them 
after they reached the Museum. 

Over three hundred were taken from this corner, but it is impossible 
to say how many of them had been lying beneath the surface and had 
decomposed to such an extent that it was impossible to remove them; 
but from the fragments that were found in the sand, it would seem that 
there must have been three hundred and seventy-five in all. 

One end of each ceremonial stick is finished in some special manner 
so they can be divided into four definite classes, with certain subdivisions :- 

1. The first has a carved end characterized by two knobs; the upper knob in 
one style being plain, whereas another of the same form, has an opening in this knob. 

2. The second form has the end carved in the shape of a bear claw. 

3. The third form has the end flattened in the shape of a broad spatula. 

4. The fourth form has a wedge-shaped end; some of the specimens are bound 
with buckskin and cord. 

Type 1 . A series of specimens showing the type of form 1 is shown in 
Fig. 53. It may be seen that the main characteristic of this form is the 
carved end, formed of an irregular piece at the extremity of the stick and 
a circular band raised above the surface at a point averaging 10 cms. 
below the end of the stick. There is great variation in the manner of 
carving the ends of these sticks, but all of them follow a general form. 
The intervening space between the raised portions is, in some specimens, 
almost uniform in diameter, while in others it increases in size from the 
end to the central portion, decreasing again to the raised band, thereby 
forming a spindle-shaped piece. The general form of the ends can be 
seen to good advantage in the figure mentioned. Some of them are 
rounding, others flare on the sides and come to a point at the end; but 
all of them are flattened and in no instance has one been found, whose 
end is perfectly rounded. In only one specimen of this t} r pe has a hole 
been found in the carved piece at the end. This peculiarity belongs to a 
subdivision of this type, the difference in the two forms being in the 
formation of the raised band. In this type the surface of the band is 
perfectly flat, whereas in the subdivision, there is a slight groove in its 
surface. The stick mentioned as having a hole drilled through the upper 
part may have been grooved slightly when it was new, but it is well- 
preserved and it hardly seems that this could be possible. These sticks 



144 



Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 



are of cottonwood and range from 1 cm. to 1.7 cms. in diameter. None 
of these specimens is intact, the lower end of each having been broken 
off. The longest, however, measures 1.1 m. in length. 

Six of these sticks have the remains of cords tied at the upper end, 
all seemingly of yucca fiber; four of them are tied between the knobs, 
two just above the lower knob, that of the third directly below the knob 
at the end of the stick, and the fourth had cord tied j list above the middle 
portion. One of these is knotted at the end, in a similar fashion to that 
found about the quills of feathers, showing that these cords were no doubt 





Fig. 54a-/ (4375, 4371, 4379, 4378, 4185, 4433). Ceremonial Sticks, Type 1, Room 32. 



used to fasten feathers to the ends of these staves. The other two sticks 
had the cord bound directly below the carved band. These specimens are 
shown in Fig. 54. There are three specimens of exceptional size which are 
shown in Fig. 53b, c, h. In the first two specimens, the band at the end 
of the carved space is 2.8 cms. in diameter, whereas in all the other speci- 
mens, the average is greatly below this figure. The other specimen shown 
is rather roughly finished and the slope of the central portion has been 
strongly accentuated. 

With this group were found three sticks with two slender ceremonial 
sticks fastened to their sides, directly below the carved end. These 
sticks may be seen in Fig. 53. In one of these the sticks are bound 
with a loose two-strand yucca cord, the pieces being bound side by side 
and running parallel with the main sticks. There is also evidence of a 
cord fastened directly below the carved end which is perforated, this 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 145 

being the specimen mentioned as being the exception in this type. The 
second stick having the smaller sticks bound to its surface has a yucca 
cord tied loosely below the carved band. Its end has been knotted and 
still retains a portion of the quill of a feather. The third stick had the 
binding cord in place when the specimen was uncovered, but it had de- 
cayed to such an extent that it could not be retained. The specimens 
are,, however, tied to the stick in the same position as when they were 
found. This stick has the remains of a cord directly below the carved 
end and another just above the carved band, this being the only instance 
noted in which two cords were found on the same specimen. 

The use of these small sticks which have been found in a number of 
rooms in Pueblo Bonito, as already noted, cannot be definitely deter- 
mined, save that they are used in a ceremonial way and are no doubt 
similar to the prayer sticks used by the Pueblo Indians at the present 
time. They are found in many of the rooms of the pueblo, but this is the 
first instance in which they have been found associated with ceremonial 
sticks. Gushing claimed that they were scalp stretchers and that their 
ceremonial use was secondary. They are generally found in pairs and 
are almost always curved, but it would hardly seem from their form, that 
it would have been possible to utilize them for stretching human scalps. 

There were fifty-seven sticks of Type 1 that could be removed, 
although a number of them are represented merely by the carved head 
piece ; but in each instance a part of the head piece has been preserved to 
show conclusively that it belonged to this particular form. The ends of 
four of these sticks are burned, but as there was no evidence of a fire in 
this room, it may be that the sticks were burnt before they were put in 
place. Two of the burnt sticks are the ones having the small ceremonial 
sticks attached to their sides. 

The subdivision of this type, as already noted, differs from the others 
in having a hole drilled through the end and having the lower raised band 
grooved; there are however, eighteen exceptions. These pieces have the 
groove around the lower band, but no hole drilled through the upper part. 
Save for the difference noted, these specimens are the same as the form 
alreadjr described. Fourteen of them had the cord attached to their 
upper parts and one has a band of cotton cord tied at a point 10.5 cms. 
below the grooved band. One of these had the cord passed through the 
hole in the end, as shown in Fig. 54. 

Type 2. This type is represented by fifty-four pieces. This form 
has a curved end, carved to represent the claw of an animal; its appear- 
ance suggests the claw of a bear. In Fig. 55 a series of these sticks is 



146 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

shown ; it may be seen that thej r vary considerably in the size of what, in 
an animal claw, would be the basal part. In some, there is a very slight 
enlargement at the end of the stick; the other extreme is a very broad 
heavy piece from one side of which the claw-like projection starts. The 
widest is 3.7 cms. broad and the narrowest, 1.5 cms. The claw part in 
some is flattened on the inside and rounded on the outer surface; on others 
it is rounded throughout its length. In size and material these sticks are 
similar in form to Type 1. 

If these sticks had cords for the attachment of feathers there is no 
evidence of them at the present time. The only one showing remains of a 
cord, had the band in such a position that it seems to indicate that a 
small ceremonial stick rather than a feather had been fastened to it. 

Type 3. Type 3 differs radically from those already described. 
Types 1 and 2 were cylindrical throughout the greater part of their 
length, some of them tapering toward the plain end. All of the speci- 
mens in Type 3 are half rounded; some of these taper slightly toward the 
end, but they preserve a uniform plano-convex form throughout their 
length. 

There were fifty-four specimens of this type, representative forms 
of which are shown in Fig. 58. The end corresponding to the carved end 
in the other specimens, is flattened in this type. In the widest blade, the 
stick measures 2 cms. in width, on the flat side, and tapers generally to a 
width of 3.4 cms. at the end of the blade. The blade averages 8 cms. in 
length. The sticks average 1.2 cms. in thickness and decrease to 3 mms. 
at the end of the blade. Some specimens, however, are almost twice 
this thickness at the end, whereas others taper to a very thin edge. 

Three of these sticks show evidence of attachment of feathers, two 
have yucca cords attached, and one has a cord made of cotton; these 
cords are placed near the blade end of the stick. Another stick shows 
evidences of having been bound at the blade end with a cord, probably 
of buckskin; the area that was bound extends from the point where the 
blade begins, 6 cms. toward the end of the blade itself. Two of the 
specimens have been found with strips of buckskin over a centimeter in 
width (Fig. 58) ; one of the specimens has the yucca cord for the attach- 
ment of a feather. Both of these sticks are split at the point where the 
wrapping was adjusted and it was evidently for some such defect in the 
stick that the wrapping was applied; but if used in certain games, as the 
consideration of other specimens found with them would tend to show, 
it may have been applied in order that a firm grip might be obtained in 
handling the stick. Few of these sticks have been preserved in their 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 147 

entirety, the end opposite the handle being missing in most cases; how- 
ever, some specimens show this portion, which might be called the distal 
end. These give a good idea of the taper of this end of the stick; one 
of them is almost a counterpart of the small gaming sticks found in 
Room 2 and it may have been from sticks of this kind that the small dice- 
like pieces, were cut (p. 35). Most of the pieces were in a fair state of 
preservation. 

One of these sticks has an object carved on the fiat side at a point 30 
cms. below the blade end. This is in the form of a raised figure, 3.7 cms. 
long, 1.1 cms. broad at the end toward the blade, and tapering to 5 mms. 
at the opposite ends. This end is raised 3 mms. above the surface of the 
stick. It is evidently made to represent the rattle of a rattlesnake. The 
stick is perfectly straight below this figure, but directly above, it curves 
backward, the curvings being evidently intentional. 

In the Zuni ceremonials, there is a game played with sticks that 
might be called an Indian golf game. The clan of the south meets the 
clan of the north and the game is waged with all the ardor of a battle. 
Before the game, both sides pray to the ceremonial representatives of 
their sticks and carry miniature sticks with them. The game is to decide 
the fate of the year. Should the south win, it would rain, but should the 
north be victorious, there would be a windy season. In deciding the out- 
come of a battle, a band of braves is selected to represent the enemy; 
an equal number oppose them, then a battle royal ensues. Should those 
who represent the enemy be vanquished, the braves will go forth to the 
conquest with light hearts, for they have won the spirit battle, which 
assures success in a physical one; thus, bj r divination, according to 
dishing, many great events were decided. 

Another ceremonial stick that belongs to Type 3, is shown in Fig. 
58a. This stick has the half round form of the others, but the end has 
been finished in a unique way. The rounded portion of the end of the 
stick was cut away to allow a broad spatulate piece to be lashed to it. 
This piece is 15 cms. long, 6.5 cms. wide at the blade end, and 4 cms. 
thick. It tapers gently towards the point where it is bound to the stick. 
At this end there is a projection which fits into a groove and over it a 
band of sinew 1.4 cms. in width has been wrapped. At the extreme end 
of the main stick, a groove has been cut and directly below it, two holes 
have been drilled into the flat portion. By means of these holes and the 
groove, the pieces have been joined together with sinew, making a neat, 
and at the same time, a very substantial finish. This is the only in- 
stance in which two pieces were employed in making one of these cere- 
monial staves. 



148 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

Type 4- Type 4 is represented by twenty-two pieces; they are 
cylindrical sticks, but are as a rule greater in diameter than those in 
types 1 and 2. They are rougher in finish than those in the types just 
mentioned; some of them have knots projecting from their surface and 
others are veiy irregular in form. The care shown in the selection of the 
other pieces has not been carried out in selecting this material. The larg- 
est of these specimens measures over 2 cms. in diameter; two of the 
perfect ones measure 1 .135 m. and 1.11m., respectively. The ends of the 
sticks corresponding to the worked end of the other pieces show a flatten- 
ing on one side of the stick which divides it in half at the end and tapers 
back until the general level of the stick is reached. The worked area 
averages 14 cms. in length; in some however, it extends backward over 
20 cms. Fig. 58 shows a series of the more perfect of these sticks and gives 
a good idea of their form . 

A variant or subtype of this form is shown in Fig. 60. There were 
ten of this form and they differ from the others inasmuch as they have 
bindings of sinew at the end of the blades and, in two instances, at the 
point where the ground surface begins. On one of these specimens there 
is a broad binding of sinew which originally covered a space 4.5 cms. 
broad. A part of the sinew has disappeared, showing that the portion 
toward the blade end, over a distance of 1 cm., was painted black. The 
remaining portion to within 5 cms. of the end of the binding was painted 
a bright orange color, all of the colored area having been covered with the 
thick binding of sinew. There was evidently a defective space in the 
middle portion of this stick as it had been bound with a strip of buckskin 
which was over 1.5 cms. in width. The specimens were similar to those 
already described, the only difference being in the handling of the blade 
end ; they had been bound at the tip with sinew, as in the specimens just 
described, evidently to strengthen this point. Over the entire blade a 
grillwork of rawhide strands was adjusted. The technique of this work 
is rather interesting and is shown in Fig. 60. It may be noted that in all 
of the specimens but one, the rawhide covers the entire worked space, 
with the exception of a narrow place averaging 5 cms. at the point and 
extending beyond the worked area on the face of the stick. In the third, 
a similar technique was found; in place of the buckskin, a finely spun 
cord was employed. There were ten of these specimens, three of which 
are shown in Fig. 58. In two of these a finely spun yucca cord was used 
which covered the blade in the same manner as did the buckskin, the 
only difference being that the cord does not extend to the plain surface 
of the stick and does not completely cover the blade end. The third 




Fig. 55. Ceremonial Sticks, Type 2: abc (4504, 4438, 4437), Room 32; d (4539), Room 33; e-p;(4332, 
4331, 4358, 4384, 4367, 4342, 4360, 4385, 4386, 4428, 4355, 4363), Room 32. 



149 




Fig. 56. Ceremonial Sticks, Type 2: a (4348) ; & (4428). 




Fig. 57. Ceremonial Sticks, Variants of Type 2: a (4539), Room 33; be (4332, 4358), Room 32. 



150 







i* 






Fig. 59. Ceremonial Sticks, Type 3: a-c (4327, 4301, 43 97j , 



Room 32. 




Kg. 60. Ceremonial Sticks, Type 4: a (4514;, 



Room 33; b (4301), Room 32. 



152 




Fig. 61 a-h (4477, 447S, 4480, 4490, 4488, 4489, 4481, 4493). Curved Sticks, Room 32. 




Fig. 62. Curved Sticks: a (4488), Room 32; b (4551), Room 33. 




Fig. 63 (4368). End of Ceremonial Stick, inlaid with Turquoise, Room 32 




Fig. 64. Curved Sticks: a& (8795), Room 55; c (4618), Room 33; d-f (4507, 4506, 4440), Room 32. 




Fig. 65 (4500) . Design on a Painted Board, Room 32. 
See Plate 8. 



156 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 157 

specimen was covered with cotton cord, bound with buckskin at the 
point where the blade begins and reinforced 3.5 cms. from the end with a 
band of sinew. The knotting of the cord on the edges of the stick is the 
same as that shown in the rawhide covered pieces already noted. 

Associated with the game sticks were a number of .branches of grease- 
wood and other sticks which, because they had not been finished, could 
not be classed as game sticks; two of them had evidently been used for 
stirring fires, as their ends were burnt. There were other sticks, of the 
curved form shown in Fig. 64, many of them in a fragmentary condition 
when found. The use to which these sticks were applied cannot be sug- 
gested, but evidently they had some connection with the game sticks. 
In the illustration (f) appears a stick with worked ends. It is 55 cms. 
long and 3.2 cms. in diameter. Its appearance suggests that it might 
have been used as the rung of a ladder, but there is no evidence of wear 
to show that it had been used for this purpose. 

In Fig. 55a-c (4504, 4437-4438), two carefully finished sticks of 
cottonwood and one of deer antler are shown. All of these objects taper 
at one end; in the case of the antler piece, the opposite end is slightly 
tapered. The cottonwood pieces are 79.5 cms. and 77.5 cms. in length, 
respectively, and average 1.2 cms. in diameter at the butt end. The 
piece of deer antler has been ground and is 57.5 cms. in length and 1 cm. 
in width at its widest part. There are no markings upon the surface of 
these sticks to indicate their use. Associated with the game staves were 
twenty-three complete sticks, such as were found attached in pairs to 
the larger staves, and fifty-six fragments of these slender curved pieces. 
There was found with the large game sticks, a series of curved sticks, 
more or less elaborate, which may have been tossed by means of the large 
sticks. InFig. 61 a series of these specimens is shown. Fig. 61b is 13.5 cms. 
long and the knobs at the ends, which are irregular in shape, have an 
average diameter of 3 cms. The band which separates the ends is 2.6 
cms. broad and 1.3 cms. thick. It is made of cottonwood. Fig. 61a 
is 18 cms. long and is flattened on the under side. The three cone-shaped 
pieces on either side of the flat central part average 2 cms. in width. 
Fig. 61b and 61c show a simple form of Fig. 61a; they are about the 
same size and average 13.5 cms. from end to end. This form reminds one 
of the bags filled with sand and tied together with a piece of buckskin, as 
used by Indians in a game. There were three other specimens of the type 
just described. In Fig. 61g a variant of this form is shown; it is 12 cms. 
from end to end and the balls on either end measure 1.5 cms. in length, 
whereas the others average nearly 6 cms. in length. There was one other 



158 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

specimen of this form. Fig. 61d is of the dumb-bell form; it is 14 cms. 
long with a flat band connecting the balls which average 2.7 cms. in 
diameter. Fig. 61e is a cylindrical stick, 1.2 cms. in diameter, and 14.5 
cms. from end to end. It is curved, but there has been no carving on the 
surface. Figs. 61e and 62a show another stick, angular in shape, which 
is also simple in form. There was another specimen of this form, but 
it was in a fragmentary condition. Figs. 61f, h, and 62b are 
elaborations of the angular type, with the arms carved in a manner 
similar to that seen on some of the larger ceremonial sticks. There was 
one other fragment of this carved angular type. Fig. 61 shows those 
with a ball on either end and a raised portion from which the narrow 
separating band started. This type seemed to be the most common, as 
there were nine in a fragmentary condition, both ends of which were 
found. One of these was decorated with cross-hatching which covered 
the entire surface. There was one fragmentary piece with three cones on 
either side of the central portion. There were also fourteen ends, the 
opposite portions of which could not be found; most of them were 
similar to those that have been described, although there were a few 
showing slight variations. 1 

Finally, note should be taken of the fragment shown in Fig. 63. 
This is the knobbed end of a wooden stick, inlaid with small pieces of 
turquoise. 

Design Board. Among the ceremonial sticks in the northwestern 
part of the room, a slab was found which, from its weight, was evidently 
of wood; it was completely covered with plant mould and no special 
attention was given to the object until it reached the Museum; it had 
been dried to some extent and faint outlines of designs could be seen upon 
the flat surfaces. It was subjected to a careful brushing and washing, 
with the result that elaborate designs were found to cover both sides and 
one edge of the slab. 

The slab itself measures 16.5 cm. in width and 17.5 cm. in height. 
It averages 1.7 cm. in thickness at the decorated edge and widens to 2.5 
cm. at the opposite edge. The decorated edge has been carefully 
smoothed, but the opposite one is somewhat irregular; the upper and 



'Some of these sticks resemble the wooden bars used by the Zufii belt weaver to hold the warp series 
to her belt. Quite similar objects have been found in ruins in northern Chile and Argentine [See, 
Ambrosetti, Juan B., " Exploracion6s Arqueologicas en la Ciudad Prehistorica de ' La Paya ' ( Valle 
Calchaqui-Provincia de Salta), " Segunda Parte, Descripcion del Material Arqueologico (Buenos Aires, 
1908), 465-466], which from the signs of wear upon their surfaces must have been used as rings or toggles. 
Curiously enough, both the angular or elbow type shown above and the more extended curved forms 
are found in Chile. The suggestion, therefore, is that originally these objects from Bonito were practical 
instead of ceremonial. — Ed. 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 159 

lower edges have been rounded. This object was no doubt meant for 
suspension, and may have been an altar slab. In the corner, at one end 
of the decorated edge, a hole has been drilled through the face of the slab, 
thence upward to the center of the upper edge, thereby leaving one side 
free from defects. 

The designs on the sides of the slab differ. On one side, as may be 
seen in Plate 8, there is an interlocking fret design, the major portion of 
the lines which form it being serrated. These lines are in black and 
green on a red background, the designs themselves being edged with a 
narrow line of orange. The opposite side of the slab which is shown in 
Fig. 65 has the same red background, and the design in general is similar 
to that shown on the obverse, but on this side the lines are straight and 
none of them have the edge serrated. The colors of the bands forming 
the designs on this side of the slab are black and a deep carmine or plum 
color. The latter are outlined with orange as were those on the other 
side. The design on the edge is a continuation of that on the side just 
described and it seems to be carried to the edge on the side opposite. 

There still remains enough of the designs to give a general idea of 
their former appearance, but in order to develop them to the extent shown 
in the accompanying illustrations, it was necessary to keep this surface 
wet during the greater part of the time that the artist was at work. The 
figures are the usual geometric elaborations found in this pueblo. 

Arrows. Standing upright and resting against the walls in the 
northwest corner of the room, a quiver of arrows was found. Thirty- 
two of these became detached from the main mass when the quiver was 
uncovered, but over half of the arrows were removed in the condition 
in which they were found, and may now be seen in the Museum, where 
they are on exhibition. It seems that the arrows were divided into 
groups which were tied with heavy two-strand yucca cord. One of these 
cords is still in position, the others had decayed to such an extent, 
that they could not be preserved. In the mass that was removed intact, 
there were forty-nine arrows that can be counted, that is there are forty- 
nine points which project to such an extent that they can be seen, others 
may be imbedded deeper in the mass; but, owing to the fact that the 
opposite ends of the arrows are in such a poor state of preservation, it is 
impossible to check up the count from that end. The actual number of 
arrows therefore, cannot be decided upon, but with the ones that were 
detached, there are eighty-one arrows, the points of which could be 
examined. 



160 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

These arrows are of the compound form, made of reeds with a wood- 
en foreshaft; they average 77 cms. in length, including the foreshaft 
and point. The foreshafts are made of some hard wood which has the 
appearance of greasewood, although it may possibly be mountain maho- 
gany; they average 18 cms. in length from the point where they enter 
the reed to the end where the stone point is attached, 8 mms. in 
diameter at the base, and taper gently toward the point. They are 
fastened to the main shaft, that is, to the reed, with bindings of sinew, 
and the points are attached with substantial bindings of the same 
material. The points are mostly of transparent chalcedony and are of 
the tapering variety, a number of them have double notches on the side, 
as may be seen in Fig. 40d. 

Owing to the fact that the room has contained so much water at 
times, the feathering of the arrows was not preserved. Still adhering 
to some of them, there are fragments of the quills, which show the 
manner of feathering; they have a line of black paint on the notched end; 
but aside from this, no painting, such as has been noted on some of the 
arrows from other rooms in Pueblo Bonito, was in evidence. Most of 
the arrows retained the notch, in fact the greater number were complete, 
the only blemish being the loss of the feathers, and a partial decomposi- 
tion of the surfaces, which rested upon the ground. 

In studying the workmanship on these arrows, there is one point 
that is quite apparent, that is the manner of straightening the solid wooden 
foreshafts; although they have been ground and smoothed after the 
straightening process was complete, the marks of the teeth may still be 
seen on the surface. Indians may be seen at the present time in the 
Southwest straightening sticks which are to be used for arrows in this 
manner. The work is accomplished by grasping the ends of the stick 
firmly with either hand, bending it, and biting the surface at the same 
time. On some of the foreshafts from the ruins, indentations which are 
quite deep, may be seen. 

The rinding of arrows in the ancient pueblos, is not uncommon, but 
seldom, if ever before, has a complete quiver been encountered. A great 
many fragments of arrows of similar form to those just described were 
found in the ruin; but strange as it may seem, no perfect bow, nor even 
a large fragment of one was found. 

Three foreshafts of wood and a fourth with a section of the reed 
arrow attached, were found (Fig. 40). These foreshafts are of the usual 
form, with the exception of the end which is carried to a point. These are 
what Gushing called "self foreshafts," meaning that they were complete 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 161 

and were not intended to hold a stone point. These specimens were 
found among the ceremonial sticks, but not near or associated with the 
quiver of arrows. It is rather interesting to find this type of foreshaft 
in the room, as all those in the quiver that could be examined had been 
fashioned for the attachment of a stone point. They measure 27.3 cm. 
in length, the part that enters the reed shaft being on an average 2.7 cms. 
long. 

Miscellaneous Objects. Directly behind the mass of ceremonial 
sticks in the northwest corner and resting against the north wall was a 
club of elk antler lying with the butt end toward the north. This speci- 
men is 48 cms. long and has a hole drilled through the small end for the 
attachment of a thong. Very little work has been done upon the antler, 
with the exception of the grinding off of a prong directly above the handle 
and a general grinding away of the base of the antler. The surface has 
been smoothed to some extent, but there are no decorations. 




Fig. 66 (4181). A Cloth-Covered Object, Room 32. 

Another object of interest found under the body in the southwest 
corner of the room is shown in Fig. 66. It is a piece of what seems to be a 
section of a cactus stalk. In its present fragmentary condition it is 8.5 
cms. long, 5 cms. broad, and 3 cms. thick. The lower part is intact, but 
part of the upper end is missing; the upper part has been bound with 
yucca cord, the remaining part of which is over 1 cm. in width. This 
binding circled the upper part of the object and from a layer of cloth 
which covers the greater part of one side at the present time it would 
seem that the whole object had been enclosed in a similar layer. Owing 
to the fact that the specimen is not complete, it is impossible to say what 
its use had been, but it may have been used as a badge of office such as is 
carried by priests at the present time among the Hopi and Zuni and used 
also on ceremonial altars. 



162 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

Two wooden slabs were found in the general debris in the western 
part of the room. Both are of cottonwood; one is 20.6 cms. long, 8.5 
cms. in width, and 2.5 cms. in thickness, the sides and ends are rounded. 
Boards of this nature were used, according to Cushing, for stretching the 
skins of animal heads that were to be used for ceremonial purposes. The 
other slab is 27 cms. long, 9 cms. wide, and averages 1.5 cms. in the 
center, it tapers, however, toward either side. Two holes have been 
drilled at the upper edge near one of the corners, and one of these has 
been closed with a wooden plug. There are also two holes near the 
lower edge of the piece, but there is nothing either in form or in the posi- 
tions of the holes to indicate their use. One of the ordinary kicking sticks 
was found in the northwest corner. It is 13 cms. long, and averages 4. 
cms. in diameter; it is of the usual form, but slightly larger than the 
average stick of this nature. 

A small section of reed was found in the western part of the room. 
It is 4.7 cms. in length and has the ends cut at right angles with the reed. 
It may have been used either as a die or as a drinking tube. 

Among the fragments of ceremonial sticks from the northwestern 
corner was one painted black and orange, similar to that noted in one of 
the perfect sticks. In this case as in the other one mentioned, the orange 
occupies the major portion of the band, but both colors had been perfectly 
preserved. 

Among the other objects found in the western part of the room, were 
three sandals of the braided variety, the material used being narrow 
strips of yucca leaf. There were also fragments of finely woven sandals 
made of yucca fiber. Fragments of a number of small and at least one 
very large basket were also found. These objects, with a large piece of 
galena, a piece of calcined gypsum, an irregular mass of pinon gum, a 
chalcedony flake with a very sharp cutting edge, a number of pieces of 
squash rind and squash and pumpkin stems, a piece of squash or pump- 
kin rind cut into a circular form, drilled in the center, the remains 
of a fiber cord with which it was no doubt attached to some object still 
in place in the hole, and a number of pieces of reeds finish the list of 
objects. 

Room 32 proved to be 8 feet 11 inches long on the north side, 8 
feet 8 inches long on the south side, 4 feet 7 inches wide at the east end, 
and 7 feet 3 inches wide at the west end. There were doorways in three 
of the walls and all of the walls were plastered. These doorways were of 
the usual form and had poles foi lintels. The one in the north wall was 
1 foot 9 inches wide and 1 foot 9 inches high; it was open and led into a 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 163 

room which, upon investigation, proved to be another of the burial series. 
This doorway was 3 feet from the west wall. The southern doorway was 1 
foot 10 inches wide and 2 feet 10 inches high; it was 4 feet 2 inches 
from the west wall. The western doorway was 2 feet from the southern 
wall. It was 1 foot 9 inches wide and 2 feet 9 inches high. The floor 
was about 1 foot below the level of the doorways, which were about an 
equal distance above it. The distance from the ceiling beams, in their 
present condition, to the door sills averaged 4 feet. 

Room 33. 

Room 33 is directly west of and connected with Room 32. When the 
latter was first entered, it was found that the sand had almost filled the 
western doorway, but there was enough space remaining to allow passage 
through it, and into Room 33. Entrance was gained by the writer, and, 
with the aid of a candle, certain objects were seen which were in keeping 
with the ceremonial sticks that protruded from the sand in the room 
already examined. The room proved to be somewhat smaller than 
Room 32; but the sand had not filled it so deeply as the other room. A 
full account of its contents has been published in "The Exploration of a 
Burial Room in Pueblo Bonito, New Mexico." 1 The unique feature of 
the room is that it was a burial place and with the bodies were deposited 
very interesting objects fully described in our earlier publication. 

The room under consideration is very small compared with the 
rooms in the northern part of the building. It is situated in a section 
where there evidently was a great deal of reconstruction work, to which 
fact, no doubt, may be attributed the presence of so many small rooms 
grouped about Room 33. The length of the northern wall of the room is 
6 feet, of the southern wall 6 feet 3 inches, of the eastern wall 5 feet 10 
inches, and of the western wall 6 feet 10 inches; that is, the room is 
almost square. The doorway in the eastern wall is 2 feet 3 inches from 
the southern wall. It is of the ordinary rectangular type, — 1 foot 10 
inches high and 2 feet 3 inches wide, — provided with poles for a lintel. 
This is the only entrance to the room. The sides of the doorway are 
plastered, as are all of the walls. There are no decorations on the walls, 
nor are there evidences of the room having been made for a burial 
chamber. In the southwestern corner is a post that was placed under the 
crossbeams, which extend north and south, as a precautionary measure. 
These beams enter the northern and southern walls; but, in adding new 

1 Putnam Anniversary Volume (New York, 1909), 196-252. 



164 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

rooms above this series, the builders evidently thought it advisable to 
strengthen the floors with posts. The top of the post mentioned had 
fallen against the western wall. Its base stands about a foot from both 
the western and the southern wall. The largest post in the room was 
found under the beam in the northwestern corner. Its distance from the 
walls is about the same as in the case of the post in the southwestern 
corner. In the northeastern corner are two posts, one of which supports 
the ceiling beam, standing 5 inches from the eastern wall and a foot from 
the northern wall; the other post is four inches west of the one just men- 
tioned, about the same distance from the northern wall, and extending 
through the ceiling into the room above. A post in the southeastern 
corner at the base is six inches from each wall, but has fallen against the 
eastern wall. The ceiling is composed of thirteen beams, of various sizes, 
over which is a layer of cedarbark. In the southwestern corner, at a 
distance of 1 foot 6 inches from the ceiling beams, were five willow sticks 
protruding from the wall, and forming a sort of rack; but nothing was 
found in it. The room in its entirety is in a very good state of preserva- 
tion, the only defect being a slight bulge in the ceiling. 

Though the specimens found have been adequately described else- 
where 1 some of the more important may be noted here. Among these 
are six flageolets shown in Fig. 67. One of these was highly decorated, 
Fig. 68. The types of pottery found are shown in Figs. 69-70. Orna- 
ments of turquoise and shell were abundant. One of the most striking 
was a basket covered with a turquoise mosaic (Fig. 71). It is described 
as follows: At first, in clearing away the surrounding sand, the small 
turquoise pieces seemed to be in place; subsequently, as the sand was 
brushed from about them, many fell from their original position. It 
required several hours to determine the shape of the object covered by 
these turquoise pieces; but, owing to the fact that fragments of the 
material on which the turquoise had been fastened still remained, it was 
possible to ascertain that the object had been a cylindrical basket, 3 
inches in diameter and 6 inches in length. The basket work had de- 
cayed; but the fragments showed conclusively that it had been made of 
very slender splints over which a layer of some material, probably pinon 
gum, had been placed, this being the medium that held the turquoise 
pieces in position. A restoration of this specimen is shown in Fig. 71, 
the individual pieces being represented as adjusted in the manner noted 
by the writer in uncovering the specimen. The cylinder was practically 

1 ibid., Putnam Anniversary Volume. 



CO TJ 



Tt- « 



1HP 



ooo 



ooc 



Fig. 68 (4563). Painted Flute from Room 33. 



166 












Fig. 69 a-l (3610, 3617, 3627, 3618, 3624, 3675, 8628, 3656, 3645, 3635, 3630, 3612). Mortuary 
Pottery from Room 33. 



167 





wmam 

■ * j ,v - 

: ■%■"■■■:■ 




;■<:., 











Fig. 70 a-k (3637, 3621, 3676, 3620, 3616, 3623, 3619, 3622, 3616, 3614, 367S). Mortuary Pottery 
from Room 33. 



16S 




Fig. 72. Large Turquoise Pendants, Room 33. 



170 




Fig. 73. Examples of Turquoise Beads, Pendants, and Inlays found with Skeletons in Room 33. 




Fijr. 74. Large Turquoise Pendants found in Various Parts of Room 33. 



172 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 173 

filled with sand, and was also covered by the same material, which had 
drifted over it. Thus, though the basket work had decayed, the several 
inlays were held in place by an equalization of pressure. This condition 
made it possible to determine, not only the general form of the object, 
but also the irregular arrangement of the various pieces of turquoise. 
In his legends concerning the Navajo Indians, Dr. Washington Matthews 
shows that several references to "turquoise jewel-baskets" are made by 
them. But whether their traditional knowledge of the subject is of mythi- 
cal origin, or whether their ancestors saw such baskets in use by the 
Pueblo Indians in the early days, cannot now be stated with certainty; 
but the Navajo legend is none the less interesting on this account. 

There were 1214 pieces of turquoise forming the mosaic which cov- 
ered the cylinder, and so closely were these placed, that hardly an 
opening was left in the whole surface. Partially filling the cylinder, and 
lying directly below its mouth, was a mass of turquoise and shell beads 
and pendants. In this deposit there were 2150 disk-shaped turquoise 
beads. With these were 152 small turquoise pendants, of various forms, 
and twenty-two large pendants of the same material, the largest of which 
measured 3.6 cms. in length, 2.7 cms. in width, and 3 mms. in thickness. 
One of these (3769) is of irregular form, having the edges on all sides 
notched. Another (9250) is carved so as to give the appearance of a 
bird with a crest. A third pendant is crescent-shaped; this was made 
from a fragment of a disk-shaped bead. Still another (3852) is in the 
form of a bird, the head and bill being outlined by a deep incision ; there 
is also an incised line about the neck. 

Associated with the turquoise beads and pendants were 3317 shell 
beads and small pendants. Among these were a few beads made from 
olivella shell, but most of them were disk-shaped. There were aiso 
seventy shell beads of cylindrical form, and eight specimens of the same 
kind having holes drilled in the sides, in which turquoise sets no doubt 
had been inlaid. Still other objects unearthed were sixty-eight large 
shell pendants of irregular shape, most of them of the flat form; nine- 
teen of these have holes drilled in the sides for the reception of turquoise 
inlays. This fact might be deemed purely conjectural, were it not that a 
pendant of similar form still retains one of the turquoise sets in place. 
Two of the shell pendants found in this deposit are in the shape of moc- 
casins; these are drilled for suspension. Three cylindrical beads of shell, 
averaging 3 cms. in length and 8 mms. in diameter, were found. These 1 
beads are similar to specimens discovered in the same room, each 
provided with a bird bone passing through the central opening. The 



174 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

deposit contained also four shell pendants representing bird forms: 
one of these specimens still retains a piece of turquoise inlaid in the 
side. A fifth specimen is of the ordinary form of pendants drilled for the 
reception of an inlay, and still retains a piece of turquoise in a groove 
cut just below the drilled portion. 

In the center of the mass of shell and turquoise ornaments, below the 
turquoise mosaic cylinder, an object having an animal form was found. 
This figure (Plate 1, 3657) is made of soft but very compact stone. The 
greater part is of a light pink color; but there is an area of chalky white 
on the under side, extending through to the tail. This latter part is so 
much disintegrated that the material rubs off at the slightest touch. 
The object in its entirety is 8.7 cms. in length, and 3.3 cms. in width at 
the widest part, that is, across the shoulders. It is 1.6 cms. in thickness 
at the shoulder, tapering from this point to the nose, also to the wedge- 
shaped tail. The general form of the object is shown in Fig. 76c. The 
body is marked off from the head by a deep groove on each side. The 
head is carefully carved. One feature is a shovel-like projection, evi- 
dently made to represent a flat nose. There are pits forming eyes, which 
evidently were once inlaid with pieces of turquoise. A band of the same 
material passes across the neck. This object was obviously made to be 
used as a pendant. To prevent the cord from wearing away the very 
soft material, the makers inserted a bird bone in a hole drilled just above 
the neck; the opening on each side was countersunk, and the space was 
filled with gum. Over each end a large turquoise bead was placed, one 
being in position when the object was found. These completely covered 
the ends of the bone, which otherwise would have detracted from the 
finish of the figure. Whether this object was made to represent a real or a 
mythical animal is not determined. 

Near skeleton No. 14, but not associated with the deposit just 
described, were the remains of another object made of turquoise and 
shell mosaic inserted on basket work. Owing to the fact that 
the basket work had been woven over a wooden body, or at least over a 
form of fibrous material (as a piece of cactus stalk), several fragments of 
the object still retained their form, and could be removed. From the 
contour of the largest fragment, the object must have been 4 cms. in 
diameter and more than 6 cms. in length, although the length of the 
portion found is but 3 cms. Unlike the mosaic cylinder above described, 
this specimen is made of turquoise beads and ovoidal thin pieces of shell. 
The beads were strung on a cord and placed on edge against the body of 
the cylinder, in parallel rows separated by two rows of the thin shell 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 175 

pieces which overlapped like shingles. The number of beads in each 
transverse row was from six to seven, according to the thickness of the 
pieces. There are the remains of three of these rows of beads, and of 
three of the alternating rows of shell which occupy more than half the 
diameter of the object. With this specimen were a number of beads 
very much larger than the ones which remained in place, the former 
averaging 6 mms in diameter, while the latter are under 4 mms. Sec- 
tions of the larger beads were found, showing that they had been strung 




§ • 



jm «**; H ^m m 



Fig. 75. Turquoise Frogs and Tadpoles, Room 3.3. 



in the same manner as the smaller ones. How they were applied is, of 
course, conjectural: possibly Wiey formed a row at each end of the speci- 
men. There were discovered more than five hundred loose beads that 
had formed a part of this interesting object, which was no doubt used 
ceremonially. 

In addition there were many turquoise pendants and ornaments, 
types of which are shown in the illustrations. A detailed description 
will be found in a former publication. 








Fig. 76. Specimens from Room 33: a (12794), Jet ornament, natural size; 
b (12787), Mouthpiece for a shell trumpet, Fig. 77, natural size; c (10418), Encrusted 
stone ornament, length, 8.7 cm.; d (3673), Object made of reeds, length, 9.4 cm.; 
e (10420), Hematite cylinder inlaid with turquoise, length, 5.4 cm. 





Fig. 77. a (3653), Shell Trumpet found with Skeleton 14, Room 33; b Ceremonial Sticks found 
between Ceiling Beams in Southwestern Corner of Room 33. 



177 



178 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 




Fig. 78 (3682) . Bead of Shell with Section of 
a Bird Bone Inserted, Room 33. Length, 3 cm. 



Room 34. 
Directly south of Room 27 and the series of rooms separating the 
main courts in the pueblo was Room 34. This was rectangular in form, 
6 feet 7 inches wide at the north end, 6 feet 6 inches wide at the south end, 
and with a length of 17 feet 7 inches on the east side and 18 feet on the 
west side. The eastern wall had been almost completely destroyed, but 
the other walls were still standing to a height of 7 feet. Two small wall 
pockets were found in the west wall; the fireplace in the floor also had 
two circular depressions near it. This fireplace was 8 inches from the 

west wall ; almost circular, the longer 
axis, north and south, measuring 2 
feet 3 inches, and the shorter one, 2 
feet 1 inch, its depth being 6 inches. 
The floor was carefully smoothed 
adobe. The circular places near the 
fireplace were made of adobe; they 
average 10 inches in diameter on the 
outside and 4 inches in diameter 
on the inside. These depressions, 
appearing as they do, in a room of 
a series which connects estufas, are 
rather interesting. No specimens 
were found in this room. 

Room 35. 
Room 35 was one of a series ex- 
tending east and west as may be 
seen in the plan, Fig. 155. It is 
rectangular in form and shows the 
following measurements: the east wall, 12 feet 3 inches; the west 
wall, 12 feet 5 inches; the south wall, 11 feet 11 inches; the north 
wall, 12 feet. 

The upper walls are of poor construction, but the lower ones seem to 
have been made with greater care. There is a doorway in the western 
part of the north wall of the usual rectangular form. In the south wall, 
there are two large ceiling beams projecting from the surface. When the 
debris was cleared from this room, it was found to be the remains of 
two rooms. The lower one measured 6 feet 2 inches from the floor to the 
ceiling and the upper one was not complete, but the distance from the 
lower floor to the top of the wall in the northwest corner was 12 feet. 
The floor of this room, that is, the upper one, was composed of sticks 





Fig. 79. Turquoise Pendant and Set Showing 
Inlays of the Same Material, Room 33. 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 179 

ranging from two to four inches in diameter. These ran east and west 
and were supported by four beams which ran in the opposite direction. 
They were in pairs, each pair touching and being 2^2 feet from the east 
and west sides of the room. These logs were 5 inches in diameter and 
were well imbedded in the masonry. Above the sticks a layer of brush 
had been placed and over this adobe which formed the floor of the 
room. The floor had caved in from the extreme weight that had rested 
upon it, and the lower room was rilled with debris. The floor beams were 
broken and most of them were badly decayed. 

The walls of this room were composed of large stones set in mortar, 
but none of the interstices were chinked with smaller stones. It had 
originally been plastered, but the only place which retained the plaster 
was a portion of the south wall; here it was quite thick, the surface being 
very irregular and showing finger marks over the greater part of its area. 

The lower room was a trifle smaller than the upper one. The walls 
were composed of smaller stones and all but the west one retained the 
greater part of the original plaster. In the northeast corner the plaster 
was very thick and filled with finger marks. 

The east and west walls were not joined to the north and south walls, 
they simply rested against them. They were really partitions that had 
been built at the convenience of the owners after the long hall-like place 
had been completed. In this way they could divide it into the sizes 
desired and change it without damaging the north and south walls. 

Directly below the place where the two beams protruded from the 
south wall, near the east side, there was a small wall pocket, half a foot 
square and running back into the wall about the same distance. This 
pocket was 1 foot below the ceiling beams. In the western wall of the 
upper room, 4 feet from the south wall and resting upon the floor timbers, 
are two layers of stone marking a well-defined place, a foot and a half on 
the bottom and about 6 inches wider on either side of the top where the 
wall is broken. This was probably one of the old T-shaped doorways. 
The room contained a few specimens scattered about in the debris. 
It was completely cleared and the excavations carried to a distance of 3 
feet below the lower floor. The specimens from the debris were the fol- 
lowing: three bone awls made from fragments of deer bone, two frag- 
ments of ceremonial sticks, one with the end shaped like a bear claw, a 
number of turkey quills, fragments of shell, red ocher, obsidian, and 
turquoise; also a turquoise bead and pendant and a shell bead, a stone 
arrow point, fragments of a charred basket and corncobs, a ball of clay, 
pieces of yucca cord, three hammerstones, and two smoothing stones. 



180 A nthrojolog'lcal Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII 

Room 36. 

Room 36, just west of Room 35 and south of Room 2, was almost 
square. It measures 1 1 feet 9 inches on the north, 12 feet 10 inches on the 
south, 12 feet 4 inches on the east, and 12 feet 1 inch on the west. There 
were two stories, as in Room 35, the lower room being 7 feet high. The 
walls of both rooms were plastered. There was a doorway in the north 
wall, 2 feet below the ceiling beams and 4 feet from the west wall; it 
was 2 feet 6 inches wide, and the top and bottom were rounded with 
mortar, the upper part covering the wooden lintels. There were also the 
remains of a small doorway in the eastern part of the same wall. 

In Fig. 80, the northern and eastern part of this room is shown, giv- 
ing a general idea of the masonry and the floor beams. The north wall 
was rough as compared with the other walls of the room, the east and 
west walls being merely partitions. 

In the south wall, there was a pocket 4 inches below the ceiling and 
11 inches square. There was also a corner doorway in the southeast 
corner of the lower room. It was flush with the east wall and 1 foot 6 
inches below the ceiling; it was 1 foot 4 inches wide and 2 feet high. The 
wall of the upper room on the south side was blackened by smoke and 
many of the stones had been calcined from heat. 

The specimens found in this room, were in the debris, on, or slightly 
above the floor level. They are as follows: a lapstone 37 cms. long, 20 
cms. wide, 3.5 cms. thick (its use as a lapstone was evidently secondary, 
as there are evidences that it had been used as a baking stone) ; a small 
metate and mano found together, the metate is 44 cms. long and 25 cms. 
wide at the widest part, made of fine-grained sandstone, as is also the 
mano; the mano is 14.5 cms. broad and is of the short type, such as are 
used with the small metates: two rectangular grinding stones; a mano 
that had been used to such an extent that only a small portion of it 
remained; a small sandstone slab, probably used as a lapstone; two 
sandstone jar covers; pieces of shell that had probably been used in 
making ornaments; fossil shells; pieces of gypsum; a portion of the 
jaw of a beaver, with a tooth in place, which has been worked and had 
probably been used as an implement; pieces of azurite and malachite: 
turquoise matrix; a fragment of a turquoise pendant; shell beads; and 
three bone awls. 

There was a pointed stick, evidently a fire stick, also one of the 
cylindrical sticks of the long type as described under Room 2. 

There was the stem of a clay pipe which was roughly made, the 
clay being of the micaceous type used in making the cooking vessels. 



! ■ ,* : ■■■ u " "■ 



■fliSfS 




H 3 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 183 

Another pipe, similar to Fig. 20c, is also of clay, but of the ordinary gray- 
ware. A portion of the stem of a steatite pipe was also found. Great 
care had been taken in fashioning this piece, the surface still retaining a 
high polish. 

Among the pottery pieces found were fragments of two small gray- 
ware mugs which averaged 7 cms. in height. They are extremely small 
for this region and it is interesting to note two specimens of this size from 
one room. There was also a portion of the rim of a corrugated gray ware 
bowl of flat form almost a duplicate of one described from Room 12 and 
a fragmentary bowl of peculiar from, somewhat in the shape of a 
broad-mouthed crucible. 

Room 37. 

Room 37 was west of Room 36 and south of Room 4. It was 11 feet 
9 inches long on the north side, 12 feet 10 inches on the south, 12 feet 4 
inches on the east, and 12 feet 1 inch on the west. The general- style of 
masonry in this room is shown in Fig. 81. 

The north wall of the lower room had been heavily plastered. In 
this there was a doorway, made circular hy the abundance of plaster 
applied. The lintel of the doorway was made of flat stones; it was 4 
feet 1 inch from the east wall and 2 feet below the ceiling beams, and 
measured 2 feet in height and 1 foot 10 inches in width. The east wall 
was very crudely built, but had been covered with a thick layer of plaster. 
The south wall was also rough and bulged in places. The west wall was 
built of selected stones, carefully laid, but there was a slight bulge near 
the southwest corner. There is a doorway of the rectangular type, in 
the western wall, 6 feet 4 inches from the north wall and 1 foot 6 inches 
below the ceiling beams; it was 2 feet in height and 1 foot 9 inches in 
width. The wall at the north end of the room was standing to a height of 
13 feet above the lower floor. The specimens found in this room were 
scattered through the debris. 

There was one large sandstone metate and twenty-five sandstone jar 
covers, most of which had been carefully smoothed. There were also a 
number of fragments of jar covers; two of the perfect specimens are plano- 
convex, a rather unusual form, and made of a very compact sandstone. 
There was one stone slab probably used as a lapstone; also two large 
slabs used both as lapstones and for grinding; a small metate; a mano; 
and a lapstone formed of a large irregularly shaped water-worn pebble, 
such as are found in the cliff-houses. There were two sandstone grinders 
and a fragment of a sandstone implement, 6 cms. wide and 3.5 cms. thick 



184 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

at the small end, gradually increasing in width up to the point where it is 
broken, the fragment measuring 25 cms. in length. All surfaces of this 
fragment are perfectly smooth and in some places the smoothing has been 
carried to such an extent that it has almost become a polish. What the 
use of this object (5101) may have been, cannot be stated. There was one 
large natural pebble that had probably been used for polishing purposes 
and a great many small pebbles and fossil shells. With them were chal- 
cedony concretions, fragments of chalcedony, a mass of fragments of 
murex and strombus shells, three fossil shells of unusual form which still 
retain evidences of red paint, a small pebble, one surface of which had 
been worn smooth from use, a piece of galena, a large fragment of murex 
shell which had been drilled, a small irregular shaped ball of pumice 
stone, a stone cylinder made from a natural concretion, evidently used as 
a bead, and two bone awls, one made from a deer bone, the other from a 
turkey wing bone. There were also three pink stone inlays, pieces of 
azurite, pieces of turquoise matrix, a stone bead of cylindrical form made 
from jasper, a mouthpiece made of gum which had been Used on one of 
the shell trumpets, and two fragments of designs in blue and black 
painted on red pigment which had been spread over some stick foundation. 

There were two objects, one chipped from petrified wood, the other 
from chalcedony. They are roughly chipped, and as shown in Fig. 15, 
measure 9 cms. in length with a general thickness of 2 cms. Their shape 
and size suggest that they may have been carried in the hands during 
races. 

There were four small billets of wood measuring 6 cms. in length 
and 2.5 cms. in diameter, which may have been used for the same purpose 
as the stones mentioned above; the sticks however, may have been used 
in playing some game. With these billets were several fragments of 
ceremonial sticks, also one of the so-called gambling sticks, shaped like 
the end of a bow, such as were found in numbers in Room 2. The skull 
of a dog was also found in the debris. 

Room 38. 
After finishing Room 37. the scene of operations was transferred to 
the room just east of Room 35 and south of Rooms 8, 9, and 10. In 
shape, this room appears to be rectangular, but closer inspection shows 
that the longer walls, those on the north and south sides of the room, are 
rounded, the curve following the regular contour of the outer wall of the 
pueblo. It measures 32 feet 2 inches in length on the north side, 27 feet 

8 inches on the south side, 10 feet 2 inches on the east side, and 13 feet 

9 inches on the west side. 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 185 

The walls had been well plastered; on the lower portions, especially 
in the northwest corner, finger marks are in evidence. The southern wall 
is plain, there being no doorways or other openings in its surface. Near 
the western end of this wall, at a distance of 5 feet 5 inches from the 
west wall, a projection jutted into the room. It was made of stone and 
had a plastered surface. It averaged 6 inches in thickness and extended 
1 foot 1 inch into the room, and was angulated toward the northwest, 
instead of being at right angles with the south wall. This extension 
evidently served as an anchorage for a beam which formed a support for 
a platform. As though to verify this supposition, there was found, partly 
imbedded in the plaster of the south wall at this point, a portion of a 
heavy beam which extends from the anchorage to the west wall. This 
beam was 2 feet below the ceiling beams of the room. The south wall was 
not well preserved, no doubt due to the fact that it was comparatively 
thin. The mortar was cracked and in patches as though the ends of the 
sandstone slabs had been but slightly covered. 

The west wall was rough and irregular, but the plaster was intact 
when the room was cleared of debris. It presented an unbroken surface, 
and, as in the case of the south wall, there were no doorways leading into 
the adjoining room. 

The north wall was rough and unsymmetrical as though it had 
suffered from some severe shock. A large block of sandstone protruded 
from the surface, which was bulged and unsightly, as compared with the 
walls of most of the rooms examined. Near the west wall, was a slight 
protuberance in the form of a slender pillar projecting a few inches from 
the wall. It was opposite the angle wall on the south side of the room, 
and formed the northern rest for the supporting, or easternmost beam of 
the bench before-mentioned. The rounded side of a doorway extended to 
the point where the pillar begins. This doorway is built in such a manner 
that the opening is some inches from the general surface of the wall. 
The sides were heavily plastered and rounded from the opening outward, 
forming an ovoid niche in the wall. It was 2 feet 4 inches below the 
ceiling beams, 1 foot 6 inches wide, and 2 feet high. This doorway was 
open and connected the room with Room 9, which is directly north of it. 
In the eastern end of the north wall, at a point 5 feet 2 inches from the 
east wall, there is another doorway of the regular rectangular type, with 
straight sides and a wooden lintel. It was in a part of the wall that had 
suffered to a great extent, and was closed with masonry, but owing to the 
sagging of the wall at this point, the sides of the doorway are somewhat 
irregular and the stones misplaced. It was 1 foot 10 inches below the 
ceiling beams, 2 feet 2 inches wide, and 2 feet 2 inches high. 



186 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

The east wall presented a more uniform surface than the north wall, 
although the plaster was cracked like that of the west wall; it is of the 
division type, extending nearly from the surface of the north wall to the 
south wall. There is a doorway in the lower part near the south end, 
the distance from the south wall being 3 feet 2 inches. This doorway is 
rectangular in form, and has lintels for poles. It was 1 foot 10 inches 
below the ceiling beams, 2 feet 2 inches wide, and 3 feet high. 

The north wall is intact to a height of 4 feet in some places, above the 
ceiling of the lower room; the average height of the lower room walls is 
6 feet. The east wall extended about the same height above the ceiling 
beams; the south wall was about a foot lower, and the west wall was 
4^2 feet above the ceiling beams, at its highest point. 

The platform at the western end of the room may have been 
separated from the main room, but there were no evidences of a partition 
wall, nor were there any marks of a post in the room at this point. From 
the position of the partly decayed beams it seems that there had been an 
ordinary platform, the space beneath which was open. 

Turquoise Ornaments. The eastern end of the room was excavated 
to a depth of several feet and the work was then carried westward. 
Nothing of particular interest was found in the upper layers, but the 
removal of the stones and the fallen beams was still in progress when a 
platform was uncovered. The first evidence of this structure was a 
peculiar projecting wall, 6 inches thick and extending in a northwesterly 
direction. It was attached to the south wall and had been used as a 
support for a beam that entered the north wall at a point opposite. The 
western support of the platform was upheld by posts, but these and the 
poles that had formed its upper surface were no longer in position; they 
had been crushed by the weight of the debris and, when uncovered, 
were greatly decaj'ed. Other unusual objects soon came to light: a 
frog of jet, inlaid with turquoise; a jet tablet and a buckle: turquoise 
birds and many pendants and beads. These have been fully described 
and illustrated in a former paper. 1 (Frontispiece.) 

Miscellaneous Objects. The general material other than that which 
has been described as having been found on the platform, and that which 
will be described from the floor level of the room was found scattered 
through the debris, many of the smaller objects being found in what 
must have been the refuse from the upper floors. 



x " Ceremonial Objects and Ornaments from Pueblo Bonito, New Mexico," American Anthropologist, 
N. S., vol. 7, 183-197 (1905). 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 187 

There was one large sandstone metate and twenty -five manos, rang- 
ing in size and thickness from the. small manos used with the light slab 
metates to the very thick ones, used in the first process of crushing the 
corn. They also varied in their composition, some being of the very fine- 
grained sandstone, while others were made of coarser materials. There 
were seven large sandstone slabs which had been used for grinding pur- 
poses, also three small slabs of sandstone that had been used as hand 
stones in grinding. There was a fragment of a slab of black slate which 
must have been a good-sized lapstone. There were three blocks of 
coarse-grained white sandstone and one slab of red sandstone of the same 
coarseness which had probably been used as rasps in working wood. 
There was also an irregular piece of coarse sandstone that had evidently 
been used for the same purpose as the larger pieces. Hand hammers were 
represented by twelve specimens made of natural pebbles and sections of 
petrified wood and quartzite. These are the hammers used in pecking the 
troughs in metates, and in working away the irregular surfaces of stone 
implements. 

There were eleven grooved hammers, all of which were made from 
natural pebbles, also a fragment of a twelfth. Four large stone mauls 
were found. The largest of these (5224) is made of a natural pebble and 
measures 36 cms. in length, 17.5 cms. in width, and 5.5 cms. in thickness. 
This maul has two deep grooves, one on either edge. It was probably 
hafted at the end of a very heavy handle and used, as were the other 
mauls found here, for quarrying the sandstone blocks for use in 
building their houses. The second one (5253) is made of a cherty nodule 
which measures 29 cms. in length, 16 cms. in width, and 7.5 cms. in 
thickness. The third (5252) is also made of a fine hard-grained sand- 
stone. It is 25 cms. long, 14 cms. wide, and 8.5 cms. thick. The fourth 
(5225) is made of a natural pebble, and is 21 cms. long, 13 cms. wide, and 
5 cms. thick. All of these specimens have the edges deeply grooved, but 
in no case does the groove cover the sides of the stone, being confined to 
the edge only. This interesting series of hammers and mauls was scat- 
tered through the debris. 

In Fig. 16 a circular stone is shown. The upper part is slightly con- 
cave and shows evidences of pecking and grinding. The side seems to be 
the natural surface of the original cherty nodule. The under part is 
smooth and has evidently been used to some extent. The specimen 
averages 21.5 cms. in diameter at the bottom and 17.5 cms. at the top, 
the sides being sloping. 



188 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History, [Vol. XXVII, 

In Fig. 22 one of two stone implements is shown. They are made of 
sandstone, and were evidently used as hoes or shovels. The old Cliff- 
Dwellers hafted large pieces of horn on the end of sticks, no doubt 
using them for shovels in digging; it may be that these stone implements 
were hafted in the same way. The thin section of the handle would lend 
itself very readily to such mounting. The larger specimen measures 21.5 
cms. in length and 17.5 cms. in width at the widest part of the blade, the 
average thickness being about 1 cm. The smaller specimen is only 9 
cms. in length and 16.5 cms. in width. 

There were three sandstone jar covers of the usual size and shape, 
also a fragment of a fourth. 

Scattered through the debris were a great many small water-worn 
pebbles, fragments of shells, fragments of chalcedony and other stone 
material, such as would be used in making arrow points. Some of these 
were in the form of flakes that have been used as scrapers. Pieces of 
limonite; chalcedony concretions; gypsum; canon walnuts; red ocher 
that had probably been used for paint, four perfect arrow points and a 
number of fragmentary ones, were also found. There were also a few 
stone and shell beads, crinoid stems, and fragments of turquoise. With 
these were three fragments of shell bracelets. 

There were two implements made from chalcedony, one had prob- 
ably been a bodkin, and the other a wedge. There were very few bones 
and only five objects made from bone. Three of these were awls. There 
was one scraper made from the humerus of a deer, and a bone bead. 

There were four objects made of wood, two were ceremonial sticks; 
one of the type having a knob on the end was found on the floor of the 
northwest corner of the room, as was also the other one which is of the 
type with the end carved like a bear claw. There was a third ceremonial 
stick found slightly above the floor level of the northwest corner, Fig. 
85. This stick seems to be complete. It is of the type having a knob and 
collar on one end, the knob is flattened and has a hole drilled through it. 
It is 36.5 cms. long, and between the carved portions, there is a wrap of 
yucca cord which fastens what seems to be a small branch with juniper 
leaves attached. Lying against the juniper branch are the ends of cords 
showing a series of knots, which would indicate that the}*- had once held 
feathers. From their position it would seem that a cord which had once 
been used with feathers was here represented in a secondary use, that 
of binding the branch to the stick. The fourth stick mentioned is one of 
the long cylindrical type with cuts on the surface, as described from 
Room 2. 




190 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

There were a great many potsherds in this room, both of red and 
grayware. They were principally of bowls and bowls of dippers. No 
perfect pieces were found, but there were three bowls of grayware aver- 
aging 13.5 cms. in diameter which could be mended. These bowls were 
decorated on the interior, the decorations being in black and of a type 
common to this pueblo. 

The greater part of a corrugated bowl of grayware was found scat- 
tered through the debris. The fragments were brought together and the 
bowl, with the exception of a small portion of the rim, is shown in Fig. 
82. This bowl is of the same type as described from Room 10. The 
whole outer surface is corrugated; it is painted white on the inside and 
has a broad band of black on the inner rim. It had evidently cracked 

while it was in use, as there are two 
holes near the rim, one on either side 
of a break. These holes had been 
drilled from the outside, showing con- 
Fig. 83 (5205). Beak-like Object made clusively that they had not been 

of Chaledony, Room 38. made ^ ^ ^ ^^ ^ ^^ ^ 

in course of construction. This bowl 
averages 25.5 cms. in diameter and 6.8 cms. in depth. There were por- 
tions of the rim of another bowl of the same shape and character, but only 
three small pieces were found. There was one fragment of pottery in 
the form of an animal head. It was of grayware and had the ears and 
face decorated with black lines. There was also a fragment of a gray- 
ware vessel in the shape of a human breast (4737). 

There were four shell trumpets made from murex shells, also the 
mouth end of a fifth; this mouth end still retained portions of a gum 
that had formed the mouthpiece (5106, 5107, 5108, 5105). The first 
three specimens were found near the center of the room, at a depth of 3 
feet below the surface. The first two specimens have the lips drilled for 
suspension and there are remains of gum around the mouth end. Gum 
has also been used in several places to fill up holes in the surface of shells. 
The third specimen has the opening for the mouth end, but it is so large 
that the work was no doubt given up, as the lip of the shell shows no 
drilling and there are no evidence of there having been a mouthpiece. 
The fourth specimen was found in the southwest end of the room, 2 feet 
below the surface and 4 feet from the west wall. The lip is drilled for 
suspension and the gum about the mouth opening is still in place. 

A fragment of an object, shaped like the beak of an eagle, was found 
in this room. It was in three pieces, two of which had suffered from the 
effects of fire. This specimen is made of chalcedony and is shown in 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 191 

Fig. 83, It is a little over 5 cms. in length and 1.2 cms. broad at the 
head part. Great care has been shown in making this object, and it is 
to be regretted that the major portion of it was destroyed by fire. 

Three pieces of a glass-like slag were found, similar in surface appear- 
ance to the arrow points found in Room 10. Whether this slag was 
brought from some other locality, whether it is the remains of Indian 
work, or whether it is the result of the fire that must have raged in one 
part of the room, cannot be stated, but it is an interesting find in view of 
the fact that the arrow points, which have been described and which are 
mentioned above, present characteristics quite similar to these pieces. 

Pipes. There were three fragments of clay pipes. One of these was 
in such a fragmentary condition, that the parts could not be assembled. 
It had been, however, of the type with the bowl at right angles to the 
stem. It was of dark brown clay and the surface had been covered with a 
black slip and highly polished. The second fragment shown in Fig. 19b 
is 9 cms. in length, 2 cms. in width, and 1.5 cms. in thickness. There is 
another fragment over 2 cms. in length which evidently was joined to 
this piece; as there was no evidence of the bowl on either piece, the stem 
in its entirety must have been 12 cms. in length. Unlike most of the 
pipes in this Pueblo, it is of light clay. Another pipe is made of a dark 
brown clay, similar to the first fragment mentioned. It is 7 cms. in 
length and averages 3.3 cms. in diameter at the bowl end. This was 
evidently a tubular pipe. 

In Fig. 19a a stone pipe similar in form to that just described is 
shown. It is similar in form to the pipes found among the Klamath 
Indians of California. It is 9.8 cms. in length, 3.7 cms. in diameter at 
the bowl end, and 2.G cms. in diameter at the stem end. The bowl begins 
to taper outward toward the rim, at a distance of 2.5 cms. from the end; 
here the hole contracts to 1 cm., holding this size until it reaches a 
point 2.5 cms. from the stem end. It then begins to widen and at the 
opening it is 1.5 cms. broad. A depression 5 mms. in diameter and 2 mms. 
deep has been drilled near the center of the pipe on one side; this may 
have been done for the insertion of an inlay, possibly of turquoise. This 
pipe has evidently been through the fire, as there are two large flakes, 
resulting no doubt from the heat. All parts of the pipe have been care- 
fully finished, and the outer surface still retains a high polish. 

Another stone pipe of the cylindrical form is shown in Fig. 19g. 
It was found a few feet below the surface, in the center of the room. In 
general technique, it is similar to the one just described; the formation 
of the bowl being similar to and the widening and boring of the stem end 



192 A nthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

being the same as in the other stone pipe, the greatest difference being 
that it tapers gradually from the bowl to the stem end. It is 3.2 cms. 
long, 2 cms. in diameter at the bowl, and 1 .4 cms. by 1 . 1 cms. at the mouth- 
piece, the measurements showing that there is a flattening at this end of 
the pipe. The bowl end, however, is practically circular, there being but 
very slight difference in the diameter. 

A fragment of the stem of a pipe was found in the general digging a 
few feet below the surface and near the eastern part of the room; later 
the bowl of the same pipe was found. The two pieces were joined with 
the result shown in Fig. 84. This pipe is made of a very soft stone. The 
bowl is at right angles to the stem and raised upon a platform bifurcated 
in front as shown in the figure. The general appearance, from a three 
quarter view, is that of a figure with the torso bent upward and the arms 
doubled under the body, the remaining portion extending backward and 
forming the stem of the pipe. Directly back of the platform, there is a 
ridge which conforms to the angle of the back part of the bowl. If the 
pipe is held by the stem and viewed from the base in a three quarter 
position, it has the appearance of an animal form, the head being repre- 
sented by the platform, the ears by the upper part of the platform; this 
part being the portion that is divided and the bowl forming the body. 
What it was made to represent is however problematical. The pipe 
measures 14.5 cms. in length, the stem 9.3 cms., the platform 4.3 cms. in 
length and 3.3 cms. in width. The bowl is 4.6 cms. high in front and 3 
cms. above the stem. The height of the pipe from the base of the plat- 
form to the edge of the bowl is 7 cms. The diameter of the bowl is 3.5 
cms., the opening in the same being 2.5 cms. in diameter. The hole in 
the bowl tapers from the opening to a point at the extreme bottom; the 
hole in the stem meeting it at a point fully 1.5 cms. above the bottom of 
the bowl drilling. The hole in the stem at the mouthpiece is 8 mms. in 
diameter. This pipe is a very unusual one and is unlike any other that 
was found in the pueblo. It has evidently passed through the fire so 
that the exact nature of the material from which it was made is hard to 
determine. The outer surface is black and has been highly polished; 
the interior at the present time has the appearance of soft, very friable 
sandstone, dull pink in color. 

Effigy Pottery. In removing the debris from this room, a number of 
fragments of the face of a human effigy jar were found. Some of them 
were discolored by fire, but most of them retain their natural color. It 
was not until the floor level was reached that these fragments ceased to 
appear. Most of them, however, were found in the northeast end of the 
room, about 3 feet below the surface. 




Fig. 84. 



Fig. 85. 




Fig. 86. 

Fig. 84 (5208). Soft Stone Pipe of Unusual Form, Room 38. 
Fig. 85 (5217). Ceremonial Stick, Room 38. 
Fig. 86 (5145). Inlaid Scraper, Room 38. 

193 



194 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History . [Vol. XXVII, 

The distribution of human effigy vases in the Southwest presents an 
interesting problem. The Pueblo country has furnished but few such 
objects for comparison and any new locality in which they are found, 
especially when situated in the northern boundaries of the culture area, 
is worthy of consideration. 

The subject has been fully covered in my article in the Boas Anni- 
versary Volume. 1 

Macaw Skeletons. When the floor level was reached, it was found 
that there was a fireplace near the center of the room. It is circular and 
made of flat stones placed on edge, the interior being plastered. The upper 
ends of the stones were on a level with the adobe floor, and most of the 
stones were in place. The work of excavation extended from the west, 
eastward, that is, when the floor level was reached ; the floor was cleaned, 
exposing the fireplace, and there remained a mass of debris in the east 
end of the room. In working through this with hand trowels, a mass of 
bird droppings were found. An accumulation of this material fully 10 
inches thick extended over the greater part of the width of the room. 
Upon, and partly imbedded in this mass, were the skeletons of twelve 
macaws (Ara militaris). They were massed in such a way, that the 
individual skeletons could not be determined, but all of the bones were 
removed. From the evidence it would seem that there had been cages 
or perches for these birds, and that they had been kept alive. When the 
entire floor had been cleaned, the adobe was broken and a search below 
the floor level begun. At a point 9 feet 4 inches from the southeast 
corner and 10 feet 6 inches from the northeast corner and at a depth of a 
foot below the floor level, a circular cavity had been dug in the floor and 
in this the skeleton of a macaw was found. The hole had been carefully 
formed, filled with adobe, and the surface finished so that there were no 
evidences of its position. 

In the southwestern part of the room near the projecting wall, 
another macaw burial was found. It was 7 feet from the southwest 
corner and 12 feet 4 inches from the northwest corner. It was slightly 
below the floor level, but not as deep as the one just described, although it 
had been buried in the same manner and with as great care. A careful 
search of the remaining portion of the stratum directly below the floor 
level failed to reveal other skeletons. 



'"Human Effigy Vases from Chaco Canon, New Mexico" (Boas Anniversary Volume, pp. 320-334. 
New York, 1906.) 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 195 

Thus there .were fourteen macaw skeletons in this room, two birds that 
had died and been buried, no doubt in a ceremonial way, and twelve 
that were killed when the room was deserted, or were the victims of an 
accident. Had these birds been left in the room and had starvation 
been the cause of death, their bodies would have been more scattered, 
unless perchance they were confined in cages as suggested. At all events, 
it seems that the room had been deserted, as the greater number of birds 
had not been accorded as careful a burial as had the bodies of the two 
found below the floor. This may have been a Macaw clan room. 

Most of the objects found in this room point to the fact that it was 
used for ceremonial purposes, or for the reception and storage of articles 
that were used in ceremonies. The pipes found in the main part of the 
room are such as would be used in sacred observances. The large human 
head of pottery, with symbols on the face and chin, was also an object of 
a ceremonial nature, to say nothing of the carved and encrusted turquoise 
pieces that were found on the platform in the western part of the room. 

In removing the mass of macaw bones, skeletons of a smaller bird 
were found. These proved to belong to the blue jay family. They are 
called in the west pifion birds (Cyanocitta Stelleri diademata). There 
were four skeletons. 

Portions of parrot skeletons and skeletons of other birds have been 
found in other rooms of Pueblo Bonito, but never in such quantities nor 
in situ, as they were found in Room 38. The Ara Militaris or green 
macaw is found at the present time in certain parts of Mexico and there 
is strong evidence that it was at one time quite common in the north- 
ern part of Mexico and extended even to the southern parts of New 
Mexico and Arizona. 

Room 39. 

Room 39 was a long rectangular room, south of Rooms 35 and 36. 
It was narrower at the west end than at the east, the measurements of 
the floor level being as follows: — The north wall 21 feet 1 inch, the south 
wall 20 feet 3 inches, the east wall 9 feet % x /i inches, the west wall 8 feet 
3 inches. The south wall was well plastered and finger marks were in 
abundance near the eastern end. Near the west-central part of the 
wall there was a large doorway, not well-defined, that had been closed 
with large pieces of sandstone. 

At a distance of 4 feet 9 inches from the eastern wall and 1 foot 2 
inches below the ceiling beam, was a wall pocket. It was 11 inches wide 
at the bottom and narrowed to 7 inches at the top. Its height was 1 



196 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII 

foot and it was 1 foot 5 inches deep. It had a small beam across the top 
in the southeast corner about 1 foot below the ceiling. There are beams 
protruding from the masonry, which no doubt formed the top of a closet. 
There was a post approximately 3 feet from either wall which had evi- 
dently formed the corner post of this storage place. On the floor inside 
of this space, there were quantities of pifLon nut shells, suggesting that 
the closet or bin had been used for storing food. 

The eastern wall was well plastered and there was a doorway, 1 
foot 4 inches from the north wall. This doorway was 1 foot 3 inches 
below the ceiling beams, 2 feet in width, and 2 feet 1 inch high. 

The north wall retained some of its plaster, but most of it had dis- 
appeared. The stones used in the masonry were large and rather roughly 
laid. The doorway was 6 feet 10 inches from the west wall, 1 foot 7 
inches below the ceiling beams, 2 feet 2 inches wide, and 2 feet 5 inches 
high. It was of the ordinary rectangular form. This doorway was open 
and led into Room 36. 

The western wall was merely a partition between the rooms, the 
ends abutting on the north and south walls. This wall had originally 
extended to the ceiling, but had partially fallen. 

The specimens found in this room were from the debris from the 
upper floors and also from the floor of the lower room. 

Arrow Points. In the material from the upper floors were 211 
perfect arrow points and 112 fragments. These points were of the deli- 
cate tapering type and were made of obsidian, chalcedony, and jasper. 
The largest of these points measure 4 cms. in length and 1 cm. in width 
at the widest part. They range from this size to very small ones. All 
of them are of the notched variety and quite a number have secondary 
notches on the sides. (See Fig. 40d.) 

In the debris were also turquoise and shell beads, turquoise matrix, 
fossil shells, a small slab of hard compact shale of a greenish color, half 
of the bowl of a clay pipe, a stone jar cover, a small pottery bowl measur- 
ing only 6 cms. in diameter, two large bone awls made from deer bones, 
fragments of shell bracelets, three large stone slabs, and a grinding stone. 
There were also a great many fragments of pottery vessels and animal 
bones; with the latter were several pieces of deer antler. 

On and just above the floor level of the lower room, were fourteen 
large sandstone metates, fourteen manos of the same material, a block 
of coarse sandstone that had been used for sharpening bone implements, 
a large stone slab which had evidently been used as a door, two sand- 
stone concretions in the form of cups, one sandstone ball, deer and other 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 197 

animal bones. Among the animal bones was a scraping tool made of 
bone. The surface of this bone is worn to a considerable extent, showing 
that it had been in use for some time. The skull of a dog was found in a 
fragmentary condition, also the lower jaw of another dog skull; a deer 
vertebra was found which had been worked to a considerable extent, the 
condyles at one end having been ground; the whole object showing the 
process employed in grinding off the ends of bones that were to be used 
in making implements. There were four bone awls made from deer 
bones, the blade end of a bone scraper that had been highly polished, the 
top of an antler point which shows the cutting to very good advantage, a 
small bowl of grayware only 5.5 cms. in diameter, and a small stone 
cylinder. This is a plain cylinder, 4 cms. in length and 1.7. cms. in 
diameter. The surface is perfectly smooth and the stone, evidently 
gypsum, is semi-transparent. 

The most interesting feature of the work in this room, was the find- 
ing of the delicate worked arrow points. They were scattered through 
the debris in such a way that it was impossible to tell whether they had 
been attached to arrows when they were left in the upper rooms or 
whether they had been in one group and scattered when the upper 
floors fell. It is, however, the largest number of points that was found in 
any of the rooms in the ruin and represents the highest type of chipping 
that is known in this region. 

Fireplaces. When the floor of Room 39 was cleared, two irregular 
fireplaces were found. The largest of these was 10 feet 7 inches from the 
southeast corner and 8 feet 2 inches from the northeast corner. Its 
greatest breadth was 1 foot 11 inches, its greatest length 1 foot 4 inches, 
and it was 1 foot deep. The other was 2 inches to the northeastward of this 
one. It was 1 foot 2 inches by 1 foot 4 inches and was 1 1 inches deep. 

Room 39a. Room 39a was directly west of and adjoining Room 39. 
It was 7 feet 8 inches long on the north side, 7 feet 6 inches on the south, 
8 feet 5 inches on the east, and 8 feet 10 inches on the west. The partition 
wall at the east end was composed of stones and crossed beams, and at the 
southern end, about 1 foot 6 inches from the south wall, there was a 
post that had helped to support the wall, as it had been built into it. 
This wall, from its appearance, had been a hastily built partition wall 
and was very rough. The north wall was well plastered and at the west- 
ern end, 1 foot 6 inches from the western partition, there was a post. It 
was built into the plaster and was one of the supports for the ceiling. 
Fifteen inches northeast of this post, was a second one, its diameter 
being 6 inches;' a foot northwest of this post, was a third, a trifle smaller 



198 Anthropological Papers American Museum, of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

than the second. All of these posts had evidently acted as supports. 
The western wall, or partition, was composed of two poles running north 
and south across the room. There were no stones across the poles, the 
ceiling having remains of cord or matting which may indicate that a mat 
or piece of cloth was used as part of the partition. These poles were 
about midway between the floor and ceiling. The distance from the 
floor to the ceiling beams at the north end, was 5 feet 10 inches and at 
the south end 5 feet 8 inches. The walls at the north side of the room 
were standing to a height of 2 feet above the ceiling beams, and were 
about 6 inches higher than those at the south side. Only the extreme 
western end of the room is shown and the sticks which had formed the 
partition between this room and the one west of it. 

Room 39b. Room 39b was west of and in reality a part of Room 39a, 
the dividing wall being formed merely of the poles and whatever material 
had covered them, as described when the last room was under considera- 
tion. The north wall was plastered, as was also the case with the west 
wall; the south wall still retains some of the plaster but, in places, the 
masonry was in evidence. There was a doorway in the south wall, the 
eastern wall forming the eastern part of it. It was 2 feet 10 inches wide, 
3 feet high, and 10 inches below the ceiling beams. It had a lintel of 
poles and was of the regular rectangular form. In this part of the room 
were two poles that had been placed across the corner, one end of each 
being imbedded in the eastern wall. These sticks, on being removed, 
proved to be a portion of a ladder. There was a fireplace in this corner, 
the northeast, which was directly under the poles just mentioned. It 
was shallow and shaped like a pan with flaring sides, made of small stone 
slabs, and one side of it touched the east wall. It was 1 foot 7 inches from 
the north wall and averaged 1 foot 8 inches in diameter, and was 7 inches 
deep. One foot, three inches, from the east wall and 1 foot below the 
ceiling beams, was a rectangular doorway; it was 2 feet 6 inches wide 
and 2 feet 10 inches high. 

The measurements of this room were as follows : — The north wall 7 
feet 4 inches, south wall 7 feet 6 inches, east wall 8 feet 10 inches, and the 
west wall 8 feet 7 inches. The distance from the floor to the ceiling on the 
south side was 6 feet and on the north side, 5 feet 8 inches. A small area 
in the northwestern corner of the room had been disturbed by a party 
who were working in the room during the winter months of 1896-97, 
but little if any of the material in the room, was removed. 

Cylindrical Jars. This room contained a mass of cylindrical jars 
and other material as shown in Fig. 87. These jars were on the upper 
floor: there were nineteen specimens, all of which were broken, also a 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 199 

bowl, twenty-nine stone jar covers, two hammerstones, an elkbone club, 
and many potsherds. In the debris below the floor, just mentioned, 
there were a number of stone arrow points, turquoise beads, shells, a 
bone button, and potsherds. 

The jars seem to be larger than those found in Room 28, but are 
otherwise similar. 

Room 40. 

Room 40 lies directly south of Rooms 28 and 28a. It has the same 
type of masonry as these rooms and was of the same period. It was 
slightly shorter than the two rooms just mentioned: its length on the 
north side being 22 feet 6 inches and the east side 11 feet; the south side 
is the same as the north and the west end the same as the east. When the 
work in this room was begun, the surface was slightly below the level of 
that of Rooms 28 and 28a. The debris that filled the room was composed 
of the fallen wall, stones, fragments of flooring, and decayed ceiling 
beams. When cleared, the north wall proved to be standing to a height 
of 11 feet above the floor level. At this point the roof had been, but all 
evidences of it had vanished, save the opening in which the roof timbers 
had rested. These openings show that the timbers had been of large 
size, at least 10 inches in diameter. Owing to the fact that the north wall 
was described as the south wall when considering Rooms 28 and 28a, it 
will not be necessary to treat it in detail at this time. It was composed 
of thin stones and almost devoid of chinking. 

Doorways. An old fashioned T-shaped doorway in the north wall 
was 10 foot 9 inches from the east wall, the lower part was 1 foot 8 
8 inches high, that is, from the sill to the point where it widens, and was 2 
feet 4 inches wide. The widening of the upper part caused the main 
portion of the doorway to be 3 feet wide; this part being 3 feet 2 inches 
in height. This doorway had been closed in a methodical way with 
heavy sandstone slabs. 

Directly west of this doorway and on the same level, and only 1 
foot 2 inches away, was a second doorway of the same type. It was 
closed, as was the case with the one just described, but owing to the 
fact that the wall had been broken somewhat at this part, the outlines of 
the upper section could not be defined, the lower part, however, was 
quite distinct. The stones with which it was filled protruded, thereby 
causing the outlines of this part to be very noticeable. The masonry of 
the south wall was similar in style to that of the north wall, and owing 
to the lack of time this wall was not entirely uncovered. 



200 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 



The east wall was made of thin slabs of sandstone and in the upper 
part a number of openings appeared. Four feet below the ceiling beams 
of the upper room, there was a bench made of comparatively thin pieces 
of sandstone. This bench was 2 feet in height and 2 feet wide, and had 
evidently been built upon a mass of debris. Heavy ceiling beams pierced 
this thick wall; these beams were 6 feet below those shown in the north 
wall. The west wall was similar to the east wall and there were no open- 
ings or doorways in its face. 

Bins. Three feet from the west wall, there was a small stone en- 
closure. The east and west walls of this bin-like place were built against 
the north wall and extended southward a distance of 7 feet: the distance 
between them was 6 feet 2 inches. The walls were about a foot thick; 
the southern wall was slightly curved. The distance from its center to 
the north wall was 7 feet 8 inches. The inner surface of the walls was 
carefully faced and there was a small closet in the center of the southern 
wall, a few inches from its top. These walls extended to a height of 3 
feet 6 inches above the floor level. In this room there was a large stone 
slab, also a number of shell beads and small fragments of turquoise 
which might indicate that it had been used as a workshop. 

Room 41. 

Room 41 is south of Room 54 and east of Room 45. It is rectangu- 
lar in shape; the walls were irregular and of rather poor construction. 
The first floor room is 5 feet 9 inches high; a small portion of the walls of 
the upper room is still standing. After digging through the floor of the 
lower room, the second floor was found 6 inches below the first one, both 
floors being made of adobe. There was a shelf in the northeast corner 
of the lower room, its exact position being 2 feet 9 inches below the ceil- 
ing. This shelf was made of stone and projected into the room a distance 
of 1 foot 6 inches. In this corner, below the shelf, there was a semicircle 
of sticks which had been set into the adobe floor. Only vestiges of the 
wood remained, but from the form of the enclosure, it may have been a 
small cage for storing corn or other large objects. 

In the center of the room were three posts with a number of broken 
ones about them. They may have formed a support for the ceiling, 
but from their fragmentary condition, nothing definite could be learned 
concerning their real use. 

The room measured 7 feet 9 inches on the north end, 7 feet 11 inches 
on the south, 13 feet 6 inches on the east, and 11 feet 4 inches on the 
Avest side. The highest part of the wall, measuring from the lower floor, 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 203 

was 8 feet 10 inches. The only doorway in the room was in the east wall 
of the lower part. It was 1 foot 8 inches wide, 2 feet 3 inches high, and 
1 foot 3 inches below the ceiling beams. 

Most of the objects found in this room were on the lower floor, but a 
few of them were scattered through the debris and no doubt came from 
the upper floor levels. The following may be noted: two bone awls, 
stone hammer, two stone axes, three stone jar covers, two metates, 
nine manos, two stone slabs, a grinding stone, two stone door sills, 
and a quartzite knife. 

Room 42. 

Room 42 is southwest of Room 41. The walls of this room were of 
large stones and showed but little chinking. The most noticeable char- 
acteristic of the room was the number of doorways and openings, most 
of which were in the south wall. There was a doorway of the ordinary 
rectangular type, but one just west of it and on the same level slanted 
towards the northwest, forming an acute angle with the wall on the 
west side. These doorways were in the lower room and were a trifle 
lower than those in the northeast corner. This one had been damaged to 
such an extent that no measurements could be made (Fig. 88) . 

The floor of £his room presented a rather complex appearance. 
Near the north wall, and almost in the center of the room, was a depres- 
sion 10 inches deep, which may have been a fireplace. It was five-sided, 
the sides being composed of flat stones set up on edge. The bottom of 
this depression was made of adobe, and had evidently been subjected 
to fire, as it was very hard. 

South of this depression, with one edge against the south wall, 
was a sort of pit. For a bottom it had a large flat stone; the sides were 
composed of four metates and a thin stone slab. They stood upright; 
above them was a layer of small stones forming a wall that brought the 
sides of the pit on the floor level. The metates were placed with the 
grinding surfaces facing the inner part of the pit. There were a number 
of small bin-like enclosures in this room, one of which was near the north- 
west corner. The walls were standing to a height of 2 feet. There were 
evidences, however, that at least certain parts of the walls had extended 
to the ceiling. There was a doorway in the south wall of the main room. 
It was of the ordinary type and had wooden lintels, as had all of the 
doorways in the room. 

There were doorways in the upper part of the north wall, i. e., in the 
second story room. They were of the rectangular type and had evidently 
been filled in at the top. The wall was broken to such an extent, how- 



204 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

ever, that their exact shape could not be determined. The ceiling beams 
extended from north to south and averaged 3 inches in diameter. 

The measurements of this room, taken at the floor level were as 
follows: east wall, 9 feet 5 inches; west wall, 9 feet 10 inches; north 
wall, 14 feet; south wall, somewhat indefinite, but slightly under 14 
feet in length. The specimens found in this room were as follows, all of 
them, unless otherwise noted, being from the debris which covered the 




Fig. 89. Closed Doorway in East Wall of Room 43. 



floor; in the southwest corner at the floor level, a large metate was found; 
from the doorway in the northwest corner a number of pottery frag- 
ments; two manos; five small stones; a small stone mortar; two sand- 
stones; a grooved mano; a sandstone concretion in the form of a cup; 
fragments of obsidian; a fossil shell; a number of turquoise beads; 
bone beads: and a stem of a clay pipe; pottery olla; eight bone awls; 
a bone implement: a bone scraper; a piece of deer antler; two breast 
bones of turkeys; arrow points; strombus shell; end of an arrow- 
shaft; fragment of a moccasin; and a number of potsherds. 

Room 43. 
Room 43 was southwest of Room 42. This room was small and 
almost square. It measured 5 feet on the north, 5 feet 8 inches on the 
south, 6 feet 4 inches on the east, 7 feet 11 inches on the west. There 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 205 

was a doorway of the rectangular type in the east wall of the lower 
room (Fig 89). This room was 7 feet in height and the walls of the 
second floor were standing to a height of 5 feet. No specimens were 
found in this room. 



Room 44. 

Room 44 was directly west of Room 43. This room was long and 
narrow. The south wall of the lower room was built of medium-sized 
stones and chinked irregularly, thereby giving the surface a rather crude 
appearance. There were no doorways in this wall, as the opposite side 
abutted on the circular wall of Estufa 16. The east wall was heavily 
plastered and had been blackened by smoke. In this wall there is a door- 
way of the usual rectangular form. As a sill it had a flat stone, which 
averaged 3^2 incn * n thickness and extended to the edge of the doorway 
and about 3 inches into the room. The lintel was of poles which averaged 
l}/2 feet in diameter and on either side of the doorway logs had been built 
into the wall. They were placed in a perpendicular position and com- 
pletely covered with plaster. 

The north wall was well plastered and at the western end it was 
rounded so that the corner of the wall projected over an inch from the 
point where the stone walls joined. 

The upper room retained the major part of 
the plaster on the north wall; west of the cen- 
tral portion it was very smooth. A number of 
layers of plaster had been applied and the 
scaling at certain points was quite noticeable. 
There was a doorway near the center of this wall 
which had a stone slab for a sill. The west wall 
had a doorway in the upper part. It had a 
lu , ,„, v>(|] sli( . 11(il beam \y 2 inches in diameter, used as a lintel, 
a Walnut, inlaid with Tur- This doorway had been sealed up. The south 

quoise, Room 44. n -i ■ ,i ,i 

wall was similar m appearance to the others men- 
tioned, but the greater part of it had fallen. This 
room was 13 feet 10 inches long on the north side, 14 feet on the south 
side, 5 feet 1 inch on the east, and 5 feet 2 inches on the west side. Very 
few specimens were found in this room. Those worthy of mention were 
a large metate, a game stick, a stone slab, a broken bowl, and a caiion 
walnut (Juglans Rupeslris) which had been covered with gum and 
inlaid with turquoise (Fig. 90). 




206 Anthropological Papers A merican Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

Room 45. « 

Room 45 is directly north of Room 42. This room was smaller than 
Room 44, being long and narrow. The north and east walls were made 
of large stones and heavily plastered. The south wall was broken and 
crushed to some extent. Near the western end of the south wall, there 
was a doorway with a large beam 6 inches in diameter for a lintel. This 
doorway was somewhat rounded at the top and the sides were slanting. 
It connected Room 45 with Room 42. Just west of this doorway there 
was a post which had been built into the wall, probably as a support 
for the ceiling. Opposite from this post, and 1 foot 6 inches from the 
north wall was another post 6 inches in diameter, which was intact. 
The top was on the level with the ceiling beam openings in the north wall. 
The measurements of this room were as follows : north wall 19 feet, south 
wall, 17 feet 8 inches, east wall 7 feet 5 inches, west 6 feet 10 inches. 

All the specimens found were in the debris near the floor level. As 
will be seen in the following list, stone implements predominated. There 
were : one metate, ten manos, five stone hammers, two grooved stone 
hammers, two stone slabs, one stone pestle, a sandstone grinder, an 
arrow point, fossil shells, obsidian, jet, galena, and potsherds. There 
were also a bone gouge, three bone awls, a bone scraper, two dog skulls 
and other animal bones. A pottery bowl was found in the eastern end of 
the room. 

Room 46. 

Room 46 was west of Room 45. The only prominent feature of this 
room was its well plastered walls. They were irregular ; however, and all, 
with the exception of the western one, were devoid of doors. The doorway 
of this wall was of the ordinary rectangular type and led into Room 39. 

This room was dug to a depth of 3 feet below the floor level. The 
eastern wall was not over 10 inches thick in its thickest place, and at 
some points not over 6 inches. It seemed more like a temporary parti- 
tion between this room and Room 45, than a permanent wall. No speci- 
mens were found. The measurements were as follows: north wall 5 
feet 6 inches, south wall 6 feet, east wall 7 feet 2 inches, west wall 7 
feet 2 inches. 

Room 47. 

Room 47 is directly south of Room 46. This room was rather 

peculiar in shape, the corners being of a rounded form. The walls were 

composed of large flat stones to which a portion of the plaster still 

adhered. Nothing of interest was found, although as in most of the 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 207 

other rooms, it was dug to a depth of over 3 feet below the floor level. 
There was a doorway of the usual type in the east wall. The measure- 
ments were as follows : north wall 6 feet, south wall 6 feet, east wall 10 
feet 9 inches, west wall 10 feet 9 inches. 

Room 48. 
Room 48 belonged with a rather peculiar series, comprising Rooms 
48, 49, and 50. This room had well plastered walls, but only the south wall 
was standing to any height. It had twelve thicknesses of plaster, but 
in most places the outer layers had fallen off. One of the ordinary rect- 
angular doorways led from this room into Room 44, but it had been 
closed with stones and plaster. The eastern wall had fallen within 2 
feet of the floor level. The north wall was rough and irregular, and for 
about half its length at the eastern end it had fallen. The west wall was 
built on a large beam which was on the level with the ceiling beam of the 
lower room. This wall was very crude and it fell when the earth was 
removed from the front of it. The lower part of this room was well 
plastered and the walls were in better condition than in the upper room. 
There was a bench at the western end. The measurements were as 
follows: north wall 5 feet 4 inches; south wall 5 feet; east wall 8 feet; 
west wall 7 feet 3 inches. The specimens found were four metates, seven 
manos, a hammerstone, a stone pestle, a stone slab, two flint nodules, 
part of a human pottery figure, a pottery leg and foot, a number of pot- 
sherds, turquoise beads, and animal bones. All of these specimens were 
from the upper room. In the lower room 102 perfect arrow points and 
fifty-two broken ones were found. Most of these points were made of 
chalcedony and obsidian. 

Room 49. 
Room 49 was north of Room 48. It was long and narrow and may 
have been used as a storage room. The walls were rough and only 
certain portions of them were faced. In the middle of the north wall, 
on the levol with the floor, was the southern end of a closet-like opening, 
mentioned in the description of Room 39. Nothing of interest was found 
in this room. The measurements were as follows: north wall 9 feet, 
south wall 9 feet, east wall 1 foot 10 inches, west wall 2 feet. 

Room 50. 
Room 50 was a small room over the western end of Room 48. The 
western wall was rough and unplastered and a bench 2 feet wide extended 
into the room. It was 2 feet above the floor beams. This bench ex- 



208 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

tended to the eastern edge of the west side of the passageway at the 
north side of the room. The eastern wall was rough and fell when Room 
48 was cleared. The northern part of the room was taken up with a 
passageway, the eastern side of which was solidly built. The western 
wall was 1 foot 3 inches thick, and with the eastern wall of Room 51 
formed a solid piece of masonry, 3 feet 9 inches thick. Rooms 49 and 50, 
and the upper part of Room 48, formed a rather complex arrangement 
above a large first story room below Room 48. Room 50 was 4 feet 3 
inches wide on the north, 4 feet 8 inches on the south, 7 feet 8 inches on 
the east, and 7 feet 9 inches on the west. Five arrow points were found in 
the debris. The bench on the northeast corner measured 5 feet by 1 
foot 4 inches. The passageway for this bench at the eastern end of 
Room 49 was 2 feet 4 inches wide. 

The lower Room 48 measured 13 feet 5 inches on the north, 11 feet 
on the south, 7 feet 11 inches on the east, and 6 feet 10 inches on the west. 

Room 51. 

Room 51 was directly west of Room 50. The walls of this room were 
composed of medium-sized stones and were chinked with very thin ones. 
The chinking, however, was not very regular. The western end of the 
room was rather roughly built and was intact to the north wall of Room 
52. From this point to the north wall it had disappeared, having been 
lorn down by a working party during the winter of 1896-97. 
The lower room had been burnt out on the eastern end. The walls of 
this room were well plastered. The western wall was simply a partition 
which divided the lower room into two small rooms. It extended to the 
ceiling beams and the plaster which covered its entire surface was 
blackened with smoke. This wall was 10 inches thick. The measure- 
ments of Room 51 were as follows: The north wall, 11 feet 6 inches; 
south, 10 feet 9 inches; east, 9 feet 2 inches; west, 8 feet 4 inches. In 
the debris the following specimens were found: one large metate, two 
small hammerstones, a grooved ax Avith double edge, a stone showing- 
drilling, pieces of turquoise, turquoise beads, chalcedony flakes, a 
clay ball filled with turquoise chips, a bone awl, a dog skeleton, a number 
of animal bones, fragments of shell bracelets, a crude pottery bowl, a 
pottery incense burner (Fig. 91), and a number of potsherds. 

Room 51a. Room 51a was a small room of a lower series and was 
just west of Room 51. The walls were practically the same in construc- 
tion as those mentioned in the description of the last-named room. There 
was a rectangular doorway in the south wall. This doorway connected 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 209 

with Room 28. Another doorway in the northeast corner of the north 
wall was of the rectangular type, as was the case with the one in the 
south wall. The room measured as follows: north wall, 7 feet 9 inches; 
south wall, 6 feet; east wall, 8 feet 2 inches; west wall, 8 feet 2 inches. 
The following specimens were found in the debris: three large metates, 
two stone door sills, a stone hammer, animal bones among which were 
several dog jaws, two bone awls, three fragments of shell bracelets, 
pieces of shell, two fossil shells, a wooden game stick, and a number of 
potsherds, one of which was worked. 




Fig. 91 (5590). Pottery Vessel suggesting an Incense Burner, Room 51. 

Room 52. 

Room 52 was directly west of Room 51 and was of irregular shape, 
the west wall being much wider than that of the east side. The eastern 
wall was roughly built and had been partly demolished by other 
investigators. 

The south wall was strongly built and presented a very compact 
and uniform surface and approached in appearance the closely chinked 
walls, being formed of large dressed stones and chinked with small flat 
pieces. This wall slanted towards the south. The west end of this room 
was roughly made and had. been plastered. There was a rectangular 
doorway in the lower part of this wall which connected with Room 58. 
It had a flat stone for a sill and the upper part of the doorway was some- 
what rounded. The north wall was made of large flat stories which were 
regularly laid, presenting a strong contrast as compared with the south 



210 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

wall. There were two other doorways in this room, one in the west and 
the other in the north wall. The room measured as follows: north wall, 
6 feet 4 inches: south wall, 5 feet 11 inches; east wall, 9 feet 3 inches; 
west wall, 9 feet 6 inches. 

There were very few specimens found in this room, the most interest- 
ing, however, were a number of fragments of cylindrical jars, such as 
were found in the large deposit in Room 28. These fragments, the deposit 
in Room 28, and those in Room 39b, were the only ones found in Pueblo 
Bonito. Isolated jars of cylindrical form were found in Rooms 32 and 33 
and the Moorehead paity obtained one or more from the rooms adjoin- 
ing this group. Among other objects found in the debris was a stone 
hammer, two sandstone slabs, a pitted stone, a stone jar cover, a cylin- 
drical pipe, fragments of shell bracelets, a bone awl, potsherds, also 
fragments of matting and cloth. 

Room 53. 

Room 53 is directly north of Room 52. This was one of the two 
rooms explored by the Moorehead party. The south wall of this room 
was standing to a depth of 6 feet at the western end. It is poorly built 
and evenly plastered. There is a beam extending the full length of the 
wall; probably for a support. It was about 4 inches in diameter. The 
western wall was similar in construction to that of the south. There 
was a doorway in the center of this wall, but the sides have been torn 
down and its outline was almost obliterated. 

The northern and eastern walls had been torn down bj 7 " previous 
workers. The lower or first story room had very rough and uneven walls. 
The south wall was made of large stones and had a doorway of the 
ordinary type, with a wooden lintel. The western wall was similar to 
the south wall and there was a doorway of the ordinary type near the 
centra] part. This doorway led into Room 56, which was also worked 
by the Moorehead party. 

A Deposit of Beads. The Moorehead party excavated the greater 
part of this room. When our workmen began to clear the debris from 
the south end of the room, an almost complete human skeleton was 
found. The skull was missing, but near the middle of the room, the 
lower jaw was found. Continuing observations along the eastern wall, 
a post was found at a distance of 6 feet from the south wall. Near this 
post two pitchers and a small bowl were found, also a portion of a large 
cylindrical jar. Near the east wall the skull of a child was found, and 
near it was a deposit of turquoise and shell beads. There were over 




Fig. 93. Walls of Room 54. 



212 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 213 

4000 flat circular turquoise beads and about thirty shell beads or pen- 
dants in it, and they had no doubt formed a necklace. The debris on the 
floor was then cleared away and the work was carried below the floor to a 
depth of 3 feet. Nothing of importance was found below the floor level. 
This room was 11 feet 6 inches wide on the north end; 10 feet 5 
inches on the south end; 14 feet 2 inches on the east; 13 feet 5 inches 
on the west. Resting on the floor, about midway between the end walls, 
at a short distance from the east wall, there were two pottery pitchers, 
a bowl, and a stone jar cover. In the southwestern part of the room, 
fragments of feather blankets and two end boards of baby carriers were 
found. In the debris there were a number of fragments of wood includ- 
ing ceremonial and game sticks and a wooden slab. Fragments of 
pottery vessels, turquoise beads, and animal bones were also found. 
These, with the child's skull, the human bones, and the deposit of tur- 
quoise and shell beads, completed the list of objects found in the room. 

Room 54. 

Stone Implements. Room 54 is directly east of the adjoining Room 
38. The excavations in this room had been carried to a depth of about 
4 feet when a layer of stone implements was found (Fig. 92). These 
implements extended to a depth of several feet below this point and had 
evidently been stored in one of the upper rooms. In this deposit there 
were two metates, sixty-four manos, thirty-seven hammerstones, six- 
teen stone jar covers, two grooved hammers, three smoothing stones, 
two sandstone grinders, eleven stone slabs, two grinding stones, two 
stone knives, nine worked stones of various shapes, a hoe-shaped stone, 
grooved maul, five bone awls, a bone scraper, a pipestem, an arrow 
point, pieces of turquoise, fossil shells, potsherds, two wooden knife 
handles (Fig. 94), and fragments of baskets. 

After the stone objects had been removed and the debris cleared 
from the floor, it was found that practically nothing had been left on the 
lower floor, the only object of interest found was a piece of coal, which 
was lying against the north wall. 

The photograph (Fig. 93) of this room gives a comprehensive idea of 
the manner in which it had been constructed. Near the middle of the 
western section was a projecting wall which extended in a northeastern 
direction. This wall was 4 feet 8 inches long and the end was 7 feet 5 
inches from the southwest corner. Between this projection and the 
western wall of the room at a distance of 7 inches from the south wall, 
were two posts. A third post may be seen in the opposite corner. This 




Fig. 94 (5650). Wooden Knife Handle, Room 54. 




Fig. 95 (5651). Hafted Stone Knife, Room 54. 




Fig. 96 (5647). Handle of Pottery Vessel, Room 54. 



214 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 215 

post, with the other two, no doubt formed a support for a platform 
similar to the one noted in Room 38, which adjoins this room on the 
west. East of the projecting wall were five posts, two near the south and 
three near the north wall. Three of these may be seen in the photo- 
graph. These posts evidently formed supports for another platform. 
There are two doorways of the usual type in the north wall, also one in the 
south and one in the west wall. In the foreground of the photograph, 
another wall may be seen. This one, however, extended from one side of 
the room to the other. Near the corners of this small division of the 
main room, two posts were in evidence. These may have extended to the 
ceiling, but from the condition of the ends it would seem that they had 
not decayed to any extent, and that they had no doubt served, as in the 
case of the others, as supports for a platform. The measurements of 
Room 54 are as follows: north wall, 24 feet 7 inches; south' wall, 25 
feet, 3 inches; east wall, 10 feet; west wall, 8 feet 5 inches. 

Room 55. 

Room 55 was directly west of and adjoining Room 28. It showed 
two distinct types of masonry. The west wall was built of small slabs 
of sandstone which had been closely laid. At the base of this wall, which 
was very compact, could be seen a portion of a beam 6 inches in diameter. 
This beam was built into the north wall and acted as a support for the 
west wall, as the foundation would otherwise have been insecure, built 
as it was on the debris of one of the walls. About 3 feet below the ceil- 
ing'beams, at the north end of the wall, there may be seen a beam over 9 
inches in diameter. This beam also extended to the northern face of the 
wall and the west wall is built around it. It evidently extended to 
the south wall and no doubt acted as a support to the upper story. The 
face of the west wall was unbroken, save for the places where the cross- 
beams showed and where the ceiling beams protruded from its surface. 
At this point there were six sticks showing that the ceiling beams ran 
east and west. The upper wall stood to a height of 4 feet at the northern 
end and a broken doorway of the rectangular type was in evidence in 
the center, but the southern part of the wall was only 2 feet high. 

The north wall was rough and composed of thin stones. There was 
a space in the upper central part of the wall where there had been a beam 
running north and south, that had acted as a ceiling support. At the 
northeastern part of this room, the northern wall had a secondary wall, 
filling the space between it and the east one. This wedge-shaped portion 
was a continuation of the well-built wall described in Room 51a and 



216 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

formed the south wall of Room 52. The joint made by the two walls 
was by no means perfect, but comparison as regards the masonry was 
striking. The upper part of the north wall was built of large stones 
and presented a solid appearance. The foundation, as in the case of the 
western one, was simply the debris of the burnt-out portions of the 
rooms, which had formed a part of the old building. 

The south, like the western wall, was made of small flat stones 
closely laid. The surface of this wall was unbroken, save for the upper 
part where the cross-beams had entered. The north wall of the lower, or 
old, part of the building was well plastered and had been blackened by 
fire. The eastern wall of this lower part was simply a pile of debris 
that separated Room 55 from Room 28. The southern lower wall was 
composed of large flat stones, laid without any regard to order, and 
projected beyond the main wall over a foot. The western lower wall, as 
mentioned, was simply a pile of debris. About 4 feet below the western 
wall were the remains of a floor. The beams had been forced from their 
original places, but had formerly run from east to west. Above them was 
a cedarbark floor covering and pieces of the adobe floor were also in 
evidence. The upper room had evidently been built over an old part of the 
building without any clearing or leveling of the old walls. The new wall 
at the southeastern corner was built against the old north wall. The 
remaining portions of the old structure had been utilized, but no particu- 
lar pains were taken to restore the old parts and no use had been made 
of the old material. Excavations were carried to a depth of over 4 feet 
below the old floor beams, but nothing but clean sand was discovered. 

The room measured as follows: north wall, 7 feet 2 inches; south 
wall, 6 feet 4 inches; east wall, 8 feet; west wall, 7 feet 3 inches. The 
total height of the walls at the northwest corner was 18 feet 9 inches. 
The following specimens were found in the debris; two ceremonial 
sticks and fragments of others, hammerstone, arrow point, small basket, 
bone awl, foot of a deer, mummified prairie dog, and a piece of shell. 

Room 56. 
Room 56 was directly west of Room 53 and was worked by the party 
under the direction of W. K. Moorehead. 1 It contained two graves that 
had been opened by this party and the bones were scattered throughout 
the dirt that was piled in the northeastern part of the room. There was 
also a mass of human bones in the northwestern corner, so it was impos- 
sible to determine how many bodies had been buried here. 

l During the winter of 1897-8, Mr. Warren K. Moorehead directed some additional excavations, 
opening a number of rooms as designated in the text. 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 217 

The walls were well plastered and presented an unbroken surface, 
save in the northern end of the east wall, where there was a doorway. 
This opening was 1 foot below the ceiling and measured 2 feet 2 inches in 
height and 1 foot 10 inches in width. This doorway led into Room 53. 

The ceiling was composed of twenty-five rough poles that ran from 
east to west. These were covered with brush. Above this covering was 
the adobe floor of Room 63. 

There was a jog in the northwestern corner where a wall had been 
torn out and a new one built just west of it. The corner was rounded 
to the old wall site, forming a marked concavity from this point to the 
western wall. From the eastern wall to a point where the curvature of 
the north wall begins, the distance is 4 feet at the place where this 
rounding ends; where the old wall begins, 5 feet 3 inches, leaving a space 
of 1 foot 4 inches that was added to the room by the erection of the new 
wall. 

The two graves under the floor of this room had been separated 
by a stone wall, the top of which was on the level of the floor, and 
extended from the east to the west wall. Its width at the top was 1 foot 
2 inches and extended to a point below the lower level of the graves. This 
wall was evidently a part of an old room, for on the western side, under 
the western wall of the room under consideration, there is another wall 
which extended the whole length of the western one. Its top was on the 
level with the floor, and as in the case of the cross wall, its lower limits 
extended some feet below this point. 

The grave in the northern part of the room extended from the cross 
wall to the south wall. It was 7 feet 3 inches long, and 4 feet 9 inches 
wide on the southern end, and was evidently the same in width at the 
north end. This grave was uncovered by the Moorehead party and it 
could not be ascertained whether it had been boarded up or not; it was 
2 feet deep. 

The grave at the southern end of the room was smaller than the 
first one. It was 6 feet 7 inches long on the western side and 6 feet 4 
inches on the eastern side, both ends, however, measuring 3 feet in 
width. The north end was formed by the cross wall. This grave was 3 
feet deep and the bottom was composed of sticks. The sides were made 
of four boards, the upper and lower ones were set at an angle, thereby 
giving a rounded appearance to the grave. This grave was probably 
covered with boards, but it may have been covered by matting, for 
fragments of both were found in Room 53, where the greater part of the 
debris from this room was thrown. The measurements of this room were 



218 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

as follows: north wall, 6 feet 7 inches; south wall, 5 feet 3 inches: 
eastern wall, 16 feet 3 inches ; western wall, 13 feet 10 inches. The average 
distance from the floor to the ceiling beams was 5 feet 6 inches. 

Aside from the human bones and a number of animal bones, gathered 
from the debris, which had not been thrown into the adjoining room, 
only two specimens worthy of mention were found. One was a stone 
jar, the other a broken stone jar cover, and a few potsherds. 

v Room 57. 

Room 57 was west of Room 55. This room was particularly interest- 
ing as it showed a perfect division between the old and new parts of the 
building. This condition of affairs was noticeable in Room 55 and ex- 
tended into Room 28. The upper or new walls of this room at the east 
and south sides were made of thin flat pieces of sandstone and were laid 
so closely that very little mortar was needed to form a solid wall. They 
were so even and so well laid, that at a short distance, they appeared to 
be plastered. Thej^ reminded one of the closely built eastern wall of 
Pueblo Chettro Kettle. The southern wall was uniform in appearance, 
but was slightly rounding. There was a doorway in the center of this 
wall about 2 x /2 feet above the floor. For a lintel it had five beams 
strapped together with a piece of bark. This doorway was closed with 
flat stones which had been carefully placed, but at the upper part, on the 
eastern side, some of the stones had been removed, exposing to view a 
beautifully plastered surface, as smooth and even as any in the building. 
The south wall may have been plastered, but there was no evidence of 
it. The eastern wall presented practically the same appearance as the 
south wall, the surface being neatly finished and compact. There was no 
break in the surface of the eastern wall in the lower room. The ceiling 
beams ran east and west and rested upon a large beam which ran in the 
opposite direction. Above the ceiling in the east wall, the wall was some- 
what rougher than the others that had been noted, and stood to a 
height of 4 feet. In the center was a doorway of the usual rectangular 
type. Only a portion of it was to be seen as the wall had fallen, carrying 
away the top and most of the south side. The north wall presented a 
rough surface, the stones were undressed and laid without regard to 
evenness or symmetry and patches of plaster still adhered in places. 
There was no break in the surface, but near the eastern end there was a 
log a foot in diameter which no doubt supported the ceiling. There was a 
second log slightly smaller than the one mentioned, on the same level 
and about 2 inches from the western wall. 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 219 

The remaining north wall stood to a height of 5 feet above this beam 
and was of the same material and construction as the lower one. The 
western wall is composed of faced stones well laid, with the interstices 
chinked. Built into the wall, at a point south of the center, is a pole 4 
inches in diameter. A portion of it protrudes from the surface, its upper 
part being buried in the masonry. This pole runs down through the old 
part of the building, on which this room was built. This beam was prob- 
ably standing when the new part was constructed and was utilized as a 
support for the new wall. 

Below this room was a mass of burnt logs and stones and a fallen 
ceiling of an old room. The beams ran east and west, but had been 
crushed and broken. Above them were the remains of a brush covering. 
At the north side of this lower space was a well-plastered wall that had 
been left standing when the other part of the room had been destroyed, 
and upon it the wall of the upper room was built. The eastern and 
western walls of the upper room were built upon the debris of the old 
part. When the wall was cleared at the northeastern corner, the debris 
fell from under the east wall, leaving an open space over 2 feet in width, 
but owing to the fact that the wall was wedge-shaped and the rooms on 
the north and south sides had not been cleared, it acted as a keystone 
and therefore remained intact. 

About 1 foot west of the upper or new wall, on the western side of 
the room, was a wall composed of sticks. This was part of the old ruin 
and in building the upper room they had missed it by the above-men- 
tioned distance. This old wall was made of upright posts against which 
stones had been laid. These had been covered with plaster, which gave 
the wall a rounded appearance. 

The south wall of the upper room had a firm foundation, as it rested 
upon a solid wall, composed of posts and projected over 1 foot to the 
north of the upper wall. These posts were firmly set in the ground and 
across them at intervals of about 1 foot, were poles which were lashed to 
the upright pieces. The spaces between the poles were then filled with 
plaster and mud and the surface plastered. 

The lower room was smaller than the one built above it, but the 
exact measurements could not be taken as we dared not clear away the 
debris under the east upper wall. The upper walls widened towards the 
top, the flaring sides being very noticeable. The measurements of tins 
room were as follows: north wall, 7 feet 8 inches; south wall, 6 feet 10 
inches; east wall, 7 feet; west wall, 7 feet. The following specimens 
were found in the debris: three manos, two hammerstones, a stone jar 



220 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

cover and fragments of another, fragments of dog skulls, and pieces of 
turquoise and shell. 

Room 58. 

Room 58 was north of Room 55 and directly over Room 33, where 
the turquoise and ceremonial objects were found. Part of the third 
story of this room was standing; the highest portion was at the southwest 
corner, where it ran to a height of 5 feet to the ceiling beams of the 
second story. The south wall was of very thin stones laid in mortar and 
slanted towards the cast until at the eastern corner, it was only 2 feet 
above the ceiling beams. The eastern wall was a little over 1 foot high 
and of rough construction. The north and west walls were of the same 
type of masonry. 

The eastern wall of the second story room was well plastered, as 
was the case with the other three. It had a doorway in the central part 
near the floor, was of rectangular form and connected with Room 52. 
In the southwest corner of this wall, level with the ceiling, a portion of 



Fig. 97 (8794). Handle made of Bone, Highly Polished, resembling Ivory, Room 58. 

the wall had been broken away when forming an entrance to the open 
series of rooms, which extended in a northeastern direction from Room 
3. In the northeast corner of the room, about 6 inches from the east and 
3 inches from the north wall, there was a post 5 inches in diameter, which 
was mentioned in the description of Room 33. It extended from the 
floor of the lower room through the ceiling into the upper one. The 
measurements of this room were: north wall, 6 feet 1 inch; south wall, 
6 feet 1 inch: east wall. 5 feet 7 inches; west wall, 6 feet 2 inches. The 
average height of this room, from the floor to the ceiling beams was 6 
feet 9 inches. The specimens found in the debris were: two hand 
hammerstones, a grooved hammer, a reed brush, several ceremonial 
sticks, also potsherds and animal bones. 

Room 59. 
Room 59 was in the southwestern part of the ruin, southwest of 
Room 23. This room was circular in form, with an angular offset at the 
southern end. The walls were composed largely of large stones and had 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 221 

been well plastered. Several layers could be counted. The angular 
part at the south end was covered with plaster. There was a fireplace 
in the center of the circular part, made by placing stones on edge. The 
specimens were as follows: six hammerstones, three smoothing stones, 
a stone ax, a worked stone slab, a pottery bowl, a pottery handle of 
a jar cover, a bone awl, two lower jaws of dogs, animal bones, and pot- 
sherds. 

Room 60. 

Room 60 was directly east of and adjoining Room 20. This room 
was of the angular type, the south wall being much shorter than the 
other three. All of the walls of this room were fairly well preserved, 
although there were evidences that a fire had raged in certain parts of 
the room and some parts of the walls showed the effect of the heat. In 
the lower part of the north wall was a doorway of the usual rectangular 
type with a stone slab for a sill. There was a doorway in the west wall 
at a point 1 foot above the floor level and 3 feet 6 inches from the north 
wall. This doorway, which is of the usual type, has a double lintel com- 
posed of poles. The layers of the poles are 8 inches apart and the 
spaces between have been filled in with sandstone. The measurements 
of this room are as follows: north wall, 15 feet 5 inches; south wall, 
6 feet 5 inches; east wall, 13 feet 5 inches; west wall, 10 feet 3 inches. 
Resting on the floor within a few inches of the south wall, near the central 
part of the room, a large corrugated jar was found. In it was a thick 
layer of red paint, also some seeds. A red bowl and one of plain ware were 
found near the jar. Other objects which were found in the debris in- 
cluded three dipper handles, a number of potsherds and a pottery animal, 
nine hammerstones, a broken moccasin-shaped stone, a worked stone 
slab, seven manos, a stone jar cover, a stone cylinder, an arrow point, 
fragments of chalcedony, turquoise, and shell, two bone scrapers, 
two bone awls, a bone implement, an animal bone showing cutting, a 
bone bracelet, a number of animal bones, fragments of sticks, squash 
rind and seeds, pieces of matting, and a deer skull. 

Room 60a. Room 60a was a small angular room, southwest of 
Room 60. It had evidently formed one of the corner rooms of an old 
estufa, a part of which will be described as Room 76. This room 
measured as follows : south wall, 5 feet 3 inches long; the east wall, 
6 feet; west wall, 7 feet. The west wall is the hypothenuse of a right- 
angled triangle, the other two sides being formed by the east and south 
walls. Nothing of interest was found in this room. 



222 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

Room 61. 

Room 61 was directly east of Room 37, and north of Room 53. This 
room was comparatively small. There were two stories standing. The 
lower room was well plastered, but it bulged near the ceiling beams, 
evidently from the accumulated weight above it. A little to the east of 
the center of this wall was a doorway. It was 2 feet 6 inches below the 
ceiling beams and of the rectangular type, but it had been plastered to 
such an extent that it was semi-oval in form, the plaster being rounded 
out to the surface of the wall at the sides of the opening. It had a wooden 
lintel. This doorway led into Room 6. On the west side of the door- 
way was a wooden loop fastened in the plaster. This was one of the 
loops used in barricading the door. Very few of these were found in 
Pueblo Bonito, but they are quite common in the cliff-houses in south- 
western Colorado and southeastern Utah. Fragments of ceiling beams 
protruded from the wall, showing that they had originally extended from 
north to. south. 

The north wall of the upper room stood to a height of 6 feet and was 
well plastered. It had a doorway of the usual type with a large stone 
for a sill, which projected over 3 inches beyond the wall surface. The 
lintel was made of poles. 

The eastern wall was built of large dressed stones and presented a 
very solid appearance. The stones were not closely laid, there was 
no chinking, the stones being laid with plaster. There was a doorway of 
the usual type in this wall. It was 2 feet 9 inches above the floor level. 
It had a wooden lintel and had been closed with plaster. The walls of 
the upper room had fallen, the remaining portion at the north end stand- 
ing to a height of 3 feet 6 inches. 

The south wall was roughly constructed and the western end had 
been torn down by other workers. There was a doorway near 
the west-central part, but this was destroyed when the wall was demol- 
ished. This wall was built around upright stakes, the corners being 
rounded with plaster. 

The western wall was well plastered. In the north-central part 
there was a doorway of the usual type with wooden lintels. One inter- 
esting feature in connection with this doorway, was the fact that it was 
2 feet above the floor and that it had a step in front of it which was 
composed of flat stones which projected 8 inches into the room. The 
upper western wall stood to a height of 5 feet above the ceiling of the 
lower one. The measurements of the lower room are as follows: north 
wall, 11 feet 1 inch; south wall, 9 feet 4 inches; east wall, 11 feet 6 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 223 

inches; west wall, 10 feet 4 inches. Most of the specimens found in this 
room were in the debris covering the floor; fragments of a human skull, 
scattered about in the southeast corner; pieces of a jaw with teeth and 
fragments of the cranium, blackened and charred to such an extent that 
it seems hardly possible that it could have been accidental. There was 
no evidence of there having been a fire in this room. The only piece of 
charred wood found was a section of a post 2 feet long and 2 inches in 
diameter. This had evidently fallen from one of the upper rooms. The 
pieces of the skull lay as if they had been scattered by hand. Had they 
fallen with the debris from the ceiling above, they would not have been 
lying in the positions they occupied in the accumulation of floor material. 
There were a few fragments of human bones beside the skull, but these 
showed no evidence of having been burnt. Among the other objects 
found in the debris was a grooved stone ax, two stone slabs, a stone slab 
evidently used as a cooking stone, a stone pestle, fragments of a stone 
jar cover, pieces of petrified wood, and natural pebbles. There was also 
a bone awl, a bone showing cutting, three rabbit skeletons, a number of 
animal bones, two wooden implements, a stick which may have been used 
in hunting rabbits, a game stick, a section of a whip cactus stalk, and 
fragments of shells. 

Room 62. 

Room 62 was very interesting. At the western end was a flooring 
that rested on cross beams, running north and south, which were about 
3 feet above the general floor level of the main room. The western beam 
entered each wall about 1 foot east of the west wall; the next beam was 
inserted in the south wall, but at its northern end, it rested upon a post 
that was 2 inches in diameter. The eastern beam was inserted in the 
wall at either end, and at the north end was about 1 foot south of the 
doorwaj' - . These beams averaged about 4 inches in diameter. 

Resting upon these beams, and running east and west, was a series 
of poles averaging 2 inches in diameter. They had evidently been of 
uniform length, with the exception of the one nearest to the south wall 
which projected about 2 feet beyond the others and rested upon a jog 
in the southern wall. Over these poles, running north and south, a reed 
matting was fastened by means of small branches and strips of wood 
which ran across the mat at right angles to the reeds and were fastened 
to the poles with strands of yucca (Fig. 98). 

The floor had been crushed and the beams broken by the weight of 
the debris, but was intact enough to give a good idea of its original 
appearance. 



224 A nthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

The southern end of Room 62 presented a very irregular appearance, 
not only in its irregularity but in the general aspect of its surface. 

The western part of this wall was composed of small stones closely 
laid and the greater part of the surface was covered with plaster. Two 
feet, five inches from the west wall, and 5 feet from the floor, was a small 
circular pocket about 5 inches in diameter and extending 10 inches into 
the wall. It was well rounded with plaster, there being no break in the 
general plaster about its rim. These beams projected from the surface 
at a height of 3 feet 7 inches from the floor. These were the beams that 
supported the reed floor as described in another place. 

Nine feet east of the west wall and 3 feet 7 inches from the floor was 
a jog in the wall, 10 inches long and almost 3 inches wide. Upon this 
rested the long pole, which was the southernmost one of the reed floor 
series. The depression for this jog ran from the point 3 feet 7 inches 
above the floor to the upper part of the wall below the jog, the wall 
rounded toward the west. From this point, that is from the eastern edge 
of the jog, the wall was rounded for a distance of 6 feet 11 inches. Its 
eastern end was continued toward the southeast, forming the outer wall 
of the northeast part of the circular estufa just south of Room 62. Just 
west of the upper central part of this circular portion of the wall, was a 
portion of a doorway. It was 7 feet 3 inches from the eastern wall and 
the sides were 1 foot 3 inches high, of the usual square type, and was 2 
feet wide at its base. The wall had fallen on this side of the room, carry- 
ing the upper part of this doorway with it. 

This circular wall was composed of stones that were somewhat larger 
than those in the southern part, but they were no less firmly laid. Most 
of the surface was covered with plaster, which, in places, showed the 
various layers that had been applied. 

At the extreme eastern part of this section of wall was an opening 
about 6 inches in diameter, about 3 feet 8 inches above the floor, that 
marked the places where a cross beam had once been, as there was a 
corresponding opening at the same height in the north wall. 

The remaining, or eastern portion of this wall, was 5 feet long, its 
surface was almost devoid of plaster, which presented to view a compact, 
but rather uneven plane. At a point about 3 feet 8 inches above the floor 
and about 1 foot east of the western edge of this part of the wall, a small 
beam protruded, ranging east of this and on the same level were four 
more beams about the size of the first one, which was 13^ inches in 
diameter. These logs had been broken off flush with the wall and had no 
doubt formed a floor similar to the one at the western end of the room. 




Fig. 98. View of Room 62 showing the Fallen Ceiling and Construction of the Wall Pockets. 
A new layer of plaster is shown by the line running across the wall. 



v^sMpe*"^:- 







A.. 



J 



Fig. 99. Wall Pockets in Room 62 



226 




& t- 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 229 

These beams seemed to divide the eastern portion of the south wall into 
two parts, the upper portion of which was composed of much smaller 
stones than the lower part, and the surface was much more even. This 
5 feet of wall was evidently the base of a right-angled triangle of masonry, 
whose perpendicular followed the continuation of the eastern wall of 
Room 62 and whose hypothenuse was concaved in conformity with the 
outer wall of the estufa. The general height of this southern wall was 
7 feet 11 inches, it having suffered more than the others when this part 
of the building fell. 

Wall Pockets. The western wall was very interesting from the fact 
that no less than four pockets were found (Fig. 99). The greater part 
of this wall was covered with plaster, the only portion where it had been 
detached being at the lower northern end and a small space at the south 
end against the south wall. The wall itself, at least the point that was 
visible, was composed of large dressed stones, the spaces between which 
were chinked with small flat pieces, forming a very compact and pleas- 
ing surface. 

The upper part of the wall had suffered by fire, the stones being cal- 
cined and the plaster blackened. No beams projected from this wall to 
mar its general appearance; the closets, or wall pockets, were well fin- 
ished, which caused them to add to rather than detract from the beauty 
of the wall. 

Near the ceiling level at the southern end of the room, a pocket 
almost square in form, was encountered in the early stages of the work. 
Pocket 1 had boards for its sides, the upper and lower part and the back 
being plastered. The wall plaster was broken about its edges, but seemed 
to have been square at the edges of the pocket; if rounded at all, the 
curvature must have been very slight. The box-like opening was 1 foot 
3 inches wide at the top and 1 foot 4 inches at the bottom, the sides 
being 1 foot 3^ inch high; the cross measurements were 1 foot 6 inches 
and 1 foot 9 inches, respectively, the former being from the lower south 
to the upper north corner. The pocket extended 1 foot into the wall, 
and therefore formed a receptacle for quite large articles. 

The triangulation was as follows, the measurements being taken 
from the floor: from the lower corner at the northern end to floor at the 
northwest corner of the room was 9 feet 1 inch and from the opposite 
corner of the pocket to the southwest corner of the room, 4 feet 8 inches. 

Pocket 2 was a small orifice with well-rounded edges. It was simply 
a plastered depression in the wall surface 9 inches long and 6 inches high 
with a depth of 6 inches. The corners were rounded to such an extent, 



230 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

that it presented a semi-oval appearance. The triangulation of this 
pocket to the same points as the former one, was 7 feet 1 inch at the 
north side and at the south, 6 feet 2 inches. Just below these pockets 
the wall was divided transversely by the lower limits of a layer of plaster 
that had been applied to the upper part of the wall, this line was on a level 
with the upper part of Pocket 3. This closet was well made and looked 
firm and solid, owing to the fact that the lower part was composed of a 
flat board over an inch in thickness, that not only extended to the back 
part of the pocket, but projected under the masonry at the sides. This 
board was well dressed and had been smoothed ere it was put in place. 

The upper part was composed of five poles laid side by side, as are 
the lintel poles of a doorway. There were five of them and their average 
diameter was about IV2 inches. These poles were built in the masonry at 
the sides of the pocket and served as a support for the narrow strip of 
wall between this and Pocket 1 . The northern side of this opening had a 
thin layer of plaster for a facing, but on the southern side most of it 
had become detached. The plaster about the edges had been broken to 
such an extent that its original form could not be determined, but it 
had probably been nearly square. 

The length of this lower part was 1 foot 9 inches and of the upper 1 
foot 6 inches, the right (north) side being 1 foot 1 inch and the south, 11 
inches. The diagonals were respectively 1 foot 10 inches and 2 feet, the 
former being from the lower south to the upper north corner. The 
triangulation from the points previously used was 7 feet 6 inches at the 
north side and 3 feet at the south, the depth was 1 foot 3^2 inches. 

The symmetry of this pocket was spoiled by the dip of the lower 
board, which gave it an irregular form. Why it was placed in this posi- 
tion is not apparent and seems strange in view of the fact that most of 
this work is uniform and in strict observance to planes and angles. 

Pocket 4 was in general form like Pocket 2; the lower part and sides 
were well rounded with plaster, concealing whatever may have been 
used for the base. Possibly nothing was used but the plaster, but at the 
top a portion of the plaster had been knocked off, revealing a board 3^ 
inch thick, that formed the upper part of the pocket and extended into 
the wall on either side of the pocket. 

The length of this closet was 1 foot 1 inch and the height 8 inches 
and it extended into the wall 7 inches. The triangulation from the same 
points as the previous ones, was, from the north side, 4 feet 2 inches and 
at the south, 4 feet 10 inches. The plaster at the edges of this pocket, 



1920.] f Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 231 

and especially at the lower part, was gently rounded outward to the 
general wall covering. 

Doorways and Walls. In the southern part of the wall and 2 feet 
7 inches from the south wall was a small opening that led into the next 
room to the west. This opening, Pocket 5, was 1 foot high and 7 inches 
wide; its top was rounded with plaster, but it had a small board for a 
lintel. Its base was formed of a dressed board which was flush with the 
floor level. The sides of this opening were plastered and on the edges 
the plaster was still intact and very slightly rounded. 

At the upper part of the wall, just above and north of Pocket 1, 
was the base board of an old doorway that had been filled up and covered 
with plaster. From the outlines it seemed to be of the general square 
type, but the upper part had fallen. 

Just above the ceiling, in the northwest corner, a wall crossed this 
room, its diameter northeast and southwest. It was standing to a height 
of 3 feet but was in a crumbling condition. The north wall presented a 
rough uneven surface and the greater part of the plaster was blackened 
by smoke. On most of the surface the plaster was in place, but around 
the places where beams had been, it had fallen. The only large break 
in the surface was the doorway which was 1 foot 9 inches from the 
east wall. This doorway was of the square type, but the top was 
beautifully rounded and the plaster was in good condition. The height 
of this opening was 2 feet 4 inches and the width 1 foot 9 inches. 
These dimensions held good to a point about 6 inches from the surface 
at the top and 2 inches at the bottom. Here a thick layer of plaster com- 
menced at both sides and rounded to the lintel, which was composed of 
five large beams, this plaster continued to the other side of the wall; 
across the top of this plastered part were two sticks, evidently put there 
to hold the plaster in place, but it had either fallen from its own weight 
or been knocked off. 

These layers of mortar decreased the size of the doorway to such an 
extent that the sides were only 1 foot 10 inches high and the width, 1 foot 
4 inches; the base of this doorway was composed of a stone slab that 
projected a little beyond the masonry. About a foot west of this doorway 
and 4 feet from the floor, one of the cross beams supporting the reed 
floor entered the wall. There were two more places between this point 
and the west wall where beams had evidently entered, the second was 
supported by a post, but originally may have entered the wall. 

Just over the opening nearest the door, a wall had run to the ceiling, 
and no doubt was supported by the beam that crossed the room at this 



232 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History \ [Vol. XXVII, 

point. Whether it ran to the opposite wall or not, could not be ascer- 
tained, as it had fallen. Judging from the place in the plaster, it could 
not have been much over 6 inches in thickness. 

In the western end of this wall, and with the floor for a starting 
point, were three places that were devoid of plaster; they were no doubt 
part of the general surface at first, but the plaster had worn off by use. 
These places, which were about 1 foot wide, and the same in height, 
probably marked the points where metates had rested. 

From the west wall to the center of the first one was 7 inches, to the 
center of the second 2 feet 4 inches, and to the center of the third, 3 feet 
10 inches. 

Just above the two western places described above, there is a depres- 
sion that has been plastered, but which may have been a door. 

At the eastern end of this wall, is a wall pocket, 2 feet 7 inches from 
the floor and 9 inches west of the east wall. It is 1 foot high and 1 foot 
2 inches wide. It runs through to the next room, and therefore, is more 
like a passageway than a closet, but was probably made in this way so 
that it could be used from both rooms, or as a means of conveying articles 
from one apartment to the other. The upper part was composed of 
eight poles laid like the door lintels; the sides were plastered but were 
slanted a little toward the top. The wall above it was badly bulged and 
the plaster had fallen from quite a large area. 

Just to the east of this opening a beam protruded and west of it, 
on the same level, were the places where three more had been. These 
are the ones mentioned in the description of the southern wall and prob- 
ably supported a floor similar to the one at the western end of the room, 
as was suggested in the other description. 

The ceiling beams projected from the wall 9 feet 10 inches above the 
floor at the eastern end of the room, and 11 feet 8 inches at the western 
end. There were seven in all and they averaged about 8 inches in diam- 
eter. Above these beams was a mass of debris which was fully 5 feet 
high near the western end. 

Across the northwest corner and just above the ceiling beams, a 
wall crossed, as before mentioned, and just above the corner itself was a 
doorway. This was tilted and in poor condition and little could be 
gathered from it from the work done in Room 62. 

The eastern wall was composed of selected stones and the places 
between the large stones were chinked with flat pieces of sandstone. 
The lower part of the wall retained most of its plaster, but from the upper 
part, large patches had fallen. 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 233 

There was a doorway of the square type in the lower southern part 
of the wall that had for a lintel a board nearly 1^ inches thick, it ex- 
tended beyond the side of the doorway at the southern side, over 2 
inches and at the northern side about 3 inches. This doorway was 9 
inches above the floor and 1 foot 7 inches north of the south wall. It 
was 1 foot 9 inches wide and 2 feet 2 inches high. The sides were plastered 
and the wall plaster was rounded slightly at the edges. 

The wall was standing at the northern end to a height of 9 feet 10 
inches, but at the southern end only 7 feet 1 inch was intact. 

A Buried Floor. The floor plan of this room presented a length of 
wall at the north side of the rectangle 19 feet 11 inches in extent, the 
east wall having a length of 7 feet 5 inches, and the west wall, 10 
feet. The south wall, including the contour of the rounding part was 21 
feet 9 inches. 

Diagonally from the northeast to the southwest corner the distance 
was 22 feet 2 inches and the distance between the opposite corner proved 
to be 22 feet 9 inches. The floor in the western part of the room was torn 
out and under it was found another well-plastered floor. At the western 
wall the second floor was about 1 foot 2 inches below the first and the 
eastern end of this lower room, where the wall crossed, 7 inches at the 
southern side of the room. This lower floor rested upon a rounding 
projection of the main wall which was originally about 1 foot wider than 
the upper wall at the west end, but being rounding in form a piece had 
been added to square the surface, making it protrude from the main wall 
about 1 foot 6 inches. 

This jutting wall was a continuation of the rounding part of the 
south wall described in another plan. Instead of following out the 
contour, the upper wall was squared. This bench decreased in width as 
it neared the eastern end of the room and was about 4 inches wide where 
it joined the square piece of masonry that extended northward from the 
southern wall at a point 7 feet 7 inches east of the west wall and extended 
to within 1 1 inches of the eastern cross wall. This projection was on the 
same level as the bench and was well built and plastered. It was 2 feet 
1 inch long at the western side and 1 foot 10 inches long on the opposite 
side, having a width of 2 feet 83-4 inches. 

The western wall crossed at the lower floor level, resting simply on 
the hard sand that filled this western part of the room. The northern 
wall ran to a point about 4 feet below the lower floor level and the east, 
or division wall, was only 1 foot thick, the top being on a level with the 
upper floor. 



234 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

The southern wall was well built and extended to a depth of over 
6 feet. The western wall from the northern edge of the bench to the 
north wall was 8 feet 6 inches long. The north wall was 10 feet 4 inches 
long; the east wall, 7 feet 5 inches; while the southern wall presented a 
surface 11 feet 214, inches in length. 

The diagonal lines showed a distance of 13 feet 6 inches from the 
northwest to the southeast. A line from the northwest corner to the 
junction of the square of masonry at its west side, and the south wall 
was 10 feet 7 inches in length. 

On breaking through this second floor, a pocket was found near the 
northwest corner of the square piece of masonry. A triangulation from 
the eastern or partition wall, placed it 7 feet 9 inches from the north- 
eastern corner and 5 feet from the southeastern corner. The opening of 
this pocket was a trifle below the floor level ; the pocket itself was circular 
in form. It was about 10 inches deep and 1 foot in diameter and was 
filled with broken pottery. The sides were not plastered and from 
appearances it had simply been scooped out of the hard packed sand, and 
pottery thrown in. As further work brought more of these pockets to 
light, the one described was called Pocket 1 (Fig. 100). 

Bosket-Covered Pockets. Pocket 2 was found a little to the northeast, 
of the first one. It was also circular in form; the diameter both east and 
west and north and south was 3 feet; the triangulation was taken from 
the east wall and proved to be 5 feet 2 inches from the northeast corner 
to the center of the pocket, and 6 feet 2 inches from the southeast corner 
to the same point. This pocket was covered with a large basket, but the 
greater part of it had decayed. From the size and shape of this basket, 
it must have been almost a counterpart of the " Basket Peoples" large 
baskets as found in the Grand Gulch region in Utah. In burying the 
people in pockets and covering them with the large baskets, we have a 
custom analogous to that employed in this case, but whereas, the pot- 
holes of the "Basket People'' were plastered, these were simply holes in 
the level sand. 

Under the large basket at the southern side of the hole, were two 
smaller baskets. The remaining part of the hole, even under the small 
baskets, was filled with broken pottery. This pottery may have been 
broken after being placed in the holes, but as the pieces of various vessels 
were widely separated, it is more than probable that the bowls and 
pitchers were broken before they were placed in the pocket. 

Pocket 3 was to the southwest of Pocket 2 and joined it at the north- 
east edge. This pocket was circular, the north and south and east and 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 235 

west diameters being 3 feet 2 inches. The triangulation was taken from 
the western wall to the center of the pocket, the line from the north 
corner being 6 feet 10 inches and from the south, 6 feet 10 inches. In 
this pocket there were only two pieces of pottery, a small pitcher at the 
southern side, and a very large one. Just opposite this was the largest 
piece of its kind that had been taken from the ruin up to the time of its 
discovery; it measured, when restored, 1 foot 1% inches in height and 
11 inches in diameter. The triangulation from the west wall to the center 
of the pocket from the north end was 4 feet 6 inches, and from the south end, 
or corner, 9 feet 11 inches. The pottery from this pocket consisted of a 
broken bowl that rested against the southern edge of the opening. 

Pocket 5 was partly under the western wall. It was probably cir- 
cular, but only one measurement could be taken with any degree of 
accuracy, as its western limit was not readily defined. The diameter 
from north to south was 3 feet 2 inches and the distance from the southern 
wall to its center was 5 feet 6 inches. This pocket contained the remains 
of a large basket and broken pitchers and bowls. At its western rim. it 
had a bowl that was perfect, save for a crack in its side. 

These pot-holes were all hollows in the hard sand that filled the 
room, below the floor level. The sand was so firmly packed that the 
sides of the holes remained intact, even though no plaster had been 
applied. 

The upper part of all the pockets was just below the floor level and 
though the sides were carefully rounded, the bottom was merely an 
irregular flat surface. The average depth of these pockets was 3 feet 9 
inches. 

The space between the upper and lower floor of this room was filled 
with sand and large stones, it was therefore, not an accumulation of 
material, but had been filled intentionally; in the northwest corner of 
the room, 10 inches from either wall, and resting on the lower floor, was 
the bowl of a pitcher, but no other material worthy of mention was 
found on this floor. 

The partition wall was 1 foot 3 inches wide and a little over 1 foot 
deep, and ran from the north to the south wall, the ends simply abutting 
on the side walls. This wall was well made and the surfaces were very 
even. 

The eastern room, or that part east of the wall, was 9 feet 2 inches 
long at the north side and 10 feet 3 inches at the south, the ends being 7 
feet 4 inches at the eastern part and 7 feet 3 inches long at the western. 



236 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

The diagonals were run from the eastern corner to the western junction 
of the cross and side walls. In making the northeast and southwest 
measurements, the distance proved to be 11 feet 6 inches, the opposite 
line being 12 feet 10 inches long. 

When this floor was taken away, a mass of dirt and stones was en- 
countered, as in the other side. These were thrown out and a second floor 
encountered about 1 foot below the first. This second floor was hard 
and well defined. 

About 1 foot from the south wall and built against the partition 
wall was a semicircular piece of masonry, the radius of which was 1 foot 
and the length 1 foot 3 inches. It was well plastered, but its use was not 
apparent. 

This second floor was torn up and under it four pockets were found, 
three along the partition wall and one in the northeast corner; they were 
so poorly defined that no measurements could be taken. They seemed to 
have been about 1% inches in diameter, but the sides had crumbled. 
Had we not encountered the one in the western part of the room, these 
would no doubt have passed unnoticed, the only way they could be 
detected was by the sand that was so much softer than in the other parts 
of the room. Nothing was found in these pot-holes. 

The walls of this part of the room were well plastered, and at the 
eastern end of the lower part of the wall flared somewhat toward the east. 

Room 63. 
Room 63 was west of Room 53. This room was rectangular in form 
and had its corners plastered, giving them a rounded appearance. The 
west wall was composed of thin stones and there were no doorways or 
other openings in it. It was 16 feet 1 inch in length; the ceiling beams 
were 7 feet 7 inches above the floor. This was the second story; the 
wall of the third story was standing to a height of over 6 feet. There 
was a doorway in the upper part of the wall; the wall itself was of the 
old type, being built of thin slabs of sandstone. The plaster that had at 
one time filled the spaces between the slabs had entirely disappeared, 
and the wall presented a very weak appearance. The north wall was 
broken and did not reach the ceiling level at any part. The east wall 
was composed of upright posts and stones, the surface being well 
plastered. At a point 7 feet 1 inch from the north wall was a rectangular 
doorway 1 foot above the floor and with poles for the lintel. The south 
wall was also covered with a thick layer of plaster and stood to a height 
of 7 feet 5 inches. This room was directly over Room 56. The dimen- 



1920. 



Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 



237 



sions were as follows: north wall, 6 feet 2 inches; south wall, 5 feet 9 
inches; east wall, 16 feet 1 inch; west wall, 16 feet 1 inch. No specimens 
worthy of mention were found. 

Room 64. 
Room 64 was southwest of Room 62. This room is of irregular shape 
and will be described in detail when rooms of this class are under con- 
sideration. When this room was cleared of debris, a series of walls was 
found under the floor, showing that this part of the building had been 
constructed from an old portion. The following specimens were found 
in the debris: at the south end, near the floor level, a pottery ladle, 
a corrugated jar, and a broken pottery bowl; in other parts of the room, 
thirteen hand hammerstones, three sandstone balls, two stone slabs, a 
stone maul, two grooved hammers, a grinding stone, two stone jar covers, 
six manos, chalcedony, obsidian, and other stone fragments, a piece 




Fig. 102 (5961). Painted Stone Pestle, Room 64. 

of hematite, a piece of iron ore, and a stone pestle. The pestle is cylin- 
drical and painted with geometric designs, Fig. 102. Among the bone 
specimens were seven bone awls, a worked animal rib, a bone bead, a 
bone scraper, a number of animal bones, and fragments of deer and antler. 
There were fragments of a small pottery bowl, a worked pottery jar 
bottom, a pottery bowl, and handles of vessels. There was also a stick 
used in a kicking game, an arrow point, and a worked piece of clay. 
In the lower room, that is, below the floor level, only animal bones were 
found. 

Room 65. 
Room 65 was one of a series of rooms formed by partitioning a pas- 
sage running east and west, the side walls simply abutting against the 
north and south walls. The room really extends northeast and south- 



238 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

west, but for convenience in description, the northeast wall will be known 
as north and the other walls will be treated in a relative order. 

The west wall was simply a partition between Rooms 65 and 66. It 
was built of small chunky pieces of sandstone and a sparse sprinkling of 
thin slabs; its surface had been covered with plaster at one time, but at 
the upper southern end most of it had fallen. That which remained was 
blackened by fire; this was particularly noticeable at the northern end 
where the plaster was quite thick. 

There were no doorways or pockets in this wall and its ends were not 
built into the other walls, being as before mentioned, built up to, or 
against them. This wall was a little over 1 foot thick. 

The north wall was rather peculiar, both from its irregular shape, 
as well as from the pockets and door that broke the surface at the east 
and west ends. Over the doorway in the western end, this wall was built 
of large stones, but in the other parts of the wall, smaller stones were in 
evidence. Originally, the whole surface was plastered, as shown by the 
blackened patches that are to be seen in various parts. 

The northeast corner of the room is filled with masonry from a point 
above the ceiling beams to the top of the closet. The surface of this 
masonry was 3 feet 4 inches in width and commenced at a point 6 feet 9 
inches from the west wall. It was well laid and had a finished surface, 
selected stones having been used in its construction; it too had been 
plastered. It ran into the next room. 

Doorways and Wall Pockets. There was a doorway in the western 
end 1 1 inches above the floor. Its western side was a continuation of the 
general north wall, and was on a line with the west wall of this room, as 
though it had been a part of it. In fact the plaster had made it a uniform 
surface, but on clearing part of this room, the plaster was torn off, 
bringing to light a point that proves almost conclusively that the 
western wall made two rooms of what had originally been only one. 
When the pieces of plaster fell they disclosed a rounded corner of plaster, 
which, on close inspection, proved to extend along the surface of this 
part of the north wall toward Room 66. It was not merely a mass that 
might have been forced in when the room was plastered, but as far as 
could be seen, it presented a smooth blackened surface. This plaster 
was from }A inch to over 1 inch in thickness. This doorway had been 
plastered on both sides, although the stones were small and well laid. 
It was 4 feet 8 inches high, 2 feet 4 inches wide at the top, and 2 feet 2 
inches in width at the bottom. A. pole 2 inches in diameter ran across 
the top about 3 inches back from the surface, but this had been broken 
from the eastern end by the weight above it. 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 2.39 

Directly back of this doorway was a smaller one with its sill on the 
same level as the first. It was 2 feet 2 inches high and 1 foot 11 inches 
wide and had two small poles for a lintel. The space above the lintel 
was filled with well laid small stones, and presented an even surface. 
The wall that narrowed the opening slanted toward the north; at the 
bottom of the doorway it was 8 inches from the general surface of the 
north wall; at the lintel level of the second doorway, it was 1 foot 5 
inches, and at the top 1 foot 7 inches. The entire surface of this opening 
had been covered with a heavy coat of plaster and, as in the other parts 
of the room, the surface of the plaster was blackened. 

In the northeast corner was a sort of closet, 1 foot 7 inches above the 
floor level; the east side of this pocket was 2 feet 2 inches high and was 
comparatively perpendicular. The west side slanted eastward a trifle 
and presented a surface 2 feet 3 inches high, and was 1 inch longer than 
the perpendicular from the same point, The opening at the bottom was 
4 feet 9 inches long and at the top, 4 feet 4 inches. It was semicircular 
and the whole surface was plastered; at the upper back part stones 
protruded and this surface was also covered with plaster which still 
adheres to it. 

The radius, measuring to the outer surface of the room wall, was 2 

feet 10 inches. Six inches above the front wall of the pocket and 10 

inches north from the surface, there projects from the west side of the 

pocket a beam 2 feet 6 inches long and 4^ inches in diameter. At its 

eastern end it is partly covered with plaster and its end almost touches a 

large plaster-covered stone that projects from the wall. Six inches back 

from the surface of the general wall, there projects from the west wall of 

the pocket, a stone 2 inches thick and 8 inches long; it is covered with 

plaster and extends into the pocket 5 inches; this helps to support a 

beam that projects from the wall just above it and extends to another 

stone that projects from the north wall. This stone is only 1 inch thick 

and it protrudes 5 inches from the wall. This would seemingly make a 

very poor support but that is evidently its purpose. This beam was 2 

feet 2 imches long and 3 inches in diameter, and only 1 inch of its end 

rested upon the before-mentioned stone. This beam ran parallel with 

the wall forming the front of the pocket, while the other one was parallel 

to the general north wall. These beams showed very little blackness, 

whereas the plaster was jet black. This state of affairs may be accounted 

for by the nature of the two materials, the porous nature of the plaster 

affording the soot a better resting place, and allowing it to get a more 

tenacious hold than on the wood. 




Fig. 103. Floor Pockets in Room 65. 



240 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 241 

This pocket extended below the general floor level of the room and 
was 2 feet 3 inches deep. This wall, the north, was standing to a height 
of 1 1 feet 6 inches at the west end and 1 1 feet at the east end. 

The peculiar masonry in the northeast corner was rather puzzling, 
for it seemed to extend in a northeast direction into the next room. In 
its lower part there were still to be seen the outlines of a doorway, 
although some of the wall had fallen at this point. There were two cir- 
cular places in the north wall where ceiling beams had protruded; they 
were about 8 inches in diameter and 9 feet above the floor. 

The east wall was well plastered on its lower surface, but near the 
top, most of the plaster had fallen. This wall was pierced by two pockets 
and one closed doorway; it was 12 feet 7 inches long at the top, 9 feet 
high at its north end, and 7 feet 8 inches in height at the south end. 

The pocket near the northern end was 2 feet 8 inches above the floor 
level; a triangulation from the lower corners of the pocket to the lower 
corners of the wall, gave a distance of 8 feet 9 inches on the south side 
and 3 feet 5 inches on the north. It was 1 foot 5 inches long at the bottom 
and 1 foot 7 inches at the top, the right side being 1 foot high and the 
left 11 inches. The lower corners were rounded with plaster and the 
diagonals were, therefore, less than if these had been square corners. 
From the upper north corner to the lower south corner was 1 foot 7 
inches and from the other corners 1 foot 9 inches. The greatest depth 
was 10 inches, but stones protruded from the back and sides, and in 
some places the depth was only 3 inches. There was a flat stone % inch 
thick that extended the whole length of the pocket, forming its bottom; 
the sides and top were very irregular, but were plastered. On the north 
side are marks of three fingers running horizontally in the plaster. 

There is a doorway that has been closed with large stones and 
plastered 1 foot 3 inches south of the upper corner of this pocket and 2 
feet 5 inches above the floor. It is 2 feet 10 inches high, slightly bottle- 
shaped, the bottom being 6^ inches wider than the top, and the sides 
tapering quite symmetrically. Six inches above the bottom of this door- 
way the width is 1 foot 10 inches; 14 inches higher, it is 1 foot Q}^ inches, 
and at the top it is 1 foot 33^ inches wide. The peculiar part about this 
doorway is the fact that it is not closed even with the surface, but a 
space averaging 514 inches intervenes between the stones and the 
general wall surface, forming a bench which was probably used as a 
pocket. The whole surface was covered with plaster and the lower 
corners were rounded. The filled part was not even and large stones 
projected from its surface; these also were covered with the blackened 
plaster. 



242 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

Three feet, seven inches south of this doorway is a pocket. Origin- 
ally, it may have been another doorway, but if so, it has lost its identity 
by being plastered over a well-laid wall that fills the back part. It is very 
irregular and its base is 11 inches above the floor; its north side slants 
outward a little and is 2 feet 7 inches in length; the opposite side also 
slants outward and is 2 feet 9K inches long. The perpendiculars measured 
from the same lower point were in the former instance 1 foot 63^ inches 
and in the latter, 1 foot 9 inches. Its greatest depth is 10 inches; this 
maintains along the greater part of its northern side, but it gets narrower 
as it extends toward the south and at some points is only 5 inches deep. 
The width at the top is 1 foot 8 inches and at the bottom 1 foot 4 inches. 
The perpendicular measurements were taken from a flat stone that ran 
across the corner; this stone was 8 inches wide, 1 foot 7 inches long and 
1}4 inches thick, and extended 7 inches from the corner. This pocket 
was well plastered and most of it was intact. This wall extended 2 feet 
above the ceiling beams at the north end, making it 11 feet high at this 
point. 

The south wall was built of medium-sized stones, the majority of 
them slabs. They were well laid, giving the surface a very even appear- 
ance. This wall had been plastered, but the only portion where it still 
remained, were the central and lower parts. The only break in this wall 
was at the western end where there had been a doorway; this space, 
however, had been filled with stones and plaster even with the surface 
of the main wall. It was 1 foot 6 inches wide at the top and 1 foot 5 
inches in width at the bottom, and 3 feet 10 inches in length from the 
base stone to the lintel, which was composed of poles. Only fragments of 
the poles remained, however. The side of this doorway had been plas- 
tered and the stones, along the outer edge, were well laid and even. The 
southern part of the western wall of this room covers up part of this door- 
way, but the western side is fully 2 inches west of the wall in Boom 66. 
This seemingly verifies the statement and theories deduced from the 
evidence gained from the plaster in the northwest corner concerning a 
long use of this part of the building, or one large room, ere the partition 
wall was erected. This doorway was 3 feet 9 inches above the floor; the 
stones below it had been loosened and some of them had fallen. 

In the eastern part of this wall, a stone, mentioned in the descrip- 
tion of the corner pocket of the east wall, is embedded in the plaster. 
This wall is 7 feet 8 inches high at the eastern side and 8 feet in height at 
the western end, and save for the place below the closed doorway, is 
firm and solid. 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 243 

Buried Floor and Pockets. The floor of this room was composed of 
adobe. There were two breaks in the surface, both on the west side; 
one was a fireplace of the ordinary circular type. A triangulation from 
the eastern corner placed it 10 feet 9 inches from the southeast corner 
and 8 feet 9 inches from the northeast, the measurements being made to 
the center of the fireplace. The other opening was a doorway or air 
passage in the southwest corner. This passage was in the floor and ran 
under the west wall into Room 66, it was directly in the corner and was 
1 foot 6 inches wide and the same in length. The northeast and south- 
west diagonal of this room measured 14 feet 6 inches and the opposite 
one, northwest and southeast, 15 feet 4 inches. 

The north wall was 6 feet 9 inches in length, from the western wall 
to the point where the wall pocket commences, and from this point to the 
eastern wall 3 feet 4 inches, the eastern wall was 12 feet 7 inches long, 
the southern, 8 feet 5 inches, and the western 11 feet 7 inches in length. 
A line from the south wall to the point in the north wall where the pocket 
begins, was 13 feet 7 inches. This floor was torn out and about 1 foot 
below it (10 inches) another floor was encountered. This floor had a 
large complicated fireplace at its western side and just below the floor 
level the space was honeycombed with pockets. In the northwest part, 
or corner, of the floor space is a circular pocket that measures 2 feet 2 
inches one way and 2 feet the other, and is 1 foot 3 inches deep, it is 2 
inches south of the north wall and 6 inches east of the west wall. Its 
sides are plastered and the bottom is also covered with a thick layer of 
the same material. 

One foot five inches south of this pocket, the north wall of the fireplace 
extended in an east and west direction. The back part of this fireplace 
was composed of four stones standing on end; the two toward the south 
rested against the west wall, but the others were about 1 inch away from 
it. The wall space covered by these stones was 2 feet 6 inches in length. 
The stone nearest the south wall was 11 3^ inches long, 3 inches thick, 
and 7 inches deep, and formed the back part of a box-like place that was 
9 inches long at the western end, about 10 inches long at the eastern, 
and about 1 foot wide; it was about 1 foot deep, the bottom being of 
adobe. The sides and ends were of stones stood on end. 

Just north of this place and separated from it by a large stone 4^ 
inches thick and 6 inches wide, which ran to the bottom of the pocket, 
was another pocket or portion of the fireplace. It was 1 foot 5 inches 
long, north and south, and 1 foot 2 inches wide at the north end; the 
southeast corner was rounded by laying the stones in a semicircle. Two 



244 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

large stones on end formed the back part of this place; between them and 
the southernmost stone of the four, was a narrow stone that formed the 
end of the diAdsion wall. The north wall of this pocket was composed of 
slabs of sandstone about 1 inch thick. This pocket is also 1 foot deep. 

Just east of the eastern walls of these pockets and only separated 
by the stones forming the wall, there is a fireplace, or a place in which a 
fire had been, judging from the calcined stones, 2 feet 3 inches deep, 1 
foot 2 inches wide, and with an irregular surface formed of stones and 
adobe. There is a bench above and to the east of this fireplace that is 1 
foot wide and 1 foot 4 inches deep. This end of the rectangular space, 
enclosed by stones set on end, is semicircular and is 2 feet 2% inches east 
of the central part of the east side of the east wall of the two small divi- 
sions near the west wall, this measurement being made to the center of 
the circular part. 

This fireplace, or at least the top of the stones surrounding it, was 
on a level with the floor and the interior of the eastern part had been 
plastered. A stone wall formed the eastern side of the deeper place or 
fireplace and extended to the level of the bench at its eastern side. The 
length of the northern side from the west wall to the turn at the east end 
was 3 feet 4 inches, and on the opposite or southern side 3 feet 9 inches. 
From the western wall to the center of the inner section of the circular 
part, or the eastern end of this fireplace, was 4 feet 1 inch. 

One inch south of this place and 2 inches east of the western wall 
was an oval pocket 2 feet long by 1 foot 5 inches in width; it was 6 
inches deep and the sides and bottom had been plastered. It was of some- 
what irregular egg shape, the small end being near the west wall; it 
slanted toward the southeast and at a point on the south fireplace wall 
1 foot 3 inches east of the west wall; its southern edge was 1 foot 5 
inches south of this south edge of the fireplace wall. 

About 3 inches southeast of this pocket was an irregular fireplace 
composed of seven stones stood on end. It was irregular in form and the 
stones may have been displaced a little in measuring this portion of the 
floor, but as they stood, there were five in place. It measured 1 foot at 
the eastern end and 9 inches at the western, the southern end was about 
1 foot long and the north about 1 foot 1 inch. These are inside measure- 
ments and show the general size of what appeared to be a fireplace, but 
there was no evidence of its having been used. The stone at the eastern 
side was 2 inches thick and 7 inches high, the others averaging about 4 
inches in height. 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 245 

The eastern stone of this fireplace rested on the edge of a large deep 
bin that was in the shape of a horseshoe. At this point it was 1 foot 7 
inches southeast of the oval pocket near the fireplace. This pocket, or 
pot-hole was 3 feet wide, east and west, and 3 feet 6 inches long, north 
and south. In height or depth it was 3 inches; the stones forming its 
top slanted downward a little at the north end, thereby giving it the 
appearance of being lower at this point, but the measurement given is 
about the average depth. At the north end the hole is squared with a 
stone wall. The north face of this wall is 2 feet 1 inch long and on either 
side 8 inches to the perpendicular surface of the circular wall; the 
circular wall is only 1 foot 3 inches high at this point and from it to the 
top of the squared part is 1 foot 9 inches. 

This pocket, which may have been a granary, was well plastered, 
both the bottom and sides having a layer of plaster ^ inch thick over the 
stones that formed the well-like opening. These stones, from what could 
be seen, were well laid and extended to the bottom of the hole. As the 
plaster was intact on most of the surface this could not be ascertained 
for a certainty. The bench at the northern end was plastered, as was 
also the square surface and the sides. The pocket was larger at the top 
than at the bottom; the measurements were taken 2 feet above the floor 
level, thereby giving average dimensions. 

In the southwestern corner there was an opening or passageway that 
led into Room 66. It was 1 foot 10 inches long, north and south, and 1 
foot 4 inches wide, east and west, and had a wooden lintel composed of 
poles. Its south and west sides were formed by the walls of the room, 
while its north and east sides were walls of small slabs well laid and 
reaching to the lower floor level. This opening was over 2 feet deep and 
the doorway leading into Room 66 was 1 foot 2 inches wide. In the 
southeast corner there was an oval pocket 1 foot 4 inches wide, east and 
west, and 1 foot 10 inches long. It was 1 foot west of the east wall and 
6 inches north of the south wall. Its eastern side runs parallel with the 
east wall and in its lower part the adobe is plastered on the wall itself. 

The north wall of this pocket is straight east and west and is com- 
posed of slabs of sandstone 1 inch thick, laid in such a manner as to 
present a very even surface. At the northwest corner, this wall forms a 
right angle with the west wall of the pocket. From the east wall to the 
point where the west wall joins it this wall is 1 foot 2 inches long, but it 
extends beyond this point 6V4 inches. 

All the walls are composed of stone and are plastered, but on the - 
north wall most of the plaster has fallen. This pocket was 1 foot 1 inch 
deep at the north end and 11 inches deep at the south end. 



246 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

Three feet one inch north of the face of the north wall of this pocket, 
on the eastern wall line, is another pocket, that was originally almost 
rectangular in shape with rounding corners. At the time of writing the 
only part standing was that against the east wall and about 6 inches on 
the southeast side. This was composed of small slabs of well-laid sand- 
stone that extended to the lower floor level, the depth at the eastern 
side being 10 inches. This measurement was made to the stones that 
composed the bottom of the pocket ; there are two of them, the one near- 
est the south wall being the larger. This one is 1 foot 2 inches long, 9^ 
inches wide, and 14 inches in thickness; the other is 1 foot Y% inch long, 
8 inches wide, and about the same thickness as the other. 

The wall on the southeast side covers the stone nearly 1 inch, so in 
taking the measurements north and south, this distance was allowed for 
at the north end; on the west end the measurement was to the edge of 
the stones. The southeast side of this pocket was 1 foot \ X A inches long 
and the northwest was 11 inches; it was 1 foot 3 inches long on the south- 
west side and 1 foot 4 inches in length on the northeast side. It was built 
against the east wall, as its southern end and its northernmost point 
were about 2 inches from the wall. Originally its sides had been plas- 
tered. 

This pocket was in another pocket of irregular shape and with sides 
of large stones. The sides were rough but had been plastered. This 
pocket measured, from the northeast to the southwest end. 2 feet 11 
inches, and a line at right angles to this one from the point where the 
southeast wall of the small pocket ends to a point on the east side, 1 
foot 5 inches, from the point in the southeast, and where the last measure- 
ment was made, 1 foot 7 inches. The northwest corner of the 
smaller stone was 3 inches from the side of this pocket; the northeast 
end of the same stone was 4 inches from the edge of the same. This pock- 
et was only 7 inches deep, but originally it probably extended to the floor 
level. 

Five inches north of this pocket on the eastern wall line, was a 
large pocket or bin, no doubt for the storing of grain. This bin extended 
along the eastern wall 4 feet 3 inches; the main wall of the building or 
room formed its eastern side. This pocket was narrow at the northern 
end and from this point the sides flared outward as they ran south and 
met a semicircular part that formed the southern end. 

South of this rounding part there was a bench, the east side of winch, 
from the junction of the eastern wall and the south curved wall to its 
south corner, was 1 foot 4J/2 inches. Its length at the south end was 3 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 247 

feet 1 inch and its western side to the curve, 1 foot Z l /2 inches. Its 
central part from the center of the southern wall to the center of the 
curved wall, was 1 foot. The diagonals of this bench were northwest and 
southeast, 3 feet 2^ inches and northeast and southwest, 3 feet 4 inches. 
The height at the eastern corner was 1 foot 5 inches; at the western, 1 
foot 4 inches; and at the center, 1 foot 5 inches. 

The eastern wall, from the north corner to the point where the south- 
ern wall begins, is 2 feet 103^ inches long. From the junction of the east 
and south walls it is 2 feet 11 inches; the west, from the latter point to 
the north wall was 3 feet 1}{ inches; and the north wall was 1 foot 9 3^ 
inches in length. The length of the bin, from the center of the north 
to the center of the south wall, was 3 feet 4 3/2 inches. A line at right 
angles to this one from the center of the side walls was 2 feet 6^ inches 
in length. 

The measurements were taken 6 inches below the surface of the 
pocket and give the accurate dimensions at this point only. The top it- 
self is a little larger and the bottom is smaller, and as in almost all 
aboriginal work, the sides are somewhat irregular. 

The north and south line on the floor is 3 feet 33^ inches long, the 
east and west is 3 feet 5 inches; and the width 2 feet 63^ inches, which 
gives an approximate idea of the sides. The average depth of this bin is 
2 feet 11 inches; the bench at the southern end is 1 foot 6 inches above 
the floor of the pocket at the eastern wall, 1 foot 3 inches high at the 
center, and 1 foot 4 inches high where it joins the west wall. 

The north wall of the bin is plastered to a height of 7 inches above 
the floor level of the bin; above this and to the top of the bin, the wall is 
rough and large stones protrude from the surface. The floor of this bin 
is composed of flat stones over which a layer of plaster was laid. The 
sides of the bench as well as the circular place, were well plastered; in 
fact, the whole bin, with the exception of the upper part of the north 
end, was covered with a thick layer of plaster. 

The side ends and the bench were composed of thin slabs of sand- 
stone laid with great care, as the surface, where pieces of this plaster 
had fallen, was even and the stones closely laid. 

The specimens in this room were scattered through the debris, most 
of them, however, being near the floor level. Among the objects found 
were : four metates, eight manos, nine hand hammerstones, four stone jar 
covers, fragments of others, a stone slab, an arrow point, a polishing 
stone, a piece of red hematite, an iron pyrite nodule, seven pebbles, 



248 Anthropological Payers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

fragments of stone implements and cooking stones, fragments of chal- 
cedony, azurite, and malachite, a grooved ax, agate nodule, nine bone 
awls, a bone scraper, fragments of deer antler, deer teeth, animal bones, 
and pieces of sheep horn, two pottery heads, a pottery disk, two rough 
clay dishes, a pottery foot, a base of large pottery jar, a number of frag- 
ments of pottery vessels, a piece of painted wood, fragments of 
shell, and a number of fragments of sandal-shaped stones. 

Room 66. 

Room 66 was a small and almost square room west of Room 65. 
The most interesting feature of this room was the eastern wall; it con- 
tained a series of pockets. One of these had a square opening, 4 feet 4 
inches from the north wall and 10 inches above the floor level. There 
were three pockets above this one, but these were irregular in shape. 
There was also a doorway in the south corner of this wall, the lower part 
being 9 inches above the floor level. The main part of this wall stood to a 
height of 9 feet. Another wall of much better construction towered 
above this one to a height of 6 feet, making the entire height of the two 
walls 15 feet. 

The north and west walls contained no features worthy of special 
mention. There was, however, a fireplace, which was 3 feet 6 inches from 
the south wall and 3 feet 10 inches from the east wall. It was a shallow 
depression of rectangular shape, the dimensions being 1 foot 9 inches 
by 2 feet. 

After removing the floor, a wall was found extending from the south- 
east corner toward the center of the room. It was 1 foot in width and 1 
foot 2 inches deep. Another wall had crossed this at right angles. These 
walls were evidently a part of the old building, which had been destroyed, 
or at least had passed into disuse before the present rooms were built. 

The measurements of this room taken at the floor level were: 
north wall, 11 feet 1 inch; south wall, 9 feet 9 inches; east wall, 9 feet 
4 inches; west wall, 9 feet 9 inches. 

The following specimens were on or above the floor level; one me- 
tate, eight manos, six hammerstones, four stone jar covers, a worked piece 
of sandstone, nine arrow points, two stone slabs, chalcedony scraper, 
fragments of stone implements, fragments of chalcedony, obsidian, and 
gypsum, six bird bones that showed cutting, six bone awls, a bone skin 
dresser, a split animal bone, animal jaws and several bones, a painted 
stick, a piece of pottery worked into the shape of a moccasin, pottery 
fragments worked into various shapes, and potsherds. 




Fig. 105. Hole in End of Kiva Post, Room 67, containing Turquoise Beads. 



250 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 251 

Room 67. 

Kiva. Room 67 is an estufa under the western court. The estufas 
of Bonito are characterized by a circular wall forming a room, the roof 
of which is usually below the general level of the surrounding rooms. 
At the base of this wall there is a bench of solid masonry from two to 
four feet high that projects from two to three feet into the room. On 
this bench there are invariably a series of low pillars or blocks of masonry, 
six of which have been found in each estufa in this pueblo, and as far as 
I am aware this number obtains throughout the cliff-dwellings. But in 
the cliff-houses the estufa bench and pillars are much higher than in 
Pueblo Bonito and the pillars are so close together that Baron Norden- 
skiold in describing them says: "The upper portion" of the estufa wall 
"is divided by six deep niches into the same number of pillars." In 
Bonito they are simply details of the masonry, being verjr low and 
separated by intervals of nearly ten feet. 

Ceremonial Deposit. The estufa in Pueblo Bonito, where the cere- 
monial deposits were found, is situated in the western court. When the 
work of excavation was begun the surface was apparently level and there 
was no evidence of walls until a depth of 2 feet was reached. Then a 
mass of masonry was encountered which proved to be a circular wall 
composed of faced blocks of sandstone laid with thin layers of adobe 
enclosing a room 25 1 /o feet in diameter. This room was filled with ref- 
use material and had apparently been abandoned and used as a dump- 
ing-ground. When all the debris had been removed and the floor level 
reached, 15 feet below the surface, it was found to be composed of adobe, 
perfectly smooth and level except in the center where the fireplace was 
situated. In the angle between the floor and the wall and extending 
entirely around the room, lay the usual bench; in this case 2 feet 2 
inches wide by 2 feet high. Built up across this bench to a height of 1 
foot and placed at regular intervals around it, were six oblong masonry 
blocks or pillars. On the western side, just before reaching the pillar 
level, a hollow clay cylinder was found 6 inches in diameter, with the 
top broken in and with the ends resting on two of the pillars. On the 
bottom of this cylinder and clinging to the inner face were fibers and 
strips of bark which showed that a log once occupied this position. 
From its position we naturally conclude that this was one of the roof 
beams, and on turning to the cliff-houses, where such beams are better 
preserved, we find, in the estufas similarly placed beams supporting a 
roof. Hence, we may assume that the roof of this estufa was built in a 
manner similar to one found in the "Square Tower House" of the Mesa 
Verde region and described by Baron Nordenskiold as follows: — 



252 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

Two estufas, the roofs of which are partly preserved, are of interest, for, 
to the best of my knowledge, this is the only cliff-dwelling where these cliff 
rooms retain their roofs. * * * The roof rests on six stone pillars between the 
niches, and was built in two parts, the lower consisting of five courses of poles 
laid horizontally in a circle, and thus increasing the height of the estufa by some 
feet. These poles supported a flat roof of beams. 1 

This description would probably apply, in a general way, to the 
roof of the estufa, in which the remains of the log were found. It is 
practically certain that the lower part of the structure was the same, 
but the beams probably extended to a higher point than in the one in 
the "Square Tower House," in order to allow sufficient room to stand 
upright. The sloping exterior was probably covered with matting or 
brush (charred fragments of both of which were found) ere the roof was 
covered with earth. It is evident that a layer of earth must have covered 
a part of the roof, for below the refuse material there was a stratum 
that contained pieces of burnt roof beams that had been converted into 
charcoal. 

Directly under the mould of the log before mentioned, was a thin 
layer of adobe, on the upper surface of the roof supports. The support 
of the southern end of the log at the left of Fig. 105 was barely covered, 
and the adobe had cracked in places revealing a log beneath embedded 
in the masonry. When the adobe was removed a circular piece of the 
same material about 2 inches in diameter was found resting on the log, 
as shown in the above illustration. It was a plug that covered a deposit 
of turquoise and shell beads, pieces of crude shell, and turquoise matrix. 
These were taken up and their resting-place proved to be a well-rounded 
cavity. Before the earth from over and around this support was removed, 
the one at the north end of the log was examined. A similar deposit 
was found, but there was no special cover for this one nor was the 
cavity in the wood carefully worked — its form being elongated and in 
appearance more like a natural depression caused by dry rot. After 
these deposits had been taken up the supports were uncovered and the 
logs enclosed in them removed. (The supports were simply rectangular 
blocks of sandstone laid in adobe, about a log which extended from the 
edge of the bench to a point several feet under the main estufa wall). 

The log from the first support examined was taken out and is now in 
the Museum. There were six of these beam rests or supports on the 
bench of the estufa, over which the ceiling beams crossed, each contain- 
ing a log which held an offering; but the one at the south end of the 

Wordenskiold, G. The Cliff Dwellers of the Mesa Verda, Soutfnvestern Colorado, their Pottery and 
Implements. Translated by D. Lloyd Morgan (Stockholm, 1893), 57. 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 253 

mould of the ceiling beam, was the most carefully prepared and con- 
tained the greatest amount of material. Practically the same conditions 
were presented in Room 16 (p. 84), but the manner of deposition may 
have differed. 

Deposits of materials of this nature are generally considered to be 
sacrificial. Since these were found at a critical point in the structure of 
the room, where they literally supported the entire roof, that is, exactly 
under the six points where the lowest roof beams rested, we may infer 
that they indicate some ceremonial connected with the construction 
of the estufa. 

No definite conclusions concerning the prevalence of similar sacri- 
fices, can be drawn from such meager evidence, but the discoveries in 
the two estufas suffice to show that a certain form of sacrificial offering 
was, at one time, in vogue in this pueblo. Whether in the other estufas of 
Bonito there is an absence of such deposits or a variation in the place or 
manner of depositing the material will remain an open question until 
more data have been obtained. Dr. J. Walter Fewkes, of the Bureau of 
Ethnology, in commenting on this discovery, stated that he had the 
good fortune to observe the dedication of a house in one of the Hopi 
villages in northern Arizona. He said that in constructing the house, a 
small opening was left in the outer surface of the front wall, at the left 
of the doorway, and about 5 feet from the ground. When the day for 
the ceremonies arrived a feast was prepared, but before anyone partook 
of the food, a small portion of each kind was placed in the opening; then 
shell fragments and beads were added to the offering, after which the 
place was carefully covered with adobe and plastered in the same manner 
as the other parts of the wall. He said that a similar ceremony takes 
place in the dedication of each new house, and possibly a more elaborate 
one when the kivas are built. 

Deposits of the kind here described have never been reported from 
the Pueblo ruins and these are probably the first to be discovered. 

The following specimens were found in this room. These specimens, 
unless otherwise stated, were found in the debris with which the estufa 
had been filled; twenty hand hammerstones, four stone jar covers, a 
sandstone grinder, three sandstone balls, a stone knife, four worked 
stones, several natural pebbles, which had evidently been used in pottery 
making, a flint knife and points of two others, red hematite, obsidian 
flakes, chalcedony cores and flakes, fragments of iron ore and red paint, 
thirty-one bone awls, six bone beads, six bone scrapers, a number of 
animal bones, three pottery disks, three pieces of pottery in animal form, 



254 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

a pottery foot, a small pottery ladle, stone and pottery pieces, contain- 
ing paint, several balls of sun-baked clay, a broken dish, a bowl with an 
animal form painted in the bottom, two pottery feet, a piece of pottery 
in the form of a bird, a pottery jar cover, small pottery pestle, fragments 
of an incense burner, numerous potsherds, a few small arrow points, 
fragments of malachite, shell, and turquoise, a number of animal skulls, 
fragments of human pottery faces, four clay cylinders, and a number of 
other fragmentary pieces. 

Room 68. 

Room 68 was southwest of Room 20 and directly west of and 

adjoining Estufa 75. This room was one of the series running east and 

west, forming the fifth series from the north wall. When the debris had 

been removed a fireplace was found near the central part. It measured 

2 feet 9 inches by 2 feet 1 1 inches high and at its southwest corner there 
was a circular place, about 1 foot in diameter, that was connected with 
the fireplace by a small opening. This part was 1 foot deep and was made 
of stones and well plastered. Around its edge there was a wall averaging 

3 inches in height and at the point where it joined the fireplace proper, 
there had been a stone. The fireplace had been walled with stones and 
plaster, the depth being the same as that of the adjoining depression 
just described. 

In the northeast corner of the room, at the floor level, there was a 
pocket. A wall 6 inches high had been built across the corner, its length 
being 2 feet 3 inches and an opening had been made in the corner forming 
a pocket which measured 1 foot 3 inches in depth. This pocket extended 
below the floor level and had a rounded top. It was well plastered. 

The south wall was roughly built and was composed of medium- 
sized stones and pierced by two doorways. There was a doorway 3 feet 
10 inches west of the east wall. Its sill was on the floor level; its height 
and width were the same, 1 foot 8 inches. It was of the ordinary rect- 
angular type, as were all of the doorways in this wall. Two feet four inches 
west of this opening there was another doorway somewhat irregular in 
shape. There were no doorways in the west wall, but there were two of 
the usual shape in the north wall. There was a pocket in this wall, as 
well as in the eastern wall. 

About a foot below the general floor level a number of walls were 
uncovered. When the earth was cleared from above them, it was seen 
that they formed the enclosing walls of a series of angular bins, but 
were in reality the continuations of walls which extended under the rooms 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 255 

adjoining this one, and had once formed a part of an old series of rooms. 
One of these walls was 3 feet 3 inches in width and extended northward 
from the south wall. Upon this the fireplace of the above-mentioned 
floor was situated. The average depth of these walls below the floor 
level was 6 feet. The measurements of this room were as follows: north 
wall, 14 feet; south wall, 13 feet 8 inches; east, 14 feet 2 inches; west, 
11 feet 10 inches. The following specimens, unless otherwise stated, 
were found in the debris from the main part of the room: two metates, 
thirty-nine manos, five hand hammerstones, a polishing stone, a grooved 
stone hammer, three stone slabs, a stone pestle, a stone jar cover, a 
grooved stone ax, a stone mortar, fragments of jasper, azurite, mica, 
petrified wood, turquoise beads, fragments of clay pipes and pebbles, 
fragments of a wooden distaff, and a clay ball. There were also a number 
of potsherds and animal bones. In one of the bins formed by the angular 
walls, below the floor of this room, there were twenty-four hand hammer- 
stones. 

Room 68a. Room 68a was directly west of Room 68. It was a 
narrow passage-like room with unplastered walls. At the south end 
and 1 foot below the level of the broken south wall, was a wall of solid 
masonry that extended northward from the south wall, a distance of 
about 3 feet on the eastern side and 2 feet 10 inches on the western. 
The north end was 3 feet 7 inches wide. This wall or body of masonry 
was composed of medium-sized stones carefully laid. Its top was even 
with the floor level and was over 2 feet thick. Just north of this mass of 
masonry was an open space that extended 1 foot 10 inches below the 
floor level. This space was floored and was 4 feet 1 inch long on the 
western side and 4 feet 8 inches in length on the east. Its northern 
limit was defined by a mass of masonry similar to the one in the south 
end. Unlike the southern part, this mass was composed of two walls, 
but owing to the fact that their surfaces touched, the general appearance 
was the same. These walls were composed of stones which were laid 
with the same care as those in the southern mass of masonry and ex- 
tended to about the same depth. The central or open part of the room 
may have been plastered originally, but there was no plaster in evidence 
on the walls when the debris was cleared. There was a closed doorway 
of the rectangular type in the center of the north wall, but the other 
walls presented an unbroken surface. This room measured over 3 feet 
2 inches in width on the south and the same at the north end. The 
west wall was 11 feet 4 inches long and the east 11 feet 7 inches long. 
Nothing of interest was found in this room. 



256 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXV II, 

Room 69. 

Room 69 was directly west of Room 68a. Its longer axis, unlike 
that of the room just described, was east and west. There was nothing 
of special interest noted in this room until the floor was removed. There 
was a doorway in the north wall and another in the south wall. There 
were two cupboards in the northeastern corner, one in the north wall, 
the other in the east wall. The room measured as follows: north wall, 
18 feet; south wall, 18 feet 7 inches; east wall, 10 feet 6 inches; west 
wall, 9 feet 10 inches. After the floor was removed a rather intricate 
series of walls was found. There was a fireplace in the western end below 
the floor level and a U-shaped bin near the central part. The following 
specimens were found in the room: fragments of stone jar covers, seven 
turkey bones with ends cut, fragments of azurite, malachite, potsherds, 
and a worked fragment of a small olla in the bin under the floor. 



Room 70. 

Room 70 is northwest of and next to Room 62. This room is irre- 
gularly shaped and rather peculiar in its construction. In reconstruct- 
ing this part of the pueblo, several walls had to be built in some places 
and in others various methods had to be adopted to adjust the old walls 
to the new conditions. One particularly interesting feature of this 
room was the northeast wall which is supported on poles. Directly 
below it is a. doorway of the rectangular type. There was a peculiar 
bevel to the front of this doorway, the inner part having been built in 
such a way as to allow a stone door to be built against it in a slanting 
position. The lower end, that is, the first floor, had been built in by the 
old people. There was a good old south and west wall, but the east 
wall had been built on a mass of roughly laid stones. There was a door- 
wa3 r of the rectangular type in the north wall. The measurements of 
this room are as follows: north wall, 2 feet 10 inches; south wall, 14 
feet 10 inches; east wall, 7 feet 10 inches; west wall, 9 feet 10 inches. 
The following specimens were found in the debris: six hand hammer- 
stones, two stone slabs, two stone jar covers, a smoothing stone, a frag- 
ment of a stone celt, a bone implement, pieces of charred cord, four large 
game sticks, a stick used in the kicking game, a ceremonial stick, a wood- 
en knife, worked pieces of potteiy, potsherds, and animals bones. 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 257 

Room 71. 

Room 71 was just west of Room 69. The masonry was similar to 
that noted in the description of Room 69. There was a doorway of the 
usual type in the north wall and another in the west wall, the latter 
being filled with large stones. There was a pocket built in the south 
wall in such a way that the east wall formed its eastern side. About 6 
inches below the general floor level was a fireplace. It was 2 feet 7 
inches in diameter and built of small sandstone slabs. Extending from 
the fireplace to the wall in the southeast corner was a passagewaj' which 
was 1 foot 2 inches wide at the point nearest the fireplace. It was built 
of stones, had been plastered and may have been used as an airshaft 
either for the ventilation of the room or as an outlet for smoke. The 
measurements of the room at the floor level were as follows: north wall, 
18 feet 8 inches; south wall, 15 feet 11 inches; east wall, 8 feet 4 inches; 
west wall, 10 feet 2 inches. The following specimens were found in the 
room, most of which were on or near the floor; two metates, twenty 
manos, five stone slabs, twenty-three hammerstones, a grooved stone 
hammer, a grinding stone, a polishing stone, a stone jar cover, part of a 
jasper knife, other stones and fragments, a rectangular pottery dish, 
a fragment of pottery containing paint, a rough pottery animal form, 
and numerous potsherds. Two parrot skeletons were found in the south- 
east corner at the floor level. Other objects found in the general debris 
were a bone awl, a piece of wood painted blue, and animal bones. 



Room 72. 

Room 72 was south of Room 20. This room was somewhat irregular 
in shape. The north end was rectangular, but the southeast end was 
semicircular in form. In the eastern wall were five pockets. Aside from 
this there was nothing of special interest in the construction of the walls. 
Before the floor level was reached a mass of metates was found. These 
were placed on edge as though they had been stored in this room. Some 
were finished and had been used. Others were in course of construction, 
while some had merely been roughed into shape from sandstone slabs. 
The measurements of this room at the floor level were: north wall, 5 
feet 3 inches; south wall, 2 feet 8 inches; east wall, 10 feet 3 inches; west 
wall, 20 feet 7 inches. The curve of the wall in the southeast corner is 
12 feet 2 inches in length. 

After the floor of this room had been removed a series of walls was 
found beneath it. 



258 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

There were twenty metates found in the deposit on the floor. With 
them were twelve manos, four hand hammerstones, two stone jar covers, 
a rectangular and a circular stone slab, fragments of stone slabs, chal- 
cedony flakes, turquoise beads, fossil shells, seven bone awls, a bone 
scraper, an implement made of horn, animal bones, a shell bracelet, a 
pottery pitcher, and a number of potsherds. Nothing of interest was 
found below the floor level. 

Room 73. 

Room 73 was in the southeast part of the building. It was east of 
Room 24. The upper part was rectangular in form, but had a jog at the 
northwest corner. In the upper central part of the east wall, was a 
closed doorway with a wooden lintel. Inside of this, with the south wall 
of the first doorway for one side was a small one also with a wooden 
lintel, and in the center of this, the second one, there was a small opening 
6 by 12 inches, with a stone sill and a wooden lintel. 

In the southeastern part of this room, placed directly in the corner, 
was a doorway with a wooden lintel. There was another doorway of 
the rectangular type in the central part of the south wall. A small open- 
ing in the upper west corner of the south wall had small poles for a lintel. 

The lower floor had been divided into four rooms, the walls of which 
had been plastered, but presented perhaps the best masonry that was 
found in this part of the ruin. There were stones projecting from the 
facings of the walls of this lower room. These may have been used as 
stepping stones in going from the lower to the upper floor. The jog in 
the northwest corner extended only to the floor level of the upper room. 
The measurements of this room were as follows: north wall, 15 feet 11 
inches; south wall, 18 feet; east wall, 13 feet 6 inches; west wall, 9 
feet 3 inches to the beginning of the jog. This extended 2 feet east and 
then 3 feet 2 inches north, making the west wall in all 12 feet 5 inches in 
length. Only a portion of the lower part of the room was worked. The 
following specimens were found: one mano, one hammerstone, a stone 
arrow smoother, pieces of azurite and malachite, an arrow point, wooden 
foreshaft, two bone awls, bone implement, potsherds, and animal bones. 

Room 74. 

Room 74 is a small angular room, which formed the southwest 

corner of Estufa 75. This room is similar to Rooms 79 and 81, both of 

which are on the northern part of the estufa. The following specimens 

were found in Room 74: three bone awls, fragments of a shell bracelet, 




Fig. 107. Part of Room 76. 



260 



262 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

fragments of a ceremonial stick, a- circular potsherd, the knob of a pottery- 
jar cover, a few small arrow points, also potsherds and animal bones. 

Room 75. 
Room 75 is of circular form, and lies between Rooms 68 and 72. 
Owing to the fact that this room was a typical estufa, no description of it 
will be given (Fig. 106). The following specimens were found in this 
room : six hand hammerstones, a smoothing stone, two stone slabs, stone 
jar cover, ten bone awls, a bird bone showing cutting, a bone implement, 
turquoise beads and fragments of turquoise, animal bones, and potsherds. 

Room 76. 

Room 76 is south of Room 60. The following specimens were found 
in the debris or on the main floor of this room : six manos, eighteen hand 
hammerstones, a stone used for polishing implements, a stone jar cover, 
fragments of chalcedony and obsidian and a crinoid stem; also twelve 
bone awls, a bone scraper, a bone showing cutting, a cla}^ ball, charred 
bones, pieces of skin, a number of worked potsherds, a pottery jar, found 
in the southwest corner, potsherds, and animal bones. 

Below the main floor level the following specimens were found: 
fragments of turquoise and malachite, some chalky material probably 
used for paint, pieces of red stone probably used for the same purpose, 
fragments of obsidian, animal bones, decorated potsherds, and pieces of 
squash rind. Three inches below the floor level a small pottery bowl was 
found. 

Room 77. 

Room 77 was a small rectangular room, north of Room 68a. It 
was similar in construction to Room 68a and presented no features 
worthy of special mention. Under the floor of the room there was a 
series of old walls. This room measured: north wall, 5 feet 8 inches; 
south wall, 6 feet 7 inches; east wall, 10 feet 3 inches; west wall, 10 
feet 3 inches. The following specimens were found in the room: two 
manos, fragments of a stone slab, a chalcedony knife, a broken flint 
knife, two bone awls, and potsherds. 

Room 78. 

Room 78 was north of Room 71. This room was particularly 

interesting owing to the fact that it differed in many ways from the 

rooms heretofore described. It was of the usual rectangular shape 

and the walls were well plastered. The north wall was irregular and had 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 263 

been blackened by smoke. There is a doorway in the north wall with a 
flat stone for a sill and poles for a lintel. The south wall is merely a fac- 
ing laid against an old wall. It is 1 foot thick at the east end and gradu- 
ally decreases in thickness towards the western end of the room. This 
wall was rather roughly laid. In the central part of this wall there is a 
doorway which connects with that in the original wall. This secondary 
wall fell at the eastern end of the room. There was a doorway in the 
north wall but there were no openings in the east or west walls. A 
bench extended \}4, feet north of the base of the south wall. The floor 
was on the level with the top of this bench. In the northeastern 
corner was a large olla which was half buried in the floor (Fig. 108). 
The fireplace in the southeast corner was under the secondary wall. It 
was circular and built of stones, the top being well plastered. It was 
filled with lignite. The large fireplace, northwest of the one just men- 
tioned, was built of thin slabs which stood on edge. West of this there 
was a post and still further west, another large fireplace made of slabs. It 
was closed when found, with a flat stone, and was only 1 foot in diameter. 
It was built of stones and had been carefully plastered. This one, as 
was the case with the one under the south wall, was filled with lignite. 
There were no evidences of old walls under the floor, but some of the 
fireplaces had evidently passed into disuse and had been covered before 
the room was abandoned. The measurements of this room were as 
follows: north wall, 21 feet; south wall, 18 feet 8 inches; east wall, 8 
feet 1 inch; west wall, 10 feet 10 inches. 

A great mass of material was found in this room, the major portion 
being scattered throughout the debris. At a depth of feet 5 inches 
below the ceiling beams and at a point 3 feet G inches from the east wall a 
parrot skeleton was found. Most of the bones were against the south 
wall. At a depth of 7 feet 2 inches another parrot skeleton was found 
at the floor level in the center of the room. As already mentioned, a 
large olla with a stone cover was found in the northeast corner; a pitcher 
was found in the east corner near the floor level. The following speci- 
mens were found in the northeast corner: nine bone awls, twelve bone 
beads, and a bone die. The following specimens are from the general 
debris: ten manos and fragments of others, six stone slabs, sixty hand 
hammerstones, a flint knife, a chalcedony knife, a grinding stone, part 
of a stone ax, a stone disk, natural concretions, natural pebbles, chalce- 
dony chips and cores, arrow points, turquoise beads, pieces of petrified 
wood, gypsum, a ball of white chalk-like stone, a polishing stone, two 
stone knives, a stone ax, a pottery animal head, a small pottery ladle, a 



264 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

number of worked potsherds, a pottery dipper, a pottery clay ball, 
potsherds, pottery feet, a pottery pipe, a number of potsherds with 
worked edges, a clay jar stopper, fine clay used in preparing the slip for 
pottery vessels, arrow points, part of a bone scraper, a turtle carcass, 
three bone awls, and a number of animal bones. The following specimens 
were found over a foot below the floor: a hammerstone, obsidian, arrow 
points, turquoise beads, yellow ocher. pieces of jet, turquoise matrix, 
two vessel handles, a fragmentary bowl, a number of worked stones, 
squash rind, and animal bones. 

Room 79. 

Room 79 is the angular room forming the northeast corner of Estufa 
75. This estufa is built in a square enclosure, the circular wall touching 
the wall of the enclosure at four points. The remaining space forms 
angular rooms in the corners of the square. The estufa wall formed a 
convex side to these rooms. The other two sides are straight. As a rule, 
very little was found in rooms of this nature. 

The northern part of this room was rough, but covered with plaster. 
There was a doorway in this wall but it was practically covered by the 
east wall of the room, which shows that this part of the building had 
been reconstructed. West of this was another doorway of the same type, 
that had been closed with masoniy. West of this doorway and near the 
western corner were two oval pockets. The east wall is exceedingly 
rough and has stones protruding from the surface. Some of these pro- 
trude over 5 inches and there are stones similar to these in the convex 
wall on the southwest side. The only objects found in this room were 
two manos, a fossil shell, a stone flake, and a few potsherds. Below the 
floor level, in the center of the room, a skeleton of a child was found. 
With it were a number of potsherds. The burial of children below the 
floors of rooms seems to have been a custom among the people who in- 
habited this pueblo. 

Room 80. 
Room 80 is north of and next to Room 69. It is of rectangular form 
and is one of a series running east and west. The walls are practically 
the same as those mentioned in the descriptions of Rooms 77 and 78. 
Work in this room was begun at the eastern end. Near the west wall 
and at a depth of 3 feet 6 inches, a painted stone mortar was found. The 
accompanying photograph (Fig. 109) shows this specimen in situ. This 
mortar is also shown in Fig. 110. It is the most elaborately decorated 




Fig. 109. Painted Stone Mortar in Room ! 



265 





Fig. 1 10 (6828). Design on Painted Stone Mortar, Room ! 
266 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 267 

object of this nature that was found in the pueblo. On the same level, 
but east of the mortar, a number of human bones were found. They 
were scattered throughout the debris and had evidently fallen from one 
of the upper rooms. These bones show evidences of having been burned 
and they were broken, as is the case with other human bones found in the 
pueblos of this group; from the fact that they had been in one of the 
upper rooms, it may be that they had been used for some ceremonial 
purpose, as it was not the custom to bury even portions of bodies in the 
upper rooms. At least no other evidences of such a practice were found. 
Very little material was found in the general debris, but when the floor 
level was reached, a mass of stone implements was encountered. Most 
of these were found on the south side of the room, and some of the larger 
specimens rested against the south wall. 

The measurements of the upper rooms were: north wall, 18 feet 
5 inches; south wall, 18 feet 5 inches; east wall, 10 feet 2 inches; west 
wall, 9 feet 11 inches. 

The specimens found were as follows: five metates, thirty-one 
manos, four stone slabs, fifty-three hand hammerstones, a sandstone 
'grinder, a stone mortar, a grooved hammer, a stone jar cover, a smooth- 
ing stone, a number of natural pebbles, fragments of chalcedony and 
other stones, and fragments of stone slabs. Other specimens associated 
with the stone implements were as follows: seven bone awls, a bone 
implement, two cut bones, a number of deer bones and fragments of 
antler, a number of worked animal bones, and a porcupine jaw. 

A specimen was found in the south side of the room which was 
probably used ceremonially. It was made of pottery and was concavo- 
convex, being drilled on the edges, Fig. 111. Other objects of pottery 
were a handle of a vessel, a pottery foot, fragments of pottery probably 
used as smoothers, a number of worked potsherds, a fragmentary corru- 
gated jar, a great many fragments of pottery vessels, and pieces of 
adobe showing finger impressions. 

After the floor was removed, a series of walls were found; some of 
these formed small rectangular rooms. In these rooms the following 
specimens were found: eleven hand hammerstones, an adobe ball, a 
natural pebble, and a number of potsherds, some of which were worked. 



'Painted mortars of less elaborate design were found by Hough, Bull. 87, p. 31, in the upper Gila 
Region. The colors were red, yellow, and black. 



268 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

Room 81. 
Room 81 is an angular room forming the northwest corner of the 
square which surrounds Estufa 75. It is the room which corresponds 
with Rooms 74 and 79. The masonry was practically the same as that 
of Room 79, but the walls had been more carefully finished at the north 
side. This one especially was well plastered and smooth. In its lower part 
there was a closet, the opening of which measured 1 foot by 6 inches. 
This closet extended 1 foot north and 2 feet in the opposite direction. 
The opening had a sandstone slab for its base. A little above and to the 
west of this opening, was a smaller pocket with an oval opening, the 
plaster having been rounded at the edges. It was 4 inches high and 7 
inches long. The west wall was well plastered and contained a large 




Fig. Ill (6991). Curious Pottery Object with Perforations, Room 80. 

pocket similar to the one in the north wall. Near its south end. the 
plaster was over an V/2 inches in thickness. The southeastern wall 
corresponded to the southwestern wall of Room 79, and like this one, 
was oval in form. This room measured as follows: north wall, 5 feet 10 
inches; southeast wall, 8 feet 10 inches; west wall, 7 feet. Nothing of 
interest was found in this room. 



Room 82. 
A small patch in the center of the north wall of Room 82 marks the 
only evidence of the plaster that once covered this well-laid wall. Near 
the western wall is a large closed doorway of the old type. The east wall 
was also well built, but entirely devoid of plaster, and had no openings. 
Though the south wall bulged, it showed traces of having been well built, 
composed of small thick slabs. It may possibly have had a doorway in 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. , 269 

its center. The west wall still retains some remnants of plaster and its 
upper part shows the action of fire. Under the floor was uncovered a 
partition wall which proved to be the continuation of the room found 
below Room 77 and formed a right-angled triangle. These lower walls 
bore no trace of fire. The partition wall extends to the bottom of the 
lower room on the side of Room 82. There are two additional small 
angular rooms inside the floor. 

Room 83. 

In 1897 a copper bell was found in the southwest corner of this 
room. (Fig. 112.) A section of the first floor level was left in the corner 
above mentioned and this was removed before 
the second floor was disturbed. On removing 
the second floor, which was composed of adobe 
and flat stones, a multiplicity of walls and fire- 
places was found. Near the east wall was a 
fireplace composed of flat stones around which 
had been loosely laid a ring of irregularly shaped 
pieces of sandstone. In the center of the room 
was a stone wall, part of which formed a fire- 
place and in the southwest corner there was 
still another fireplace. 

The space occupied by the different floor Fi g . 112 (7osi). Copper Bell, 
levels amounted to about 2 feet. The south wall Room 83 - slightly enlarged, 
was built upon a foundation of large stones that 

extended from 6 inches to 1 foot beyond the main wall. At this, the 
foundation level, a semicircular layer of stones was encountered and 
investigation proved it to be the outer wall of an old estufa. Excavation 
in this southwest corner uncovered a well-formed estufa of the circular 
type. The upper wall sloped outward to some extent and was well 
plastered. It was composed of large stones and was very crude as com- 
pared with the estufas of a later period in other parts of the ruin. 

The bench was 3 feet 2 inches high, approaching in this respect, the 
type found in the cliff-houses. Those previously found in the ruin con- 
tained a comparatively low bench. This bench was well plastered and 
its edges were rounded. The eastern section of the bench was quite level, 
but the western end of the exposed arc dipped to such an extent that it 
left a regular ridge at the edge. In the construction of the bench a 
boulder had been utilized, its position being almost in the center of the 
arc. The floor of this estufa is 8 feet below the first floor level of Room 83. 




270 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History . [Vol. XXVII, 

Its western wall was lost beneath the foundation of the west wall of 
Room 83, where it passes the southeast corner of Room 84. Beyond this 
no explorations have been made. Its eastern part passes southward 
under the south wall of Room 83 and it too is lost in an unopened room. 
This estufa is but one of the evidences of a lengthened occupation and 
belongs to the series that stretches westward as far as Rooms 57 and 58. 
Below the floor of the estufa the virgin sand was reached, this point 
being 20 inches below the level of the ceiling beams of the first room. 

Room 84, 

The walls of this room were plastered and their lower portions were 
blackened by fire. The north doorway was rounded at the top, had 
wooden poles for a lintel, and a metate, with the grinding side exposed, 
for a sill. The south doorway, also rounded at the top, had plastered 
sides. The east and west walls were unbroken, but in the southeast 
corner of the east wall there is a depression about 3 feet wide which runs 
to the second story; the lower wall north of this bulges a trifle and 
extends to the plastered section in the northeast corner. This place was 
overhanging, was built of stones and mortar, and bore no evidence of fire. 
It was probably a support of some kind for the upper walls; at least it 
supported the cross beams at this end of the room. As evidenced by the 
contour of the plaster, the beam did not enter the wall; hence, the floor 
was supported at the east end by this projection. Near the west wall, at 
the same level with the plastered section, there is a hole in the north 
wall where a beam 7 inches in diameter had entered. The fireplace, 
built of stone and plastered on the inside, is about 1 foot deep. 

The upper room had also been plastered and its walls showed no 
blackening. The doorways in the north and east walls were of the square 
type; in the north wall the doorway was near the center; in the east 
wall it was at the south end, about 2 feet from the south wall. The west 
wall simply abuts on the north and south walls. The east wall is solid 
at the corners. 

Room 85. 
In the southeastern corner of Room 85 there were two bins or small 
rooms, probably used for storing grain, Fig. 116. The one in the corner 
was formed by a wall that formed the arc of a circle, the radius of 
which was about 3 feet 9 inches, taking the corner as the center. The 
south wall of this bin, formed by the south wall of the room, was well 
plastered and its surface unbroken, save five depressions that had been 




Fig. 114. Under Wall, Room 83. 




Fig. 115. Sandal Figures on North Wall of Room S3. 



272 




Fig. 145. Interior of Kiva showing Ventilator, Room 162. 



337 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 339 

in to be used later if necessary. The wall around this doorway is weak- 
ened and some of the stones have fallen out. This wall is more broken 
in the upper central part than at the ends where it stands to the height of 
the north and south walls. 

Rooms 116 to 190. 
Minor excavations were made in a number of rooms ranging from 
Rooms 116 to 190. Nothing of special interest was developed in these 
excavations aside from the specimens shown in Figs. 138 to 154. 

FIELD NOTES FOR EXCAVATIONS IN BURIAL MOUNDS. 

June 1st. Commenced work on a mound situated on the southern side of Chaco 
Canon and southwest from Pueblo Chettro Kettle. 

The first find was a small pitcher on the north line in Section 1, 4 feet 4 inches 
from the eastern end of the section. Further digging revealed the skeleton of a child. 
The body was lying northwest by southeast, the head toward the southern point. 
The cranium was 2 inches below the surface and from the frontal bone to the eastern 
stakes was a distance of 3 feet &){ inches. The distance from the pelvic bone to the 
top of the cranium was 1 foot 3 inches, and from one elbow joint to the other 11^ 
inches — the cup rested upon the left elbow. The leg bones could not be found. From 
the position of the skeleton, the head being the uppermost part, the bones should 
have been in place, but there is a possibility of their having been washed out. 

Skeleton 2 was discovered six inches below the surface in Section 2. The right 
temporal bone was 1 foot 6% inches, from the eastern part of the section. The north- 
ern line of operations crossed the skeleton 1 inch below the clavicles where they were 
lying against the vertebrae. The skeleton was lying on its back with the knees bent 
upward and eastward; it was lying almost directly north and south, the head being 
at the latter point. The body measured 3 feet 4 inches in length as it lay in the ground. 
The skeleton was in such a condition that the bones could not be preserved. 

Skeleton 3 was found 3 inches beneath the surface in Section 3. The distance 
from the occiput to the northern trench line was 11 inches and this point was 2 feet 2 
inches west of the eastern line post. The skeleton was lying northeast by southwest, 
the head toward the northeast. The arm bones were lying close to the sides of the 
body, and the legs had been pressed up against the left side. Resting upon the right 
shoulder and against the upper jaw, was a bowl (H-49) 9 inches in diameter. It had 
been broken previous to interment as holes had been drilled in the several pieces in 
order to mend it — faint decorations on the interior were noticed. 

Inside of this bowl was found a square piece of pottery (H-50). Resting against 
the left shoulder was a pitcher 7 inches high and 3 inches in diameter at the top. It 
had a handle and was complete, — faint ornamentation on the exterior. 

Skeleton 4 was found in Section 4, 10 inches below the surface. The body, that 
of an adult, was lying on its back with legs drawn up toward the chin. It was lying 
east and west, the head toward the east. The distance from the eastern section stake 
to the left parietal bone, was 3 feet 4 inches, the greater part of the body was inside of the 
section, but the right shoulder and part of the ribs were outside, the head was crushed 
and the whole skeleton was verjr brittle. Resting against the left temple was a bowl 



340 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

5^2 inches in diameter, ornamented on the inside and of the usual whiteware (H-52). 
Almost touching the bowl was a pitcher (H-53), 5 inches high and 2/4 inches in diam- 
eter at the top. It has a corrugated handle and is ornamented on the outside. At 
the western part of the skeleton was a large bowl (H-54), part of the pelvis resting 
upon the rim. To the east of this bowl is a large stone that was probably placed in 
position beside the bowl. 

Skeleton 5 was discovered 1 foot 1 inch below the surface in Section 4. The 
body was extended, lying northwest by southeast. At the head was a large 
bowl and in this, was a smaller bowl and a pitcher; at the feet were large portions of 
the rim and sides of a large corrugated pot. The body was in an advanced stage of 
decay, in fact some of the bones had wasted away. The body measured 5 feet as it 
rested in the ground. The head was 4 feet west of the eastern section post and 5 feet 
south from the northern line. The large bowl (11-55) at the head measured 10% 
inches and had decorations on the interior. The smaller bowl (H-56), was 7 inches in 
diameter, decorated inside; the pitcher (H-57) was 6 inches high with a 3 inch open- 
ing. The corrugated jar (H-58) at the foot of the skeleton measured 8% inches. 
The skeleton protruded 1 foot into Section 5 and the feet were 3 feet 6 inches from the 
northern line. 

Skeleton 6 was found in Section 1, 4 feet below the surface. The body was lying 
on its back with the head resting on its left side, the right arm was folded across the 
body, and the left lay parallel with it, the femora were lying at right angles to the 
trunk. Five inches northeast of the upper jaw there stood a corrugated jar (H-59) 
5% inches high and 3% inches in diameter at the top. Southeast of this jar was a 
water bottle (H-60) 8 inches high and l}{ inches in diameter in the middle. This 
bottle was broken, inside of it was a smaller one (H-61), also broken, 4% inches in 
diameter at the middle, and 4}o inches high. The body was lying northwest by south- 
east, the head toward the former point. It was in the southern part of the first section, 
the head was 1 foot 1/2 inches from the southern section line, and 2 feet 6 inches from 
the western line. The calcaneum and a few of the other bones of the right foot extend- 
ed into Section 6. The body measured 3 feet 3 inches in situ. 

Skeleton 7 was found 8 inches below the surface in Section 6 . The body was lying 
upon its back, inclined a little on the right side. The left arm was folded across the 
breast, and the right was lying parallel with the side. The legs had been doubled up 
towards the chin and when the flesh decayed, fell a little outside of the body, i. e., 
to the south of it. The body measured 3 feet in length and was in fair condition com- 
pared with some of those near it. The body extended outward, to the east of the sec- 
tion, the part inside, the head, being 6 inches in length. From the northern section 
parts to the left temporal bone was 2 feet 5 inches. The body was lying almost directly 
east and west. Resting against the left ribs and almost touching the middle section 
of the left humerus, was a pitcher 6 inches high and 5 inches in diameter at the top. 
One peculiarity about this pitcher (H-62) is that the lines forming the ornamentation 
of the exterior are red, something never before observed on the pottery from this 
region. Resting against this pitcher and running south 10 inches from it was a 
rounded portion of a broken corrugated jar (H-63). 

Skeleton 8 was found in Section 1, 4 inches below the surface, i.e., measuring 
from the uppermost portion of the cranium, as all such measurements are made. 
The body was lying northwest by southeast, the head toward the latter point. The 
skeleton measured 3 feet 4 inches in situ, the head projecting outside of the eastern 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 341 

section line 7% inches. The distance from the southern section part on the eastern 
side to the left temporal bone, was 2 feet 7 inches. The femora had projected above 
the surface and were broken off about the middle. The body was greatly decayed, 
the face being entirely gone, and nothing was found with it. 

Skeleton 9 was found in Section 6, 3 inches below the surface. The body was 
lying upon its back with the legs drawn up across the trunk, it measured 2 feet 10 
inches in situ and was lying north and south, the head being toward the south. The 
head was 1 foot west of the eastern section line and 2 feet 7 inches from the northern 
line. Near the head of the northeastern side was a portion of a jar (H-64), the only 
pottery found with the body. Resting near the left femur was a bone awl (H-65). 

Skeleton 10 was found outside and to the east of Section 6, and 3 feet below 
the surface. From the eastern section line of Skeleton 6 to the lower jaw was 3 feet 
1 inch, and from the northern section line, carried out, 1 foot. The body was lying 
north and south and was decayed to such an extent that I had trouble in getting even 
its outlines for a photograph. It was the body of a child and resting against its frontal 
bone, was a pitcher (H-66) 4 inches high and 2 inches in diameter. At the opening, 
and just to the north of this was a fragment of a vessel showing part of the rim (H-67) . 

Skeleton 11 was found in Section 11 with the head 1 foot 2 inches below the sur- 
face. The body measured 5 feet 9 inches as it lay in the ground. It was lying on its 
back with the legs bent upward and the soil was so hard that the bones had preserved 
their upright position where the flesh had decayed. The arms were stretched at the 
sides and the body was lying about east and west, the head toward the latter point. 
The knees were 1 foot below the surface. The left temporal bone was 5 feet 4 inches 
from the northern section line and 2 feet 8 inches from the western section line was the 
occiput. 

A body was found in a narrow strip between two holes that had been dug by the 
Wetherill party during the winter of 1895-96. All that was found of the body was the 
upper portion of the cranium which was mashed almost flat. Near the fragments of 
the skull were found a broken jar of corrugated ware (H-72) and a fragment of another 
vessel (H-73). These were preserved, but no measurements were taken defining the 
position of the remains, as it was that part of the mound that had been dug out by 
other parties. About 3 feet away from the corrugated jar in the side of one of the 
holes, where a skeleton had been unearthed, was found a small bone celt (H-75) 
ornamented with lines running around the implement. Nothing else could be found 
in the vicinity. During the general digging a shell ornament (-H-74) was found in the 
surface soil. 

Our next place of operation was a burial mound near the mouth of the canon 
that runs south from Chaco. It was on the right hand side facing south and is in 
reality in the Chaco limits. Richard Wetherill had done some excavating here. One 
of the peculiar things found during his digging was a stone grave, one stone of which 
was still in place. It was about 1 foot below the surface and consisted of two large 
flat stones placed on edge about 2 feet apart. Between these the body had been 
placed and the soil filled in upon it, then on the sand were placed a number of flat 
stones, but these were some inches above the upper edge of the grave stones. I 
mapped out a line 40 feet long and running about east and west. This was on the 
southern side of the mound. I divided this line into five parts and then squared each 
part, thereby giving me five sections, each 8 feet square. These sections were 
numbered, commencing from the eastern end. 



342 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

Skeleton 12 was found in Section 4 and was 3 feet 3 inches below the surface. 
The skeleton was lying west-northwest and east-southeast and measured 3 feet 3 
inches in situ. From the southern section line to the top of the skull was 4 feet 4 inches 
and from the lower jaw to the eastern section line was 5 inches. The body was lying 
upon its back with the head facing east. The body was lying with its head toward the 
northwest point of the above position. The bones were the softest we had encoun- 
tered and it was therefore hard to get them uncovered for photographing. About 1 foot 
6 inches above the body a mass of stones was found, some of them being 3 feet long 
by 2 feet wide. They were quite thin but had not been dressed in any way. There 
were seven or eight, which made quite a layer over the body. About half the body 
extended into Section 3. 

Skeleton 13 was found in Section 7, about 9 inches below the surface. The bones 
lay about and were greatly disconnected. The head was 2 inches north of the south- 
ern section line and 5 inches east from the western section line. The body was lying 
northwest by southeast, the head toward the northwest. The head, indicated by a 
single piece, was just northwest of the large bowl (H-77), and probably the bowl 
rested against it. Three feet, from the large bowl was a smaller one (H-78) broken, 
and about 6 inches south of this was a sandstone gourd (H-79), broken in half, that 
may have been used. About 8 inches of the skeleton, the femora, etc., projected 
south into Section 2. The body was 3 feet 10 inches long as it lay in the grave. 

Skeleton 14 was found in Section 6 with the head 2 feet below the surface. It 
was enclosed in a stone grave. The head was lying under a large flat stone and had 
been flattened by it. From the southern section line to the skull was 8 inches and 
10 inches east from the western section line. The large flat slab was facing due north- 
east and was standing on end inclined toward the north. It was 1 foot 8 inches long 
and the same in width. It had no doubt originally rested in a horizontal position, but 
had settled to its present position, either through the natural settling of the sand or 
from being undermined by rats. The stones as they lay formed a pyramidal space, 
the base being toward the north. The side along the large slab measured 1 foot 10 
inches, the opposite side, which was formed by a stone that had been used to grind 
axes, measured 1 foot 9 inches and the base was 1 foot 3 inches long. The place worn 
in the stone where axes had been ground was 9 inches long, 4 inches wide, and about 
\ x /i inches deep in the center. The grave was photographed, before the stones were 
removed, and a photograph was also taken showing the head as it rested under the 
large slab. 

In Section 5 a rubbing stone (H-80) was found. It was 3 feet below the surface, 
4 feet north of the southern section line, and 6 inches west of the eastern line. 

A bowl (H-81) was found in the northern part of section 4; it was 1 foot below 
the surface, 2 feet 4 inches west of the eastern line, and 7 inches south of the northern 
section lines It was broken into small pieces, probably from the weight of the earth. 

A pendant made from a piece of red pottery (H-83), possibly a handle, that has a 
hole drilled through the narrow end, was found 6 inches below the surface in the center 
of Section 8. 

A shell ornament (H-84) was found near a piece of a child's skull, 2 feet below the 
surface in Section 7. It was 1 foot south of the northern section line and 5 feet west 
of the eastern section line; no other bones were found near it. 

Skeleton 15 was that of a small child, measuring 1 foot 10 inches as it lay in the 
grave. It was found in the northwestern part of Section 6 and projected into Section 




Fig. 148. Pietograph on Rock in Chaco Canon 




Fig. 149. Outer North Wall of Bonito, looking northwest from Within, showing Junction 
of Old and New Walls. 



344 




Fig. 150. A Closed Doorway. 




Fig. 151. A Corner Doorway. 



345 




Fig. 152. A Partly Closed Doorway. 




Fig. 153. An Open Doorway. 



346 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 347 

7. It was 1 foot 7 inches below the surface and was in the gravel bottom, whereas all 
the other skeletons were in the sub-soil. The body was lying northwest by southeast, 
the head toward the former point. The body was lying upon its back with the arms 
at the side; the legs were at right angles to the trunk, the right femur being across the 
pelvis. 

Skeleton 16 was found 1 foot below the surface in Section 9. In a caving of the 
bank the face was brought to view and when the earth fell it carried with it the greater 
part of two pieces of pottery that had been buried with the skeleton. One piece of the 
large bowl (H-85) was left in the bank, and the balance with the corrugated jar (H-86), 
was among the clods of earth below it. The head was uncovered enough to show its 
position, and the bank, pottery and all, was left just as it was when the bank fell. 
The head was 1 foot 10 inches from the northern line of Section 9 and 3 feet 7 inches 
from the western line of the same section. The pottery had rested against the lower 
jaw, as the piece in the bank shows. The fragments of a red bowl (H-91) were found 
under the corrugated jar mentioned above. 

Skeleton 17 was found in a fragmentary condition just east of Skeleton 15. It 
was in Section 6 and was lying 8 inches below the surface. The bones looked as though 
they had been thrown into the hole and no definite direction could be ascertained 
from the few bones that remained. 

Skeleton 18 was found 1 foot 6 inches below the surface in Section 12. Only a few 
teeth and portions of the ribs were found in position. In the surrounding soil, in rat 
holes, were found fragments of vertebrae and other bones. The body was probably 
lying northwest by southeast, the head toward the former position, for at that point 
some teeth and fragments of the skull were found. Seven inches south of the teeth 
was a corrugated jar (H-88) 6 inches deep and 4% inches in diameter at the top. One 
foot one inch east of this jar was a bowl 4% inches deep and 8 inches in diameter, 
ornamented on the interior with a design composed of broad lines (H-89) . 

The bone awl (H-90) was found 3 feet deep in Section 9; it was 3 feet south of 
the north section and 1 foot east from the western section line. 

A portion of a red bowl (H-91) found under the corrugated jar (H-86) when the 
pottery was removed from the place where it fell is mentioned under the description 
of Skeleton 16. 

In Section 11 there were some pieces of bone and there had probably been a 
skeleton there, but as there were no vessels nor any implements near the place, we 
could not be certain that it had been an entire body. 

Skeletons 13, 14, 15 were unproductive and as there was no evidence of other 
remains, which we ascertained by sounding in various places, I concluded to stop 
operations in this part of the mound, so mapped out another section having a front- 
ing of 40 feet facing the west. It was on the same side of the hill but further to the 
north. 

The new trench line was mapped out so that it ran directly north and south. We 
commenced at the foot of the hill, which was toward the east, and worked in a westerly 
direction. 

The first skeleton, 19, was found 1 foot below the surface in Section 1, this being 
the one at the southern end of the trench. 

The body was that of an adult, probably a male, and was lying on its back; the 
right hand was lying across the abdomen and the left arm was stretched along the 
side of the body. The femora were standing in a perpendicular position and no 



348 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History . [Vol. XXVII, 

tibiae or fibulae could be found, and only fragments of the foot bones. The left side 
of the superior maxillary was missing and was possibly carried away by rats. The 
bones of the body were better preserved than any we had found before, but the 
cranium was in a very bad condition. The body was lying north and south, the head 
being toward the south. From the northern line of Section 1, to the pelvic bone was 8 
inches, and from the western stake line to the same point was 2 feet 5 inches. The 
body^measured 2 feet 10 inches in situ. 




Fig. 154. Burial in Mound No. 2, Skeleton 20. 



Skeleton 20 was found 1 foot 6 inches below the surface in Section 4. The head 
was 2 feet south from the north line of the section, and 2 feet 5 inches east of the 
western line. The body was that of a young person, the skull was lying on its face 
and was in a very poor condition. Resting a little above and a little to the north of 
the skull was a bowl (H-92) 6 inches in diameter. It was ornamented on the interior 
and had a handle on either side. Just below this bowl was a pitcher (H-93) 4}>2 inches 
high and 2 inches in diameter at the top. Just helow the large bowl was a frag- 
mentary bowl (H-94) which had a peculiar interior ornamentation. About on a level 
with the skull, and a little to the east of it, was a grooved stone (H-95); it had three 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 349 

grooves on the angular ridge, and in the east would be termed a net-sinker. About % 
foot above the head of the skeleton was a fragment of a bowl (H-96) but only a portion 
of the rim could be made out. The direction of the skeleton could not be ascertained 
as rats had scattered the bones in all directions. 

Skeleton 21 was found in Section 6. The head was 1 foot 8 inches below 
the surface, 7 inches south of the northern section line and 3 feet 4 inches 
west from the eastern line. The body measured 4 feet 2 inches in situ and projected 
about 10 inches into Section 1. The body was lying east and west, the head being 
toward the latter point. About 3}i inches north of the head was a portion of a red 
bowl (H-97) 9% inches in diameter and 4% inches deep. It was ornamented on the 
interior. Inside of this redware bowl was a fragment of a white bowl (H-98) and 
under this was the bowl of a ladle (H-99), having a heavy pattern on the interior. 
Lying between the femora was a portion of a corrugated jar (H-100), and just east of 
the body and a few inches below it was another fragment of the same jar (H-101), 
its uppermost part almost touching the tibia. The body was in a very poor condition. 

Skeleton 22 was found 1 foot below the surface in Section 7 and only a few bones 
were intact to show that there had been a body there. It was lying with the head pos- 
sibly toward the west, as a bowl was at that point; it was 1 foot 2 inches west of the 
eastern line of Section 7 and 2 feet 4 inches south of the northern line. About 4 feet 
west of the nearest bone was a white bowl (H-102) 10}2 inches in diameter, orna- 
mented on the interior. The few bones that remained were not in good condition nor 
were they in their proper relation to each other to give a clew as to the direction or 
position of the body. 

Skeleton 23 was found 10 inches below the surface in Section 8. Skeleton 98 
was that of a child and the bones were in a very poor condition. The skull was 1 
foot 3 inches west of the eastern section line and 2 feet 5 inches north of the southern 
line. The body was lying east and west, the head toward the latter point. Leaning 
against the cranium and to the south of it was a fragment of a large bowl (H-103), 
and inside of this was a bowl-shaped jar (H-104), with an opening about 1 inch in 
diameter, and a perforated handle on either side. The body measured 1 foot 5 inches 
as it lay in the grave. 

Skeleton 24 was found 10 inches below the surface in Section 8, the head being 
on the same level as that of Skeleton 23 and only 6}i inches to the northeast of it. 
The body was lying on its back, inclined a trifle to the right side, the legs had been 
drawn up, as is usual in most of the burials. It was lying northwest by southeast, the 
head toward the latter point. The head was 8 inches west of the eastern section 
line, and 3 feet 6 inches south from the northern line. It measured 3 feet 4 
inches in situ. Lying to the northwest of the cranium and 4 inches from it, was a 
portion of a bowl (H-105), that was part of the bottom of a larger one. Inside of it 
was a corrugated jar 5}i inches high and % inch in diameter at the top (H-106); 
between the bowl and its cranium was a bone awl (H-107). The cranium was broken 
into bits and the whole skeleton was greatly decayed. 

Skeleton 25 was found 10 inches below the surface in Section 9. It was that of a 
young person; the bones were badly decayed and had been scattered about by rats. 
The body was lying north and south, the head being toward the latter point. The body 
measured 1 foot 9 inches as it lay in the grave. From the eastern section line to the 
head was 3 feet 2 inches and 1 foot 3 inches from the northern section line to the same 
point. About 4 inches south of the head and 2% inches below it was a red bowl 
(H-108), measuring i% inches in diameter at the top. 



350 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

The bone awl (H-109) was found 1 foot below the surface in the central part of 
Section 10, and almost against the eastern section line. 

Skeleton 26 was found in the middle of Section 7, all that could be found in a 
sufficient state of preservation to allow of being uncovered was the upper jaw. This 
piece was lying 1 foot 6 inches below the surface; it was 3 feet north from the southern 
section line, and 3 feet 4 inches from the eastern line. A fragment of a bowl (H-110) 
was lying just below it, about 2 inches, and a little to the eastward of it, a large frag- 
ment of a white bowl (H-lll), was lying 6 inches west of the jaw, and just below this 
piece on the southern side, and with the edge lying under the whiteware bowl men- 
tioned above, was a very peculiar bowl (H-112); it was 4% inches in diameter and 
2% inches deep. It was heavily ornamented on the interior and about % inch below 
the rim were four perforated handles, placed at equal distances from each other. 
Three inches south of this bowl was a ball-shaped corrugated jar (H-113). It was 
2% inches in diameter at the top and 3 inches deep. Two inches further south, was a 
large fragment of a corrugated jar (H-114). Four inches west of this corrugated jar 
was a fragment of a red bowl (H-115). The body had completely wasted away so 
that the position in the grave could not be ascertained. 

Skeleton 27 was found in Section 8, it was 1 foot 3 inches below the surface. 
The body was greatly decomposed, only a portion of the head, the occiput, remaining. 
The legs were drawn up and the vertebrae were so soft they crumbled when even a 
brush was applied. The body was lying north and south, the head being toward the 
latter point, and measured 3 feet 5 inches in situ. From the eastern section line to the 
head was 3 feet, and from the head to the south section line was 2 feet 10 inches. 
Five inches northwest from the head was a fragment of a bowl (H-116) and 2 inches 
north of this was a water jar 6 inches high and 1% inches in diameter at the mouth. 
There was a corrugated handle on either side (H-117). 

Skeleton 28 was found 10 inches below the surface in Section 10. All that could 
be measured for photographing were the legs and front of the pelvis, the other bones 
had entirely wasted away. The leg bones were in a very poor condition, their surfaces 
being greatly weathered. From the southern section line was 5 inches and from the 
western line, 2 feet 7 inches, from the point of the bended knees to the end of the pelvic 
bone, 2 feet 5% inches. The skeleton probably lay north and south, the head being 
toward the south and no doubt extended some distance into Section 9, but no bones 
were found in this section. The bones were very large, the perfect femur was 1 foot 
6)2 inches long and the outer tibia was 1 foot 2% inches. No vessels were found with 
the body. 

Skeleton 29 was found 1 foot 1 inch below the surface in Section 10, the head 
being 11 inches north of the leg bones of Skeleton 28. The body was lying northeast 
by southwest, the head being toward the latter point. The body was probably that 
of a woman, and lay on its back, the head being some inches higher than the rest of the 
body. The skull was crushed and the teeth of the upper jaw were missing from age. 
Only five teeth remained in the inferior maxillary. The body measured 2 feet 8 inches 
in situ. The legs were drawn up across the body and some of the vertebrae and ribs 
were missing, probably the result of a rats' burrow. The head was 3 feet north from 
the south line and 3 feet 10 inches from the west line. A little to the west and slightly 
above the head was a fragment of a pitcher (H-118). 

Skeleton 30 was found 7 inches below the surface, all that was found of the skele- 
ton was the occiput and two femurs, which were crossed. The head was 9 inches 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 351 

east of the western line of Section 10, and 2 feet 10 inches north of the southern sec- 
tion line. The bones were 2 feet northwest of the head, and from the northern line 
to the point where the bones cross was 2 feet 11 inches. The femora were crossed on 
the section line, half of them thereby lying in Section 15. Resting against the cranium 
was a pitcher (H-119), it was 6 inches high and 3 inches in diameter at the top. Rest- 
ing against the pitcher on the northwestern side was a bowl 5 inches high and 4 inches 
in diameter at the opening, and heavily ornamented on the exterior. 



352 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 



TABULATED DATA. 

A general discussion of Bonito culture will be published later. In the meantime 
we present a table showing the dimensions of the rooms excavated and the approxi- 
mate distribution of artifacts. These will not only give an idea of the relative number 
of finds for each type of artifact but show their distribution in the ruin. The 
numerals under the various headings in the tables indicate the number of such artifacts 
recognized by the excavator, but in some cases the number of fragments and other 
insignificant forms was so large that no exact count was made. These are designated 
by an x. The dimensions of rooms are from inside measurements. The tables were pre- 
pared by Mr. B, T. B. Hyde. — Editor. 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 289 

stone slab. The stones were blackened and calcined, and were therefore 
exceedingly friable and delicate. The new or upper floor level was over 
1 foot above the sill of the doorway in the south wall, and upon this 
rested the large double metatc with a hole in the center. 

A number of interesting specimens were found in the floor, Figs. 
118-122. 

Room 80. 

Room 86 is bounded on the north and west by unworked rooms; 
on the south it joins Room 78 and on the east, Room 87. It is one of the 
second series of rooms south of the north wall and is built much in the 
same manner as the outer wall at this point. 

The north wall seems to have been repaired at its upper eastern 
part, since the western and lower part, composed as it is of large flat 
stones, conforms to the old style of building. This wall is still standing 
almost to the height of the third story. 

The east wall abuts on the north and south walls and shows the same 
class of work as the eastern part of the north wall, the three stories being 
composed of well-laid selected stones. 

The south wall is new at its east end; it is made of faced stones, 
presenting an oval appearance and these are chinked with smaller 
stones. This style of wall was apparently restricted to the second story; 
the lower part was strong, but not as well built as the upper part. In 
the lower part of this wall was a doorway; west of the doorway the 
wall is composed of rough stones and is evidently old. There is evi- 
dence that it was faced with small pieces of sandstone. This wall ex- 
tends to the second story where it joins the east wall. The western 
part of the wall is in a state of decay which stands out more forcibly 
when compared with the well-built wall at the east end. 

The west wall is composed of large flat irregular stones, such as are 
generally found in the old walls. It abuts on the north and south wall 
and its surface is very rough and uneven. 

The north wall is 1 foot 10 inches thick; the east, 2 inches thick; 
and the south, 1 foot 11 inches thick. The room was cleared to the floor 
level and then dug to a depth of several feet below that plane. A number 
of large stones and metates were found below the floor level. 

Room 87. 
On the north Room 87 is bounded by an unworked room; on the 
south it joins Room 80. It is really one of the several series of rooms 
south of the north wall, but there is a small angular space between the 



290 Anthropological Paper." American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

north wall of the room north of this one and the outer wall, that is formed 
by a wall that runs southeast from the outer wall and joins it at a point 
just abreast of Room 86. 

Room 87 is standing; to the height of the second story on the north 
side and also the north part of the east and west walls. The floor of this 
room rested upon a foundation of old walls and was, therefore, not as 
deep as Room 86. 

The north wall is built mostly of well-laid small stones. The sur- 
face stones are a facing for the rough inner wall and are laid without 
mortar, giving an appearance similar to the east wall of Chettro Kettle. 

In the center of the first floor wall there is a doorway of the rect- 
angular type, the sides very straight and even for unplastered surfaces. 
There is a weak place above this doorway that marks the only real 
defect in the wall. At either end of this wall, 1 foot 6 inches below the 
ceiling beams and about 8 inches from either end wall, are square open- 
ings. The opening in the eastern end is the better of the two, but this 
is in poor condition. They were probably about 1 foot by \}A inches and 
may have been ventilators. 

The ceiling beams ran north and south, as shown by the large beam 
holes in the wall. The upper part of the wall, above the ceiling beams, 
was made of the same sized stones and built in the same fashion as the 
lower part. There was a rectangular doorway in the upper part, but the 
top of it had fallen with the wall. 

Near the east wall were three beam holes about 6 inches to 1 foot in 
diameter; a large one was about 1 foot 4 inches and two small ones about 
8 inches in diameter in the center. There were two large beam holes 
midway of the eastern and western wall. 

The south wall was built like the north wall and had a rectangular 
doorway in the center. This is closed with carefully laid stones. The 
wall is in good condition and at the west end extends to the ceiling beams. 

The east wall also has the same technique as the two previously 
described. At one time there was a doorway in the center of this wall, 
that is now entirely devoid of shape ; the stones at the top and sides have 
been displaced and the opening filled with debris. The wall stands to 
the height of the ceiling beams and, at its north end, to the height of the 
north wall which is fully 7 feet above the ceiling beam level. 

The west wall, built like the other three, presents a solid unbroken 
appearance. At its south end it stands to a height of 4 feet above the 
ceiling beams and at its north end, fully 8 feet above that level. The 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 291 

respective measurements of the walls, showing their thickness, are as fol- 
lows: north, 2 feet; south, 1 foot 10 inches; east, 2 feet; west, 2 feet. 

On a level with the floor, as before mentioned, are the tops of a 
number of old walls. On removing the floor it was found that the space 
was occupied with these walls, save for an angular space in the center 
and the narrow end of another in the northeast corner. These walls 
were thick and massive and were built of the large flat, rough-edged 
stones that characterize the material of the old walls. The north and 
west sides of the large angular room still retain a good portion of the 
plaster with which they had been covered and which was blackened as 
though by long use. A wall runs parallel with the south wall of the room 
and joins another that runs northwest and southeast, near the east wall; 
this second wall abuts on the west wall of this lower series, as does also 
the first mentioned. The west wall does not rest against the west wall 
of the room, but the space between them is almost filled by the stones 
on which the upper wall rests (Fig. 155). 

The north wall seems to act as a support for the upper wall, as is 
the case with the south wall; the east wall is built squarely across the 
top of the old walls. The room, or pointed space, in the northeast corner, 
extends under the east wall and forms part of the network of rooms 
below the floor level of Room 88. The east and west walls of this upper 
room, abut on the north and south walls, as do all of the end walls of 
this series, whicli extends to Room 99. 

Room 88. 
Room 88 lies just east of and adjoins Room 87. To its north is an 
unworked room; on the east lies Room 89; and on the south it is flanked 
by Rooms 77-82. This room has the same general appearance as Room 
87. The walls are of the same material and built in the same manner. 
The north wall has a rectangular doorway in the central part, about 1 
foot above the floor; in the upper part, near the east and west walls, 
there are square openings like those found in the north wall of Room 87. 
These openings are like those in the outer wall of the pueblo and it is 
more than possible that this was at one time the outer wall of the build- 
ing. The lintel poles were still in place in the square opening near the 
east wall. These poles were fully 3 inches in diameter. The wall stood 
to a height of over 8 feet above the ceiling beams and had a doorway in 
its upper part. Only a portion of the sides of the doorway is still in 
place. Large pieces of the wall above the square openings have fallen, 
but the greater part is in good condition. 



292 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History . [Vol. XXVII, 

The east wall is solid, not even a doorway breaking its surface. It 
is somewhat bulged near the floor, but is otherwise in good shape. The 
south wall is in a good state of preservation near the east end; in fact 
the only bad place is near the west wall where a large section has fallen 
out. There is a closed doorway of the old T type with well-defined lines, 
in the east center of the wall. The stones with which it is closed are 
well laid. 

The west wall shows the same broken place in the center as on its 
side in Room 87. This may have been a doorway, but there is absolutely 
no evidence of it on this side. Barring this defect, the wall is in good 
condition, and stands to the height of the ceiling poles, which may be 
seen at its north end where the wall towers 8 feet above them. This high 
section is only 2 feet 6 inches wide at its lower part. 

The east and west walls abut on the north and south walls and all 
are devoid of plaster. In this room there is a continuation of the walls 
found at the floor level in Room 87 ; they form four places in this room all 
of which extend into other rooms. The one in the west end extends under 
the west wall of the room and ends in an acute angle in Room 87 (Fig. 
124). 

The southwest wall of the central room passes under the south wall 
of the upper room, as does also its southeast wall. Just southeast of the 
large space, with the same wall for its base, is another angular room; its 
northeast and northwest walls form a right angle, the south upper wall is 
the hypothenuse, the acute angle is lost under the east wall. 

The fourth space is in the northeast corner and, with the east wall 
of the room as a perpendicular, forms a right-angled triangle with the 
base on the north side. Unlike those in Room 87, these lower walls are 
only 1 foot thick, although their width is about the same. 

The wall running northwest and southeast seems to end where it 
meets the north upper wall and extends under the east wall at its other 
end. The wall in the southeast end abuts on this wall and passes under 
the south wall. The wall running parallel to it in the west central part 
of the floor area abuts on the same wall as the others, and also abuts on 
a mass of masonry in the southwest corner. These walls are all built 
upon the natural yellow sand. 

There is a bench a little over 1 foot wide that runs along the north 
wall; in it are four places where posts have probably rested; they aver- 
age about 10 inches in diameter. The upper walls show the following 
thicknesses: north, 2 inches; south, 1 foot 10 inches; east, 1 foot 10 
inches; west, 2 feet. 



1920.] 



Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 29.3 



Room 89. 
Room 89 is also one of the series of rooms running east and west of 
which Room 99 forms the eastern limit. It is bounded on the north by 
an unnumbered room, on the south by Room 90, on the east by Room 98, 
and on the west by Room 88. 

The north wall is built of various sized stones, no continuity of size 
of material or manner of laying is shown. The lower part is in good 
condition and still retains the greater part of its plaster, but the upper 
part is warped and in places stones have fallen out. At one place, near 
the ceiling beams and only a few feet from the west wall, a few stones 
have fallen, disclosing a timber built into the wall. It is laid horizontally 
and was evidently used as a strengthening medium. It is just above one 
of the square holes and no doubt served as a lintel to the ventilator, 
which, however, seems to have been closed with stones. There is another 
of these square places near the east wall, thereby following out the same 
order as in Rooms 87-88. 

A doorway in the lower part of this wall is of the rectangular type 
and has eight poles for the lintel; these average 2 inches in thickness. 
At the northern limit of this doorway, l}/ 2 inches below the main lintel, 
are two poles the space between them being filled with stones. The door- 
way was half full of debris, the lower part, however, was closed with a 
well-laid plastered wall. Judging from the holes in the wall at the ceiling 
level, there must have been eight large beams running north and south. 

The second story wall is of the same style of masonry as the lower 
story, but was evidently built after the lower wall, for it is fully 3 inches 
north of the lower wall surface. This may have been because the upper 
wall was built over the roof of the lower room and thereby made a per- 
fect joint impossible. The story is in good condition and has a doorway 
in the center. It is rectangular in form and has a peculiar jog on either 
side; near the north end the top of this doorway has fallen. At the east 
end of the room the third story is in evidence, a pile of wall about 8 feet 
long and 6 feet high being still in position. From the floor to the second 
story ceiling beams is a distance of 19 feet, thereby making over 22 feet 
of wall on the west side of this room. 

The south wall is bulged and buckled to such an extent that it is 
almost a wreck at the west end. It is similar to the north wall in its 
masonry, and retains a great portion of the plaster, most of which is, 
however, in patches. 

The only intentional break in the surface is a doorway of the old 
wide-topped type near the east end; the lower part is closed with large 



294 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

stones and the upper part filled with debris. The outlines are fairly 
plain, but the height could not be ascertained owing to the falling of 
the wall which carried part of it away. 

The east wall is solid and presents an unbroken surface, the masonry 
being the same as in the other Avails. Over fifteen poles can be counted 
at the ceiling level, and above them the wall of the second story rises 
to the height of the beam holes in the north wall. The surface has no 
opening in it, and although warped laterally at its center, is still in fair 
condition. This wall abuts on the north and south walls. 

The west wall stands almost to the first ceiling level and abuts on 
the north and south walls; it has quite a patch of plaster on the lower 
part and the masonry does not form that of the other walls. There is 
not a break in its surface, all the stones being intact. 

The floor of this room was rather uneven ; no fireplaces were found 
in it. The measurements of the walls gave the following thicknesses: 
north, 1 foot 9 inches: south, 1 foot 10 inches; east, 1 foot 10 inches; 
west, 1 foot 11 inches. 

Room 90. 

Room 90 is in the northeastern part of the ruin and is bounded on 
the north by Room 89; on the south by the estufa, Room 75; on the 
east by Room 20; and on the west by Room 82. It is one of a series 
extending east and west and its walls, except at the east, have fallen so 
that not even the entire first story remains. 

The north and south walls are only a trifle over 7 feet in height. The 
walls are rough and in poor condition, especially the west end of the 
north wall which contained two pockets and a doorway. The latter 
was of the rectangular type and was filled with debris from the fallen 
wall. The wall directly above it was completely destroyed, the space 
being filled with debris. The pocket in the western part of this wall was 
rectangular in shape, its larger side ran parallel with the floor and a flat 
stone served as the bottom. It was about 1 foot 10 inches long and 10 
inches high, extending into the wall a distance of 1 foot 9 inches. The 
back of the base was composed of flat stones which looked like manos; 
these were laid side by side, their ends pointing north and south. 

The pocket in the eastern end of the wall was 1 foot Z}4 inches long 
by 9 inches high, and 1 foot 4 inches deep. It too had a flat stone ex- 
tending the full width of the pocket and forming a base for the front part. 
Both of these pockets were comparatively rough but probably presented 
a better appearance when the plaster was in good condition. , At one 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonilo. 295 

time the whole wall had been plastered but most of it on the upper part 
had fallen. 

The south wall was in good condition and was composed of small 
stones; these were particularly small at the upper part of the west end. 
There was a doorway of the old broad type in the center that had been 
carefully close,d with large stones and covered with plaster. This was 
the only break in the wall. As was the case with the north wall, only 
the lower plaster remains. 

The east wall was rather rough in construction and its center was 
pierced by a rectangular doorway that led into Room 20. Most of the 
plaster had disappeared and the wall had bulged a little on either side of the 
doorway. The lintel of the doorway was composed of six poles in an 
advanced stage of decay. 

The west wall was strongly built and well faced, the only defect 
being a slight bulge in the center. There was a small pocket in the lower 
part of the north end which looked as though a few stones had been pulled 
out, as there was no evidence of its having been used or plastered. A 
small patch of plaster showing evidences of fire and smoke remained near 
the central part of the floor. 

The room is not due east and west, the east and west walls being 20° 
east of north. Nothing of great interest was found during the removal 
of the debris. The usual potsherds, bones, etc., were encountered and 
when the floor level was reached a great many metates and stone slabs 
were found. When the dirt was cleared away the upright slabs were 
found to be the walls of bins. To the north of one series was found some 
plaster that had once contained a series of metates. A large metate had 
probably fallen from the floor above, as it rested on a layer of dirt that 
was over the best-preserved metate rest. There was a pile of stones near 
the central part resting against the south wall; these too had probably 
fallen from the upper floor like the flat metate in the northwest corner. 
A large metate, with a hole in the bottom, rested upon the floor and was 
probably a part of the furniture of the room. 

When the floor was cleared a series of bins was uncovered. The}' ran 
parallel with the walls at the sides of the room and extended from the 
west wall to within 1^2 feet of the east wall. There were ten in all; 
the row was not straight but formed an elongated arc, the convex side of 
which was toward the north wall. All the bins, with one exception, had 
flat stones for the bottom. These were surrounded with mortar that 
was rounded at the corners and sloped upward to the sides. The distance 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 297 

from the edge of the metate slope to the bottom of the bins was from 2 to 
3 inches. (Fig. 125). 

Room 91. 
This room is situated over Room 3. An opening was made in its 
southeast corner in 1896 to make an entrance to the series of open rooms 
that run northward from Room 3. The lower part of Room 3 was heavily 
walled, the plaster in some places being fully 2 inches thick. The room 
may have been used as an estufa or council room, but if so, the usual 
bench was missing. The opening in the room was in the southeast part 
and on the wall beams was surrounded with bunches of cedarbark tied 
with yucca cords. 

The floor was laid upon four large timbers that ran east and west; 
they were natural logs which measured nearly 1 foot in diameter. They 
extended about 1 foot into the western wall and protruded fully S feet 
beyond the eastern wall. The two northernmost logs were surrounded 
at their eastern ends with strips of cedar that extended the whole width 
of the wall which was 2 feet thick. These pieces were used as packing in 
the same way that small flat stones are used around smaller beams. The 
strips were not only in evidence on the lower part of the beam, but com- 
pletely encircled it. 

The western wall of this room was rather uneven and had tipped 
towards the west until there was a distance of four inches between it and 
the top part of the northern wall. It had been covered with a thick 
layer of plaster which remained in place over the greater part of the 
northern half, where numerous layers could be noted. There was a 
closed doorway near the south end, or at least an opening that had been 
filled after the wall was built, but the lines could not be definitely ascer- 
tained, owing to the dilapidated condition of this part of the wall. 

The north wall was completely covered with plaster, all but the 
outer layer being in good condition. A square doorway in the west 
central part was closed and completely covered with plaster. This wall 
presented a very uniform surface and was 1 foot thick. 

The northeast corner was in good condition, the plaster being intact 
and solid. The east wall was 2 feet thick and made of good-sized stones 
that were laid in the general way, no special plan being carried out so 
far as specialized manipulation is concerned. It was well plastered and 
presented a flat surface, the joint with the south wall being firm and 
strong, although the south wall was not built into it. 



298 A nthropological Papers A merican Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

The south wall was solid and in good condition, the surface had been 
plastered but the greater part had fallen. The doorway in the west 
central part was of the square type, and extended about 6 inches above 
the ceiling beams to the top of the standing wall. As there was fully 6 
inches of adobe above the floor, the door evidently commenced at the 
floor level. 

The stones in this wall were somewhat smaller than in the east wall, 
but were laid in the same manner as were those in the other walls as near 
as could be ascertained. The walls of this room were standing, on an 
average of about 5 feet above the floor beams and were about the same 
level as those of the rooms west of it. 

The beams forming the support for the floor were in good condi- 
tion save where they extended into the room east of Room 91. In clear- 
ing out Room 3, an opening was found just east of the fireplace, but at 
that time the outlet was not found. However, in digging down to the 
beams in the room east of Room 91 , a square opening was encountered 
that was probably the upper end of the air passage from Room 3. It 
was near the southeast wall of Room 91 and was left for investigation 
when the room in which it is situated was worked. 

Room 92. 

This room is directly north of Room 91 ; its exact direction is north- 
west and southeast. This room was filled with the stones and dirt of the 
fallen walls to within about 2 feet of the floor. Here the material from 
the upper floor was encountered; it could be kept separate from the 
deposit on the main floor as a stratum of sand had washed in and covered 
the floor to a depth of from 5 inches to 1 foot, until the floor of the upper 
room was buried. 

The charred ceiling beams of the room were found throughout the 
debris and a great deal of corn was found on the fallen floor. A bunch of 
bean bushes was found in the west central part of the room and masees 
of beans from the same plant, that were still green; corn on the cob; and 
beans in the pod were encountered. After the material from the fallen 
floor had been examined, the lawyer of stratified sand had to be removed 
to reach the main floor. The sand was almost as hard as mortar and a 
pick had to be used to remove it. The flow had been from the southwest. 

In the material on the main floor a jaw of a cinnamon bear was found, 
also fragments of two claws and a quantity of hair besides the general 
material from such a room. The room was very dry and the finds were, 
therefore, well preserved. The floor was covered with adobe and there 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 299 

was a large flat fireplace in the west-central part. The bottom of this 
fireplace was well smoothed and only a trifle below the floor level. At 
one time it had probably been surrounded by a ridge about 3 inches high 
and 8 inches wide, but only a portion on the north remained intact. 

The beam that supported the center of the room was broken and had 
let that part of the floor down several inches, causing a very pronounced 
slant toward the west wall. 

The west wall (northwest) was in about the same condition as the 
corresponding wall of Room 91, of which it was a continuation. It had 
retreated from the end of the south wall about 3 inches and from the 
north wall about 2 inches. The surface had been covered with a thick 
layer of plaster, but the greater part of it had fallen. The wall itself 
was very poorly constructed; it was composed of small slabs laid in 
mud with no attempt at facing. In the finished room the plaster was 
relied upon to cover up these defects. 




Fig. 126 (7662). Stone Pointed Drill, Room 92. 

The doorway in the central part was of the old type, narrow at the 
bottom and broad at the top, possibly, as has been suggested, to allow a 
person to enter with a bundle on his back. This doorway was filled with 
stones and dirt that might have been placed there by the old people, but 
which is probably the debris from the fallen walls. The north wall was 
probably originally plastered, but hardly a vestige of it remains. This 
wall is solidly built, being composed of large faced stones chinked with 
smaller ones; it simply abuts on the east and west wall and is nearly 3^ 
feet thick. The only break in its surface is at the west end where there 
is a doorway. It is about 4 inches above the floor and of the usual rect- 
angular type. The plaster on its western side is still intact, but on the 
opposite side most of it has disappeared. 

The wall at this side (east) back to the wall of the next room, which 
is a distinct and individual wall, is 2 feet 2 inches. The lintel is com- 
posed of four heavy well-preserved beams, each 5 inches in diameter. 
The places where they have been let into the walls are chinked with small 
stones and mud, as though the door had been broken through after the 
wall was built. The first lintel beam runs eastward from the eastern 
side of the doorway to a distance of 5 feet 4 inches; its entire length 



300 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

may be traced by a series of small stones that were placed around and in 
front of it. The chinking, on closer examination, shows that it had fallen 
out. Very little care had been taken in replacing it, as the stones pro- 
trude beyond the side walls. A portion of the upper part of the wall, over 
the doorway, has fallen, but the other parts of this wall are in good condi- 
tion. 

The east wall is composed of good-sized stones, which are well laid. 
Almost all the plaster has disappeared but the wall is in good condition 
save at a point below the doorway, where the stones are displaced. This 
doorway is of the rectangular type and is filled with debris. 

The south wall is very solid and exceedingly well made. It is com- 
posed of medium-sized stones chinked with smaller ones, the chinking 
being forcibly noticeable around the doorway. This doorway is of the 
rectangular type and the sides are well laid. The wall had been plastered, 
but very little of it remained. Below the door the wall had fallen, and, 
at the west end there was a space of about 3 inches where the west wall 
had fallen away from it. This wall is 1 foot thick and is separated by a 
large log that rests upon a comparatively thin wall. 

Room 93. 

Room 93 is the second room south of the darkroom and is one of the 
outer rooms at the northwest corner of the ruin. The longer axis of this 
room is northeast and southwest. The walls of this room were well 
made and were thicker than the average wall. 

The north wall (northwest) was composed of large stones chinked 
with smaller pieces of sandstone and had a doorway of the usual rect- 
angular type, in the northeast end, with ten poles for a lintel. This wall 
was unbroken, save for the doorway; the wall was broken below the 
level of the ceiling beam at the southwest end, but at the northeast end it 
reached a height of 20 feet above the floor. The ceiling poles were about 
1 foot in diameter as evidenced by the openings that still remain in the 
wall. 

The southeast wall was composed of large dressed stones, the chink- 
ing being done with very thin pieces of sandstone. There was a doorway 
in the central part of the room and about 1 foot 13^2 inches below the 
ceiling beams; it was of the rectangular type and had poles, about 2 
inches in diameter, for a lintel. In the northeast part of the wall is a 
nearly square opening, 1 foot by 16 inches, that has a flat stone for the 
top and was probably used for passing things between the rooms. 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bontio. 301 

This door opening was in good condition, but the doorway was 
broken at the top. The wall was standing to a good height at the south- 
west end, but at the northeast had fallen to the level of the ceiling beams. 
This wall was 1 foot Q}A inches thick. 

The southwest wall is built in the same firm manner as the other two 
and has the same form of chinking. There is a doorway of the rect- 
angular type in the center; it has poles for a lintel and is in good condi- 
tion. The wall is standing to a height of 1 foot above the doorway and is 
1 foot 43^ inches thick; it is not built into the southeast wall, but 
simply abuts on it, as it does on the northwest wall. 

The northeast wall presents an unbroken surface. It is one of the 
walls that radiate from the outer wall, and stands to a height of 20 feet 
above the floor; it passes the southeast wall and extends southeastward, 
forming the northeast wall of Room 101 and the southwest wall of Rooms 
100-104. It is built of the same large stones as the other walls of the 
room and chinked in the same manner; it is 1 foot 7 inches thick. 

The northwest, or outer wall, of the room is 2 feet 2 inches thick and 
since it forms the outer wall of the ruin is solidly built. All the walls were 
devoid of plaster, but may have been covered when the room was new. 
Because this is one of the outer rooms of the ruin, the walls on the north- 
west and southeast sides are rounded to some extent. 

A well-smoothed floor was found, but very little of interest was 
brought to light from the debris. 

Room 94. 

Room 94 is one of the outer rooms at the northwest end of the pueblo ; 
it is southwest of and near Room 93 and is bounded by Room 102 on 
the southeast. The north wall (northwest) was in fairly good condition 
at the northeast end, but the southwest end had fallen and was simply 
a mass of debris. There was a doorway in the upper part of the northeast 
end that was almost square, but it too had suffered by the falling of the 
wall. 

The northeast wall was in fair condition and was built of large faced 
stones which were chinked with small pieces of sandstone. This was 
the typical wall of the outer series and stood out in strong contrast to 
the rough inner walls. There was a decayed, rectangular doorway in the 
upper central part. 

The southeast wall was in fine condition and was built in the same 
manner as the other walls. It was intact, but bulged somewhat near the 
top. There was no doorway in this wall and its surface was practically 
devoid of plaster. 



302 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

The southwest wall had fallen at its northwest end, but its southeast 
part was in good condition and showed that it had been of the same 
workmanship as the other three. There had been a doorway in the upper 
part; although still definable, it was badly damaged. The floor of this 
room was well plastered, but about its center was a wall 2 feet wide that 
ran parallel with the end walls, its surface being on the floor level. 

Room 95. 

Room 95 is fourth, southwest of the old darkroom, its true position 
by the compass is northeast by southwest, its longer axis being the one in 
question. 

The walls of this room were almost completely destroyed, as though 
forces other than natural elements had played a part in their destruction. 

The north wall (northwest) was completely demolished and only a 
portion of the oppposite wall was in evidence. This was at the floor level 
and showed that it had been a strong well-built wall at one time. The 
wall was built like the others of the outer series, being the chinked form. 

The east wall had fallen, save at the south end, where it was still 
intact; it was 1 foot 6 inches thick and abutted on the north and south 
walls. It was, however, carefully built and was of the same type of 
masonry as the other walls of the series. 

The west wall was standing to a considerable height where it joined 
the south and north walls, but was only about 1 foot high in the center. 
It was 1 foot 7 inches thick and composed of the same faced stones as 
the main walls. This wall abutted on the north and south walls and 
had suffered with the others when this part of the building fell, as shown 
by a large crack in the center. 

Room 96. 

Room 96 is the fifth of the outer series that stretches southwest 
from the old darkroom. Its larger axis is 22° east of north, but for con- 
venience' sake, the walls are given as north, south, etc. 

The north wall is composed of large faced stones which are chinked 
with thin pieces of sandstone. It is 5 inches high where it rests against 
the east wall, but has fallen at the center and west end. This wall is 
1 foot 7 inches thick and is built upon a foundation of sand that is thickly 
sprinkled with charcoal. 

The south wall is of the same solid character as the others, but in- 
stead of abutting at the east end it passes on and is embedded in the 
east wall ; at the west end it abuts on the outer wall. There is a doorway 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 303 

in the center of this wall which is narrow at the top and flaring at the 
bottom. The sides are 1 foot 7 inches thick and present a very even 
surface. Eight poles form the lintel and they range from 2 inches to 3 
inches in diameter. This wall extends about 5 feet above the ceiling level. 

The east wall presents an unbroken surface, composed of the same 
faced stones and chinked in the same style as the other walls. Evi- 
dently it stood in as good condition as when built, save for the slant 
toward the west, which gave it a rather uncanny appearance to one at 
work below it. It stood to the height of the ceiling poles for over two- 
thirds of its length, but at the north end, about 2 feet of its height had 
disintegrated. 

There is a wall about 7 feet in height standing above the ceiling 
level at the south end of this wall. It is about 3 inches east of the room 
wall surface at the south end, and fully 1 foot east of the surface where it 
ends, a distance of 7 feet 6 inches north of the south wall of the room. 
This upper wall is 1 foot 8 inches thick. 

The west wall was massive in appearance at its south end and re- 
tained this characteristic for a distance of over 8 feet. Beyond this 
point the lower part of the wall could be traced for a few feet, but further 
on there are no evidences that a wall had ever been in place, the space 
it had occupied being simply a mass of debris. Very large stones were 
used in the construction of this wall and it almost seems as though there 
must have been some other force besides the falling upper walls, to cause 
such an utter annihilation of so strong a piece of masonry. 

At a point 8 feet 5 inches from this south wall there is a perpendicular 
line of stones that evidently mark the site of a doorway; its bottom stone 
is about 2 feet above the 'floor level, and above it, for 6 inches, there is a 
regular chinked wall, therefore this doorway must have been closed. 
The south side of the doorway stands to a height of 3 feet above the 
stone base or sill, and at this point the wall has fallen. The wall stands 
to the height of the ceiling beams for a distance of about 4 feet from the 
south wall and is 1 foot 9 inches thick, being the outer wall of the series 
it passes on toward the south. 

The east wall of this room is the eastern limit of the new walls. 
At the point where the south wall of Room 96 joins the east wall, the 
old and new walls are only 1 foot 4 inches apart. At the end of the upper 
wall, 7 feet 6 inches north of the south wall, the distance from the old 
wall to the inner room is 6 feet 6 inches. The upper wall is 1 foot 8 inches 
thick and the bench formed by the top of the east wall of Room 96, west 
of the upper wall, is over 1 foot; therefore, the east wall of Room 96 



304 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

must be over 2 feet 8 inches thick, or else the upper wall is built partly 
upon the filling between the walls. The old wall behind Room 96 is 
made of flat undressed stones and appears to be almost a dry wall. At 
this point it is 1 foot 2 inches thick. This outer series of rooms com- 
mences at the northeast part of the ruin and extends to the extreme 
southwest part. It was evidently built to round out the contour of the 
pueblo. 

Room 97. 

This room is directly under Room 92 and is of the same form. It is 
almost due northwest and southeast on its larger axis, as shown by the 
compass. 

The southwest wall of this room is the northeast wall of the square 
estufa, Room 3, and extends to the ceiling timbers where its top 
is formed by a beam about 8 inches in diameter, that extends its 
whole length, and enters the northwest wall. Near the southeast wall, 
it is supported by an upright timber. This wall was roughly built and 
heavily plastered, the plaster in some places being 2 inches thick. This 
covered the irregular stones and gave the wall a fairly even surface. 
The wall was blackened with a grimy soot and its surface was almost 
covered with finger marks. To the northwest of the doorway there were 
bear tracks, made by pressing the closed fist against the plaster and then 
adding the toes with the end of the finger; nail marks were also to be seen 
and these were succeeded by snake-like lines. The whole face of this 
part of the wall had seemingly served as a blackboard when the plaster 
was still moist. (Fig. 126.) 

The surface southeast of the doorway had also received attention. 
There were two perfect impressions of a hand that gave very good paper 
casts, also a snake-like series of finger-nail marks, and numerous other 
finger marks and scratches. 

The doorway in this wall was peculiar, owing to its narrowness and 
great height. It had extended from the cross beam at the top of the 
wall to within 2 feet of the floor, but it now has its upper part closed with 
large stones and mortar; its sides are rounding and it has a flat stone 
for the sill. The southeast side is comparatively straight, but the 
opposite one is concaved near the bottom. 

This is a dividing wall and simply abuts on the northwest and south- 
east walls. The part to the southeast of the doorway is in good condi- 
tion, save in a few places where pieces of plaster had fallen, but the 
northwest part was bulged and cracked. Near the top was a crack about 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 305 

1H> inches wide between the northwest end of this wall and the north- 
west wall, but at the bottom it is intact and not separated. 

The northwest wall had also been covered with a heavy coating of 
plaster but it had fallen in many places, exposing sharp edges of irre- 
gularly shaped stones. The fallen plaster had been displaced while the 
room was still occupied, for the exposed stones are covered with the 
same scales of grimy soot that blacken the plaster. 

The doorway in the southwest central part is of the rectangular 
form and has five two-inch poles for a lintel. These poles, as well as the 
sides of the doorway, have received the same layer of soot as the wall, 
and therefore, present a very dirty appearance. 

The wall itself is solid and well preserved, the fallen plaster, however, 
gives it a very rough appearance. 

The northeast wall of this room presents a surface that stands out 
in strong contrast when viewed in connection with the walls just described. 
It is made of large stones chinked with smaller ones and is about the 
same type of wall as that seen in the outer series of the west side of the 
pueblo. The stones have been selected and the surface is, therefore, 
quite even, though the wall is devoid of plaster. 

There is a doorway in the northwest corner that proves conclusively 
that this, the northeast wall, is a new one, and that the other two, the 
northwest and southwest, are older. The northwest side of this doorway 
is a continuation of the northwest wall, has the same blackened plaster, 
and all the characteristics of that wall. It ends in an old smoke-begrimed 
doorway that was the doorway of the old room. The lintel poles, and in 
fact the whole opening, is black, whereas the lintel poles and the south- 
east side of the new doorway are bright and clean, as though but a few 
years old. There are six lintel poles in the new opening, ranging from 
2 inches to 4 inches in diameter. The outer one extends 5 inches beyond 
the side of the doorway, its whole surface being exposed in the face of 
the wall. A place was dug in the southwest wall for the insertion of the 
lintel poles and the space about them was filled in with small stones and 
plaster, whose whiteness stands out strongly against the blackness of the 
wall. It is a rectangular doorway and the unplastered southeast side 
is 2 feet 2 inches thick. The old wall beyond it is about 1 foot 4 
inches thick and the doorway joins the new one at an angle, the slant 
being toward the southwest. 

The surface of the northeast wall had evidently never been plas- 
tered; it is bulged in some places and depressed in others, but not enough 
to weaken the upper wall. 



306 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

There is a beam about 6 inches in diameter, that can be traced for a 
distance of about 6 feet from the northeast wall; it evidently runs the 
whole length of the wall, as did the one on the opposite wall. As this 
is one of the old blackened timbers, it could not have been put in when 
the new wall was built, nor could it have served as part of the northeast 
wall of the old lower room; therefore, it must have supported an upper 
wall which was torn down when this part of the pueblo was being re- 
modeled. At the northwest end of the new wall it emerges and passes 
northwest at an angle until, where it enters the northwest wall, it just 
rests against the northeast wall. This beam supported the ceiling poles 
which ran northeast and southwest, and its northeast end, judging from 
the angle, probably enters the old wall near or in the northeast corner. 

The southeast wall was irregular and of the wattle type. Its north- 
east end was exposed, showing the upright poles and the bundles of 
willows tied to them. The space between the cross bunches of willows 
had been filled with stones and clay, and the surface plastered. This 
had been part of the old room and had been plastered over when the 
new wall was built. The old blackened plaster may be seen where the 
wattle wall that juts into the room joins the southeast wall. 

There was a bench that ran from the northeast wall to the jutting 
wall. It was built like the northeast wall and, as it is unplastered, was 
probably a part of the new structure. 

The portion of the southeast wall to the southwest of the jutting 
piece had been filled in with a new unplastered wall. The old blackened 
poles were in place on either side of it, and in the southwest corner the 
old blackened plaster was in place. There was a doorway in the ceiling 
in this corner and in the plaster near the top of the corner, there was a 
depression in the plaster to help in making an exit. The wattle beams, 
at the ceiling level, were tied with split willows and yucca cord. 

The wall that jutted into the room was of the wattle type and ran 
to the ceiling level at the southeast end, but was lower at its northwest 
limits. (Fig. 127). It was a part of the old room and its sides still show 
the soot and smoke, but not as much as the side and end walls. It is 
composed of seven or eight upright poles that are bound laterally with 
bunches of willows, and tied with withes of the same material. At its 
northwest edge there is a bundle of willows resting against the upright 
pole and over these is the thick plaster. The whole surface is thickly 
plastered; on the southwest side there are nail marks and scratches in 
its surface. 



308 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII , 

On the opposite side, about 1 foot from the southeast wall and the 
same distance from the ceiling beams, is a cup-shaped place similar to 
the one in the southwest corner of the southeast wall. There was a bin 
in the southwest recess, formed by two flat stones placed on edge. 

There is a large fireplace in the center of the room and another in the 
recess in the northeast corner. Just northwest of the latter there is what 
had evidently been a support for a post. It is composed of a platform of 
plaster on which rests a ring of thin pieces of wood that stand on end, 
and which probably formed the packing about the post: these sticks 
are enclosed in a jacket of plaster. 




Fig. 128. View of Room 97, looking Northeast. 



Room 98. 

Room 98 is next to the east one of the series that stretches east and 
west in the north part of the ruin and of which Room 86 is the most 
western one worked. It is bounded on the north by an un worked room, 
on the south by Room 20, on the east by Room 99, and on the west by 
Room 89. 

The north wall is in a fair state of preservation, the masonry of the 
lower level is built up of stones, seemingly used regardless of size or 
appearance in the wall. There is a doorway of the rectangular type in the 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 309 

lower central part that has had what seems to have been a board lintel. 
Only a laj'er of wood dust remains to judge by, so it may have been built 
of poles. It is filled with stones and debris and the lower part is plastered. 

There are two ventilators in this wall situated 1 foot below the 
ceiling beams and near either end wall. The one near the east wall has 
been filled with stones and the lintel poles may still be seen. 

The second story is about the same as in Room 89. In the center is 
a rectangular doorway that has three lintel poles in place at its northern 
limit. There are two poles in place below the lintel. These form the 
top of a secondary opening made by building a narrow wall against 
either side of the original doorway and formed a rest for the stone door. 
In building this second story the joint was made so that there is only a 
trifling difference between the surface of the two walls, but not so with 
the third story wall part of which, including the side of a doorway, is 
still standing. The face of this top wall is fully 4 inches north of the 
second story wall. This top wall is standing a little higher than its 
neighboring part, over the next room, Room 89. 

The south wall is more compactly built than the north wall and has 
more faced stones in its surface. It is in very good condition, save over 
the doorway in the center, and still retains the plaster on the lower part. 

There are two doorways, both in the eastern part, and only a little 
over 1 foot apart. The one near the east wall is very small and of the 
"T" type, the lower part was a little over 2 feet high and only 1 foot 3 
inches wide, while the bar section was only 2 feet 8 inches wide by 11 
inches in height. The lower portion is filled with a well-laid wall, while 
the upper part is full of debris. 

The doorway just west of this is of the rounded rectangular type; 
it is in the center of a square of masonry about 3 feet 10 inches by 4 feet. 
This place had been left, it seems, when the wall was built. A pole run- 
ning along its top may have served as a lintel, but, at all events, this 
space has been filled in with a solid wall and only a small doorway left, 
under which are two steps. The wall above this square place has fallen, 
but at the north and west ends it stands from 1 foot to 4 feet above the 
ceiling level. 

The east wall is standing to the height of the second story ceiling- 
level. The masonry is the same as in the other walls and the lower part 
is still plastered. 

There is a closed doorway near the floor at about the center of the 
wall; it is rectangular in form and filled with large stones and covered 
with plaster. At the first ceiling level the ends of the poles may be seen 




Fig. 129. East and South Wall of Room 99. 



310 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 311 

in the wall above these poles. The wall is weathered and most of the 
chinking has fallen from between the stones. This wall abuts on the 
north and south walls. 

The west wall presents an unbroken surface from floor level to top, 
save where the poles have rested at the ceiling level. The masonry is 
about the same as in the other walls, although in the lower part there 
has been more of an attempt to alternate layers of large and small stones. 




Fig. 130. Doorway in Room 99. 

This wall abuts on the north and south walls and stands almost to the 
height of the second story ceiling level. 

The floor of this room is rough and uneven and no fireplaces were 
noted. The floor was calcined in a great many places which may mark 
the old cooking places. 

The steps under the doorway in the south wall are worthy of special 
mention, as they are about the finest and best preserved found in the 
ruin. There was a similar step in the opposite side of the wall in Room 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 313 

20. The step in this room is built of stones and entirely covered with 
plaster. There are two steps in the block, the first or lower one, is 1 
foot high and 8 inches deep and 2 feet 1 inch wide over all; the second 
one is 1 foot 1 inch high, 11 inches deep and 2 feet wide, making the whole 
step a little over 2 feet high. Two stones project from the wall that 
seems to have been a part of it and which would have made it 2 inches 
higher. 

The measurements of the thicknesses of the four walls gave the 
following results: north, 1 foot 6 inches; south, 1 foot 10 inches; east, 1 
foot 10 inches; west, 1 foot 10 inches. 

Room 99. 

Room 99 is one of the series of rooms that runs east and west along 
the northern part of the pueblo. It is bounded on the north by an un- 
excavated room, on the south by Room 60, and the northeast by an un- 
excavated room, on the southeast by Room 70, and on the west by Room 
98. This room, on its shorter axis, is about 20° east of north, but the 
walls are mentioned as north, south, east, and west for convenience. 
(Fig. 129.) 

The wall is built of various sizes of sandstone slabs; in the lower 
part of the wall they are mostly small, but above the ceiling level large 
stones predominate. The lower story, at least, was well plastered at 
one time, as shown by the plaster that is still in place on the lower part 
of the wall. There is one of the ventilators, post holes, or whatever they 
may have been, about 5 feet 6 inches above the floor level and 10 inches 
from the west wall;, it is about 1 foot 6 inches high and 1 foot wide, and 
is now filled with a well-laid wall of small pieces of sandstone. 

There are evidences of a second opening at the point where the 
northeast wall joins this one, but its limits are undefinable, owing to the 
fallen condition of this part of the wall. 

One of the finest doorways (Fig. 130) thus far observed in the ruin 
is situated about midway of this wall, its extreme measurements show 
2 feet 1 inch at the top and 2 feet 4 inches at the bottom, and a height 
of 3 feet 3 inches on the east and 3 feet 3j/-> inches on the west side. The 
sill is made of two large slabs of sandstone, one at each side of the wall, 
the small space between them being filled with small slabs and plaster. 
The lintel was composed of poles, but only a few burned pieces remain in 
place. The stone sill protrudes into this room about 2^2 inches, but the 
mortar had been applied to the under part, which was almost on the 
floor level, thereby making a solid front. Four inches north of the face 



314 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

of the wall, the doorway lessened in width by a wall on either side. This 
wall averages about 4 inches in thickness and slants towards the north. 
The base is, as before stated, 4 inches north of the face of the wall, while 
at the lintel level it is a little over 1 foot from the same plane. The 
lintel beams are 2 feet 7 inches above the sill and seem to have extended 
only a few inches south of the jog in the sides of the doorway. The whole 
doorway, with the exception of the sill, had been covered with plaster, 
and that on the sides was quite thick and in almost perfect condition. 
The sloping sides were the means employed for holding the stone door in 
place, as the sloping surface would preclude the possibility of its falling, 
and then too in case of an attack, could be readily applied to prevent 
intrusion. The slanting wall extends to the northern limits of the main 
wall and the plaster is there rounded to form the sides of the doorway. As 
this side, the north, is so much smaller than the south side of the doorway, 
and, as there is seemingly no way of fastening this side, and again as the 
openings in the upper part are the same as those in the present outer 
wall, it seems highly probable that this wall was at one time a part of 
the north wall of the building, or main pueblo. 

The south wall, or at least that portion below the ceiling beam, is 
built in the same manner as the north wall, the spaces between the large 
stones, however, show more chinking than in the other wall. 

There is a rectangular doorway in the center of the wall; the sill 
is a stone nearly 2 inches thick, that extends the whole width of the door- 
way . The lower part of the sill is 1 foot 4 inches above the first floor 
level. The doorway has been closed with large stones and the surface 
was plastered as in Room 60. The sides are of the regular form and still 
retain a good coat of plaster. The wall above this doorway has bulged 
a little, but where the upper wall joins it, forms a bench nearly 6 inches 
wide. The bench tapers toward the east and west and is lost in the wall 
at a point 3 feet west of the southeast wall, but is still in evidence at the 
west end. 

The greater part of the surface, below the ceiling beam level is 
covered with plaster; west of the doorway it is black and crumbling 
from the fire that raged in this end of the room. 

The second story wall is built of smaller slabs than the lower part 
and there are evidences of three doorways in its surface. The one near 
the west end is of the rectangular type and is still standing. The one in 
the center is only recognizable by a portion of the west side that remains. 
The third is a corner doorway about 4 inches from the southeast wall. 
It runs northeast and southwest, and its sides are built of large faced 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 315 

stones; it is standing to a height of about 2 feet. This wall abuts on the 
southeast wall and thus shows the eastern limit of the south wall of the 
series that has been explored as far west as Room 66. 

The northeast wall is a cross wall that abuts on the north and south- 
east ones; it is evidently of the same period as the other walls and is of 
the same type of masonry. It runs northwest and southeast and most of 
the plaster with which it was covered is still in evidence. 

Three feet, nine inches above the first floor level and 1 foot 2 inches 
southeast of the north wall, is a pole, 2 inches in diameter, that protrudes 
1 foot 2 inches from the wall. One foot one inch southeast of this pole 
and about 2 inches higher, is a piece of deer antler embedded in the wall, 
and probably used as a peg. 

In the southeast corner, about 1 foot from the floor level and 1 3^ feet 
from the southeast wall, the end of a log, about 5 inches in diameter, 
protrudes about 2 inches from the wall; 8 inches northwest of this and 
on the same level, is a smaller one that also projects about 1}4 inches. 

Two stones break the smooth surface in this part of the wall, other- 
wise it is comparatively even. There is a break in the plaster about ljH> 
feet from the southeast wall near the ceiling level, and it has brought to 
light the outlines of what seems to have been an old doorway. At its 
lower limits there is a beam that shows about 6 inches of its surface, but 
what office it holds in relation to the old opening, which is now closed 
with stones, is not evident. This wall is standing to the level of the ceil- 
ing beams and is in fairly good condition. 

The southeast wall presents the best surface to be seen in the room. 
It is built of large faced stones and chinked with unusually thin pieces of 
sandstone. Almost all the plaster below the ceiling level is intact, and 
the only breaks in the surface are a doorway and a wall pocket, the latter 
is 1 foot 10 inches above the first floor level and is 6 inches high, 9 inch 
wide, and 11 inches deep. A large flat stone forms the top while the bot- 
tom is formed by parts of two ordinary wall stones. The bottom and 
sides are covered with a heavy coating of plaster. This pocket is 1 foot 
5 inches northeast of the south wall. 

One foot one inch above the top of the pocket, is a doorway, almost 
as wide as high, and with corners rounded with a heavy layer of plaster; 
the top and base were in bad condition as a great many of the stones had 
been loosened by the fall of the debris from above. This wall runs north- 
east by southwest and forms the east wall of Room 60. The ends of small 
poles still remaining in the side walls of the doorway show that the lintel 
had been of wood. 



316 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

The west wall is in good condition and towers fully 10 feet above the 
level of the ceiling beams. The masonry is the same as in the other 
walls, and the only break in the surface is caused by a retangular door- 
way in the central part, but it has been closed and plastered over. A 
little plaster remains in the lower area, but most of it has fallen. There 
is a slight difference in the thickness of the wall above the ceiling level, 
as shown by a narrow ledge which is about 2 inches wide and extends the 
whole width of the wall. 

The northwest corner of the upper part has fallen, but enough re- 
mains to show that there has been a corner doorway. This wall abuts on 
the north and south walls and is the last wall of this series that runs at 
right angles to the others. 

There were three floor levels in this room, the first is a little below 
the sill of the doorway in the north wall, the second about 3 inches 
below this, and the third 9 inches below the second. All of these floors 
had hard sand surfaces and the spaces between them were filled with 
clean yellow sand. 

One foot, eleven inches from the joint of the southeast and south 
walls and 1 foot from the southeast wall, was a stone step which was 
evidently placed in position after the second floor was made, as there 
is no break in the lower floor. This, with the wall pocket, which was 
probably used as a step, was used to reach the doorway above the stone 
in the southeast wall. 

The thickness of the various walls is as follows: north, 2 feet; 
south, 2 feet; northeast, 1 foot 8 inches; southeast, 1 foot 7 inches; 
west, 1 foot 8 inches. 

In the northwest corner there was a layer of drift sand about 4 
inches thick against the wall, upon this rested eleven pitchers th 
came from the northwest corner of the room. (Fig. 131.) As this sand 
was stratified, it must have run in after this room had passed into disuse. 
Then the pitchers must have been placed upon this sand and more must 
have washed in, for the pitchers were partly buried and stratified sand 
was found in them. Another evidence that they were partly covered 
when the roof fell is that the part exposed shows the action of fire and 
smoke, whereas the lower part is unburnt. 

Room 100. 
Room 100 is situated in the northwestern part of the pueblo and is 
one of the new rooms of the outer series, at least, the northern part is 
new, for the southern half is very old. The north wall forms part of the 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 317 

outer wall of the pueblo and is built of selected smooth-faced stones, 
chinked with thin layers of sandstone. The wall was not only well 
built and solidly put together, but the foundation was such that at the 
time of excavation it stood, almost, if not quite, as perfect as when it 
was built. The ceiling beams are 11 feet above the floor level and the 
wall towers 4 feet above the beam level. The wall has no doorways, the 
only break in its entire surface being the six ceiling beams, whose broken 
ends extend beyond the face of the wall. 

The east wall of the new part extends southward a distance of 8 
feet, where it joins the old wall. It is made of the same type of material 
as the north wall, and is standing at its north end to the height of 15 
feet. There is a rectangular doorway in the north end that is 1 foot 10 
inches above the floor, 1 foot 9 inches south of the north wall, and 3 
inches wider at the bottom than at the top. The sill is composed of flat 
stones; the lintel is formed by seven poles that average 1}A inches in 
diameter. There is a peculiar place about midway between the doorway 
and the south end of the new wall and about on the level of the upper 
part of the doorway. There had been a slight depression in this part of the 
wall, probably 1 foot square; this was filled with plaster after the wall 
was completed and while the plaster was still soft, thin pieces of sand- 
stone had been forced in so that only the edges showed, which gave a 
very peculiar surface. Some of the pieces were removed and placed 
with the material from the room. 

The old wall that forms part of this room extends southward a 
distance of 8 feet, thereby making this side of the room 17 feet long. 
The foundation stones of this wall are over 3 feet above the floor level 
of the new room. These stones are large flat slabs of sandstone and rest 
upon a stratified bed of yellow sand. About 1 foot above the floor level 
of the new room there is a stratum of charcoal about 1 inch thick which 
extends, on about the same plane, almost the entire length of the ex- 
posed sand. The wall itself is of the oldest type found in the ruin, it is 
composed of large flat uneven stones, that in many cases have sharp 
edges. These were laid with a thin layer of plaster between them and the 
space between the ends filled with plaster; the whole face of the wall 
was then covered with a layer of plaster and thin pieces of sandstone. 
This facing gave the whole surface of the wall the appearance of being 
chinked, as the stones protrude from the plaster as though they had been 
forced in only part of the way. The facing has fallen on the greater 
part of the wall, but on the lower part and at the south end, it is intact. 
The wall stands to a height of 11 feet 6 inches above the floor level of 



318 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History . [Vol. XXVII, 

the new part, and has a break near the south end that may have been a 
doorway. 

The south wall is built in the same manner and has been faced in 
the same way as the last one described. The foundation stones are large 
heavy pieces of sandstone, and extend even below the floor level of the 
new section. 

There is a bench 1 foot 3 inches wide and 3 feet above the floor level 
on which this wall rests ; from this bench to the ceiling beams the facing 
has fallen save in the east corner near the beams. Three of the beams 
from the room south of this one protrude from the wall, two of them being 
over 2 feet long. About 1 foot above these beams are six openings where 
the roof timbers of the room had entered, these were from 3 inches to 4 
inches in diameter, and the wall all about them was blackened from the 
smoke made by the burning beams. The wall above these beams is the 
same as the lower part, but the facing was of even smaller stones than 
that of the lower part, or of the east wall. This wall is standing to a 
height of about 14 feet. About 3 feet above the ceiling level of this room 
the ends of five sticks can be seen. These were no doubt the ends of the 
ceiling beams of the upper room of Room 104. The wall is abutted by 
the east and west walls and extends westward, forming the south wall of 
Room 101. 

The west wall is solid and forms one of the finest squares of masonry 
to be found in the pueblo. It is built of selected faced stones, carefully 
chinked. The only break of any consequence is near the center and just 
above the ceiling level; here a few stones have been displaced, but not 
enough to mar the solid appearance of the wall. 

The east wall of the new part rests upon a wall that may have been 
a part of the old building, it projects into the room about 2 feet near the 
north wall, but seems to have no relation to the present room. 

The ceiling of this new room was made with the individual willow 
strips, such as were used in all the rooms of this outer series. The ceil- 
ing over the old part had been almost covered with willows, but the 
ceiling above was built of slabs to support the adobe. 

The measurement of the various walls gave a thickness for each as 
follows: north, 2 feet 5 inches; south, 1 foot 1 inch, and above the upper 
ceiling beams, 1 foot 3 inches; east wall of new part, 1 foot 5 inches; 
east wall of old part, 1 foot; west, 1 foot 6 inches. 

This room is just west of and next to the old darkroom and east of 
Rooms 93 and 101. It is north of Room 104 and its north wall forms the 
outer one of the pueblo. 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 319 

Room 101. 

Room 101 is situated just southeast of and adjoining Room 93. 
It is one of the new series of rooms and is bounded on the southeast by 
Room 107, on the northeast by Room 100, and on the southwest by the 
angular space between the old and new wall, which was not worked out. 
The northeast wall is typical of the new form of masonry, and extends 
from the southeast wall of this room to the outer northwest wall of the 
ruin, forming the northeast wall of Room 93 in its course. It is built of 
the same kind of faced stones and chinked in the same manner as the 
other walls of the series. The surface is devoid of plaster, but is solid 
and perfect from the floor to the top, which is the same height as in 
Room 9.3. 

The southwest wall is a small division wall that abuts on both the 
old and new wall. It is of the new style of masonry and its surface is un- 
broken. There is a jog at the level of the ceiling beams about 5 inches 
wide which lessens the width of the upper wall. All the lower part of 
this wall is blackened but the part above the ceiling beam level is the 
natural color. 

The northwest wall is of the more recent type and is in good condi- 
tion save at the upper central part where the upper portion of the door- 
way has fallen. 

The doorway is of the rectangular type and although the outlines 
are discernible, it is in a fallen condition. The only break in the wall, 
barring the doorway, is an opening near the northeast wall, about 10 
inches square, with a flat stone for the top and two of the regular small 
stones for the bottom. It extended into Room 93 and was either for 
ventilation or for a communicating doorway between the rooms, probably 
both. 

About 1 foot above the passageway where a beam has entered there 
is an opening about 10 inches in diameter. Near the southwest end of 
this wall, which abuts on the northeast one, the ends of about fifteen 
ceiling beams may be seen. 

The southeast wall was the old outer wall of the pueblo. It is made 
of rough uneven stones and the surface is composed of a facing of thin 
pieces of sandstone with only the edges showing. It is rounded to some 
extent, while the northwest wall presents a straight surface. The upper 
part of this wall fell during the progress of the work, and therefore no 
record of its surface peculiarities could be obtained. The lower part, 
however, remained intact and rested upon a foundation of large flat 
stones. 



320 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

The work in this room was carried to a depth of several feet below 
the floor level. The walls showed a comparatively uniform thickness, 
the measurements being as follows: northwest, 1 foot 7 inches; south- 
east, 1 foot 5 inches; northeast, 1 foot 6 inches; southwest. 1 foot 6 
inches. 

Room 102. 

Room 102 is a large room of the old outer series in the western part 
of the pueblo and is bounded on the northwest by Room 94, on the north- 
east by Room 107, on the southeast by Room 108, and on the southwest 
by Room 103. The south wall (southeast) has a rectangular doorway in 
the lower central part; it is 5 feet 4 inches above the floor. The top 
floor has fallen, but the sides are in good condition. They are well plas- 
tered and rounded. This wall is built of rough flat stones with uneven 
edges. At one time, the surface was evidently covered with a heavy 
layer of plaster which covered all the irregularities caused by the un- 
dressed stones. 

At the north end the corner was rounded with stones. There were no 
other breaks in the wall; all of the other walls were plain and had no 
doorways or other openings. All the walls were built of the same flat 
stones and presented quite a contrast when viewed in connection with the 
uneven walls. 

The northeast and southwest walls were quite thin and abutted on the 
northwest and southeast walls. One of the ceiling beams is in position 
near the northeast wall and others were found near it, but were broken. 
The walls showed a thickness as follows: northwest, 1 foot 6 inches 
(approximate, not dug out); southeast, 1 foot 5 inches; northeast, 1 
foot 2 inches; southwest, 10 inches. This room was seemingly filled 
with refuse stones and debris and in the mass a number of dog skeletons 
and part of a beam were found. 

Room 103. 

Room 103 is another room of the old outer series. It is separated 
from Room 102 by a thin division wall and bounded on the west by 
Rooms 94-95; on the east, lies Room 109; on the south, it is flanked by 
an unworked room. 

The northern part of this room had been cleared to the floor level 
by other parties, so that our work consisted in the removal of enough of 
the remaining debris to make sure that there was nothing in the room. 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 321 

There was a doorway in the south wall, but its limits could not be de- 
fined. The other walls had no doorways. They were built of large flat 
stones and were even more unstable than those in Room 102. The 
plaster had not only washed from the surface, but also from between the 
stones, leaving practically a dry wall. 

The room had evidently been considered unsafe and had been filled 
with adobe and stones. At all events, these were the materials en- 
countered, and they were packed in in such a way that there must have 
been a method in the filling. The floor level was over 15 feet below the 
surface and the ceiling was 11 feet above the same point. The thickness 
of the various walls was as follows: north, 10 inches; south, 11 inches; 
east, 2 feet. 

Room 104. 

Room 104 is a small room just south of Room 100, the south wall 
of Room 100 forming the north wall of this room. This wall is one of the 
old series and is built of large flat stones, as described under Room 100. 
On this side, however, it is covered with a thick layer of plaster that is 
rounded at the bottom, thereby making the floor cup-shaped at this end. 
This wall is 11 inches thick from the floor to a height of 3 feet 3 inches 
above it; from this point to the top it averages 1 foot 1 inch in thickness, 
but in some places it projects beyond the lower wall over 6 inches. The 
plaster on the surface of this wall is in good condition save at the upper 
and lower part of the west end. 

The east end abuts on the east wall, but passes the west wall and 
forms the north wall of Room 107. The south wall is also roughly built 
and covered with plaster which conceals the sharp irregular edges of the 
stones. It abuts on the east wall, but extends westward beyond the west 
wall. It is 9 inches thick and well preserved for an old wall. 

The east wall is also of the old series, built in the same manner as 
the other two, and 1 foot thick. Its surface is covered with plaster, 
most of it in good condition. The wall is standing only 2 feet above the 
floor and bulges near the north wall. At the bottom the plaster is 
rounded as at the north side; the wall extends from the south end of the 
new east wall of Room 100 to the south wall of this room; here it joins 
the thick east wall of Room 111. 

The west wall is a division wall and is of the new type of masonry; 
it abuts on the north and south walls and is composed of very large and 
thick stones and chinked with uncommonly large pieces of sand stone. It 
is 2 feet 2 inches thick and has no plaster on its surface. It is one of the 
thickest walls noted in the ruin. 



322 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

The floor is heavily plastered with adobe and is rounded or cupped, 
on the north, east, and south parts. There is a large post in the south- 
east corner, 7}4 inches thick and standing 2 feet 3 inches above the floor. 
It was probably used as a step in getting out of the room, the doorway 
probably being in the ceiling. The beams under the overhanging part of 
the north wall were seemingly placed there to support the upper part for 
there are no holes in the wall opposite, and everything points to the fact 
that this ceiling was much higher than this level. These beams are all 
broken, but they probably extended no further than the edge of the over- 
hanging wall. The two beams in the east end of the wall have fallen 
out but the angle of the holes in the wall suggests that the beams, had 
they been long ones, would have reached almost to the floor on the south 
side of the room; then too there are some willows in place over the beams 
that seem to indicate that the space between the beams and the wall 
stones was filled with willows and then plastered. The walls had fallen 
to such an extent that the ceiling level could not be located. 

Room 105. 

Room 105 is situated just west of and adjoins Room 25. It is well 
built and is part of the new section that extends along the western part 
of the pueblo. It had evidently passed into disuse, for it was used as a 
rubbish pit. 

The north wall, below the ceiling beams, is built of the typical large 
faced stones, but the chinking is of much larger pieces of sandstone than 
the new masonry in the northwestern part of the ruin. It abuts on the 
east and west walls and has a very high rectangular doorway in the lower 
central part. There are no other openings in the walls and save for a 
small space about the doorway the wall is in perfect condition. The door- 
way is filled with sand and rubbish and the lintel is composed of poles. 
This wall may have been covered with plaster, but none of it now remains. 
Part of the upper story wall is still standing and in it there is a rec- 
tangular doorway, that has eight poles for the lintel. The wall itself is 
of the same type as the lower part, but most of the stones used for chink- 
ing have fallen out. This wall has been exposed to the elements and 
therefore presents a much warmer surface than the walls of the lower 
room. 

The south wall is really a counterpart of the north wall ; it is built 
in the same manner and of the same kind of material and has a high door- 
way in the lower central part. This doorwaj^ has a double lintel, a space 
of about 4 inches intervening; this space was filled with mortar. The 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 323 

lintel poles are much smaller tnan in the north doorway, being only \}/2 
inches in diameter. The west edge of the doorway was straight and well- 
squared, but the opposite side was bulged near the bottom, thereby 
ruining whatever symmetry it may have had. The sides were not plas- 
tered and the opening was filled with stones and rubbish. The western 
part near the ceiling level, was cracked and badly broken, and there 
was quite a space at the beam level where the stones had fallen out. 
There was no plaster on this wall and barring the defects mentioned, 
it is in good condition. 

The second story wall is still standing to a height of about 8 feet 
and, save in a few places where individual stones had fallen out, presents 
an unbroken surface. It is built of faced stones and, as in the opposite 
wall, most of the chinking has disappeared. This wall (south) abuts on 
the east and west walls, and as a partition wall, is very solid. 

The east wall is very solid and presents as fine a specimen of alter- 
nating layers as can be found in this part of the ruin. Layers of large 
faced stones are sandwiched between broad layers of well-laid small 
pieces which give a very pleasing effect and form a good wall, the best 
work in the upper northern part. There has evidently been a doorway 
in the lower center of this wall, but all traces of it have been destroyed 
by the stones being either torn out or having fallen from their places; 
at all events, at present there is only an opening about 4 feet high by 2 
feet wide, that breaks the otherwise perfect surface of the wall. 

There is a jog at the north end of this wall that runs in a northwest 
direction and cuts off a corner of the room. This angular wall originally 
formed the west wall of Room 25 and part of it still projects into that 
room. The wall of Room 105 really abuts on this wall, or, in other words, 
marks the starting point of the east wall of Room 105 and extends south- 
ward. As the walls are built into each other and the workmanship is 
the same, there is therefore no break where they join. 

The main wall is not plastered, but the lower part of the angular 
wall is covered with quite a heavy layer. About 5 feet from the floor 
and 10 inches from the jutting wall, there is an opening in the angle wall 
where a stone has fallen out. Through this place a beam fully 5 inches in 
diameter may be seen; it is placed horizontally in the wall and was 
evidently put there to strengthen it. The whole east wall, including the 
angle part, stands to a height of 1 foot above the ceiling beams, six of 
which protude from the wall. 

The west wall is solidly built, but is warped to such an extent that 
the surface presents a series of waves. There are a few stones that have 



3 24 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

been detached in various places but otherwise, the wall is intact. There 
is a rectangular doorway in the central part that is filled with a well- 
laid wall, its sides are unplastered and the edges are well-squared, but 
the masonry is so nearly like that of the main wall that it almost seems 
that it was closed when the wall was made, and that the opening was 
simply made for some future use. There are eight lintel poles in place 
that average 3 inches in diameter. The only portion of this wall that is 
standing above the level of the ceiling beams is at the south end; here a 
piece about 3 feet wide reaches a height of 6 feet. The surface of this 
wall is devoid of plaster. 

The floor of this room was uneven, but was hard, as is the case in 
most of the rooms. The walls were uniform in thickness and showed the 
following measurements: north, 2 feet; south, 1 foot 11 inches; east at 
north end, 4 feet 3 inches; east at end of main wall, 2 feet 4 inches; east 
at south end, 2 feet 7 inches; west, 2 feet 3^ inches; center, 2 feet 5 
inches; angular wall, 1 foot 7 inches. 

Room 106. 
Room 106 is situated just east of Room 25; its north wall forms the 
south wall of that room. Work was commenced in the southeast part 
and had been carried to a depth of but a few feet when a copper bell was 
found. (Fig. 132.) 





Fig. 132. Two Copper Bells from Room 106. 

What had at first appeared to be one large room soon proved to be 
two rooms, for a division wall was found as the work progressed. This 
wall was about 4 feet 2 inches west of the east wall and proved to be only 
4 feet high, its foundation being the debris with which the room was filled. 
It averaged 1 foot 3 inches in thickness and was not a well built wall. 

When Room 106b was worked, the division wall had to be removed 
for safety's sake. When all the debris had been removed, a very aesthetic 
room was seen, the walls were so even and well laid. The material in 
the room was simply the waste from the houses, but before the western 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 325 

part was complete, a second copper bell was brought to light. This was 
found near the floor level and only a few inches from the west wall. 

The north wall of this room presents as perfect a surface as one would 
wish to see; it is made of large smooth-faced stones and chinked with 
small pieces of sandstone, and although a great portion of the plaster is 
still in place, the wall would have been an ornament to any room without 
being covered. There is not a break in the surface : it is one of the most 
even to be found in the pueblo. This wall abuts on the east wall, but its 
western end either passes the end of the west wall, or else that wall is 
built into it, a point that can be determined when the next room is 
worked. 

The south wall is a division wall and abuts on the east and west walls ; 
it is made of large faced stones and is chinked after the manner of the 
north wall. There is a round piece of sandstone embedded in the lower 
west central part of the wall, more properly speaking, it is a cylindrical 
piece with the faced end forming a part of the wall. There are a few 
loose stones in the central part, but otherwise the surface is unbroken; 
this wall also retains some of its plaster. 

The east wall is built of smaller stones than the north and south 
walls, and there is an absence of the pronounced chinking. There is a 
rectangular doorway in the lower central part that is filled with well- 
laid stones. The stones above the doorway have fallen, thereby loosen- 
ing the wall above. This has caused a collapse that has greatly damaged 
the upper central part of the wall. Most of the plaster is still in place 
and the wall was a very solid as well as artistic one. 

The west wall is similar to the east wall in the form of its masonry ; 
the stones are slightly larger, but there is the same absence of chinking. 
There is a rectangular door in the lower central part that is filled with 
rubbish; the lower part of the doorway has been filled with stones. 
From the extent of the sides it seems that it at one time extended below 
the floor level. A great deal of the plaster is still in place on the lower 
part. 

The position of the ceiling beams could not be ascertained as the 
walls had fallen below the ceiling level. The floor was rather uneven 
and there were fireplaces in the east-central and northeast part. 

Room 107. 
Room 107 is just south of Room 104 and north of Room 102; to the 
west lies Room 101, and to the east, Room 108. Three walls of this 
room belong to the old period, but the north wall is new. 



326 Anthropological Papers American Museum oj Natural History . [Vol. XXVII, 

The north wall is built of large pieces of sandstone and chinked with 
quite large pieces of the same material. It is a very strong wall, abutting 
on the east and west walls and its surface is unbroken. Its purpose was 
evidently to brace the thin walls at either side of the room. It was 
evidently built at the same time that the north wall of Room 101 and 
Room 93 was constructed. Its surface is devoid of plaster and, as there 
are smoke streaks on the stones, it probably was left unplastered. 

The south wall was a thin partition wall of the old type, the rough 
irregular stones of which it was made being covered with plaster. There 
was no doorway in this wall and the ends had been built into the east 
and west walls to strengthen them. 

The east wall was built of various sized flat stones, in the southern 
and upper parts small stones predominated, but the northern part, both 
above and below this doorway, was made of large slabs. There is a 
rectangular doorway in the north central part that has a board for a 
lintel, and the plaster at the sides is rounded. 

About 1 foot 6 inches above this doorway, the ends of three ceiling 
beams protrude from the wall, which extends about 4 feet above them. 
At one time, this wall had been heavily plastered but most of that on 
the upper part has fallen. On the lower part almost all of it is in place. 
The north end of the wall is lost behind the heavy abutting northeast 
wall; it formed the east wall of Room 104, where it joins the south wall. 
The plaster is rounded. 

The west wall is composed of large flat irregular stones and most of 
the plaster has been washed from between them. There are no openings 
in the wall and it is in poor condition for even an old wall. 

The floor was still in place and on it were found a number of in- 
teresting arrow foreshafts (Fig. 133), also a stone knife with a handle 
(Fig. 134). This floor when torn up, showed first a layer of adobe, below 
this was a layer of cedarbark, and then another smoothed adobe surface 
into which the cedarbark had been partly pressed by the upper adobe 
stratum. Next was another layer of cedarbark, then a layer of split 
pine boards, or slabs, that rested upon the finest series of poles noted 
in the ruins. These poles ran north and south and in turn rested upon a 
series of logs that extended east and west and almost filled the space, as 
did the poles; above them were four new timbers which were, on an 
average, 5 inches in diameter, all but one of which had been broken by 
the weight of the debris that rested on the floor. 

The old series of beams, which were blackened by smoke and soot, 
were seemingly cotton wood poles of various sizes, shapes, and conditions; 



Fig. 133. Foreshaft of an Arrow from Room 107. 




Fig. 134. Hafted Stone Knife from Room 107. 




Fig. 135 (8473). Decorated Bone Scraper from Room 108. 





Fig. 136 ab (10717, 9446). Knife Handles from Rooms 171 and 110. 



327 



328 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

these were decayed and the new timbers probably put in when the general 
changes were in progress in this part of the pueblo. All of the ceiling 
poles were saved, also specimens of the new and old timbers, and some of 
the split slabs. 

The lower part of this room was similar to the upper part; the 
north wall extended to the floor level and its surface was as well made as 
at its upper part. There were no breaks in its surface as in the upper 
part. Its surface was devoid of plaster. 

The south wall had an unbroken surface and was covered with a 
thick layer of well-smoothed plaster; it was so smooth that it was partic- 
ularly noticeable. 

The east wall was built on a foundation of large flat stones that 
formed a bench 2 feet 6 inches high and 1 foot wide; the surface of this 
bench was made of slabs of sandstone standing on edge; and the upper 
and northern parts were plastered. There is a doorway just above this 
ledge and about 2 feet 6 inches from the north wall. It is of the rec- 
tangular type; a ring of plaster about 6 inches wide extends around it 
and forms a rounding surface at the edges of the doorway. This wall 
was well plastered and in its upper part there were two pegs. The south 
corner is rounded and the plaster is very thick at this point. The door- 
way has a lintel composed of poles. 

The west wall is made of large flat pieces of sandstone and almost 
all of the plaster has washed from between them. There is no opening in 
its surface and its condition is practically the same as the room above. 

The floor was of the usual adobe and there were no fireplaces in 
evidence. 

The walls of the upper and lower rooms were practically the same in 
width and measured as follows: north, 2 feet 2 inches; south, 1 foot 2 
inches; east-west, 1 foot 3 inches. The north and south walls were 
straight but the other two showed quite a curve. 

Rooms 108 and 109. 
These rooms overlie the underground rooms described in connection 
with Room 3. Nothing of interest developed in their examination ex- 
cept a few specimens, one of which is shown in Fig. 135. 

Room 110. 
Room 110 is situated just north of Room 57; on its eastern side lie 
Rooms 58 and 63; on its north is Room 111, and on the west, Room 108. 
This room is one of the highest perfect rooms in the pueblo; it is part 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 329 

of the old building and below it are two open rooms. These were 
described in 1896 in the series of underground rooms. (See p. 39). 
The one directly beneath Room 110 is the one through which we gained 
entrance to the series; this was through a hole broken in the wall and 
not a regular doorway, the lower room was reached through a hole in the 
northwest corner. 

Room 100 is a bin-like affair; the sameness of the plastered walls 
was relieved by a doorway in the east wall and the end of a large beam 
in the south wall. 

The north wall presents a plain plastered surface, it abuts on the east 
and west walls and is composed of various sizes of irregularly shaped 
laminae of sandstone. 

The south wall has a well-plastered surface and is unbroken save 
at a point 1 foot 1% inches from the floor and 10 inches from the east 
wall line, a beam 10^2 inches in diameter is to be seen, its smooth end 
flush with the wall surface. This wall is built of irregularly shaped 
stones and abuts on the west wall. 

The east wall is well plastered and has a doorway near the central 
part, it is ot the rectangular form and has a stone slab for the sill, only 
part of it remains as the wall has fallen, carrying part of the top away. 

Two feet ten inches from the south wall and 4 feet 6 inches from the 
floor, there is a beam rest in the wall. It is about 3 inches in diameter 
and about the same in depth. There is a corresponding place in the west 
wall that is also built of flat irregular stones and abuts on the south wall. 

The west wall has, in keeping with the others, a heavy layer of 
plaster on its surface. This gave the room a finished appearance and 
besides hiding the rough stones, served to strengthen the wall. There 
are no openings in its surface, but 8 inches north of the south wall and 4 
feet 6^ inches from the floor, there is a sort of pocket; it is an irregular 
affair and measures 7 inches in width by 5 inches in height and extends 
into the wall about 6 inches, the top is arched and very little care was 
shown in making it. The beam support mentioned as being in this wall is 
2 feet 11 inches from the south wall and 4 feet 7 inches from the floor. 
The plaster has fallen from about its edges, but its dimensions are about 
the same as the one opposite. The walls of this room average 5 feet 6 
inches in height, all of them being below the ceiling level, as no evidences 
of that point are to be seen. The floor is well plastered and in good condi- 
tion and the thickness of the walls is as follows: north, 1 foot 5 inches; 
south, 1 foot; east, 1 foot 6 inches; west, 1 foot 3 inches. 



330 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII , 

There is a wall that forms part of the east wall of Room 97 (92) 
and runs parallel with the west wall of Room 110 and rests against it, 
making a thickness of 3 feet. 

Room 111. 

Room 111 lies just north of Room 110, south of Room 104, east of 
Room 108, and west of Room 63. The lower part of this room was broken 
into through the south wall in 1896 and added another to the list of 
underground rooms. A part of the upper room was exposed and during 
the winter of 1897-98 Al. Wetherill, Thomasita, a Navajo, and O. H. 
Buck, dug out of the debris that rested upon the floor, and then after re- 
moving the floor beams, continued their work beneath the floor level of 
the lower room. It was in this place that the large corrugated olla, 
purchased from Mr. Buck, was found. This room is part of the old series, 
the walls being composed of irregularly shaped stones and the surface 
heavily plastered, as in Room 110. There are no openings in the upper 
walls, and where they have been exposed to the elements a goodly por- 
tion of the edges of the stones are showing, the plaster having washed out. 
No ceiling beams were used, but the poles ran east and west. In the 
description given in 1896 mention was made of beams that ran north 
and south under the ceiling poles and parallel with and near the east 
and west walls, these were supported on posts and served in lieu of 
beams, such as are usually set into the walls. 

The lower room is well plastered and there is a doorway of the 
rectangular type in the west side but otherwise the walls present un- 
broken surfaces. 

The doorway in the west wall is of the rectangular type and has 
poles for a lintel. About 4 inches below the poles there is a board and 
the space between is filled with thin slabs and plaster. The sides have 
been covered with a heavy layer of plaster that was rounded at the top. 

The lower part of the north wall slants northward fully 8 inches from 
the perpendicular, but the top wall is comparatively straight. The 
south wall abuts on the east and west walls, the west wall abuts on the 
north as does also the east. The inner surface of the east wall, if extended, 
would be almost on a line with the outer surface of the east wall of Room 
104, but the east (Room 111) wall is rounded where it joins the north 
wall. 

The thickness of the walls is as follows: north, 9 inches at top but 
wider at the lower part; south, 1 foot 5 inches; east, 1 foot 9 inches; 
and west, 1 foot 6 inches. 



1920. 



Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 



331 



Rooms 112 and 113. 
These rooms adjoin Rooms 103 and 109 and contain nothing of 
special interest. However, attention may be called to the exposed 
ceiling of Room 112 (Fig. 137) showing a detail of construction. 




Fig. 137. Detail of Ceiling in Room 112. 

Room 114. 

Room 114 is one of the outer series of rooms of the western part of 
the pueblo. It is bounded on the north by Room 96, on the south by 
Room 115, on the east by an unworked room, and on the west by the 
outer ruin wall. It is one of the new series of rooms as shown by the 
faced stones and general appearance of the masonry. 

The floor of the room was comparatively level and showed no evi- 
dences of fireplaces. 

The north wall was a partition wall and abutted on the east and west 
walls. It is built of large faced stones and chinked with smaller ones. 
No plaster is in evidence on the surface. There is a well-built doorway 



332 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

in the lower central part; it is broad at the bottom but decreases in 
width toward the lintel, which is composed of poles; there are eight of 
them laid so that the sides touch. The first one is visible on the eastern 
side of the opening and extends 1}A, feet into the wall. Some of the 
chinking has fallen on the western side revealing a withe ^ inch broad 
that evidently held the poles together while the wall was being built. 
The sides of the doorway are well-laid, but there is no plaster on them. 
There are no other openings in this wall. 





Fig. 138. 



Fig. 139. 



Fig. 138. Jet Ornament with Bird Wing Design Carved on Surface, Room 131. 
Fig. 139 (12819). Wooden Object Painted in Red, Yellow, and Green, Room 169. 



The south wall was practically a counterpart of the north, built in 
the same way, of the same material, abutting on the east and west walls 
and having the same form of doorway in the lower central part. 

The doorway was the same in form as the other, but the lintel poles 
were not so well preserved; they were about 2 inches in diameter and 
there were seven of them; the outer one extended on the west side of the 
doorway. To the west side of the doorway to the west wall, on the 
opposite side, it was covered with the masonry. This wall was also 
devoid of plaster. 

The east wall presented one long surface of beautiful masonry; 
there were no doorways nor openings of any kind to break the surface 
and every stone was in place. It was of the new form of masonry and in 
a perfect state of preservation. It was the sandwich form of wall, 
i. e., large faced stones separated by layers of thin pieces of sandstone; 
this interesting stratum averaging about 2 inches in thickness. This 
wall was strikingly convexed, the curve being more noticeable from the 



1920.] 



Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 



333 



center to the north wall. A perpendicular section would show a slight 
bulge, which, however, was so general as to cause no special defect. 
The wall was straight to a height of about 4 feet from the floor level, 
the bulge commencing at that point. There was no plaster on the sur- 
face, although small pieces, covering some of the chinked parts, showed 
that there might have been a layer over the entire surface at one time. 
The west wall was the same as the others from the masonry stand- 
point, but the stones were larger, on the average, than in the other 
three. 




Fig. 140.- Fig. 141. 

Fig. 140 (10350). Dipper Handle, showing mending, Room 168. 
Fig. 141 (10354). Bone Ornament, Room 168. 



There is a closed doorway in the lower central part and, in filling 
the space, the same form of stones was used as in the regular wall, and 
the layers of large and small pieces were faithfully carried out. Some of 
the stones had fallen or been taken from the top, which revealed a lintel 
of poles about V/o inches in diameter; as nearly as could be ascertained, 
there were nine of these poles that formed the lintel. This doorway was 
rectangular in form and the corners were well pointed. 

Just above and to the north of this doorway there is an opening in 
the wall about 1 foot in diameter where stones have been removed, the 
stones forming its edges are in place, and firm, and even the stratum of 
small stones at the bottom is in place; it is 5 feet 5 inches above the 
floor and is filled with debris, but the stones were evidently removed 
during occupancy. Barring these two openings the wall is unbroken and 
the unplastered surface presents a good specimen of probably the 
latest style of architecture in the building. There is a slight bulge in the 
wall beginning at the southern edge of the doorway and extending to the 
north wall, the area affected extending from the floor to a point 4 feet 
above it. Where this wall joins the north one there is an interval between 
them that at one place is 2 inches wide. This begins at the lintel level of 
the doorway in the north wall and extends to the top. It shows that the 



334 Anthropological Papers American Musevm of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

outer wall has drawn away from the north one, but were it not for the 
crack, it would not be noticeable. 

The east, west, and south walls of this room are comparatively the 
same in height, but the north towers fully 4 feet above them at its 
eastern end. The north wall is 1 foot 6 inches; the east, 1 foot 6 inches; 
and the west, 2 feet 5 inches. 

Room 115. 

Room 115 is bounded on the north by Room 114, on the south by 
Room 116, on the west by the outer wall of the ruin, and on the east by 
an un worked room of the old series. This room is one of the new series 
that stretches along the western part of the ruin. The masonry is the 
same as that of Room 114. 

The north wall is in perfect condition and presents the same charac- 
teristics as on its north side, in Room 114. The doorway is larger at the 
bottom than at the top and the first lintel pole almost reaches both the 
east and west wall. 

The south wall is built of the same form of stones as the north and 
chinked in the same way. The eastern part of this wall, from the height 
of the lintel of a doorway in the lower central part, about half the upper 
part, has been exposed for years and almost all of the plaster has been 
washed from between the large stones, thereby loosening the chinking. 
The doorway in the lower part of the wall is slightly narrower at the 
top than at the bottom, and has a lintel of poles, only two of which were 
visible, as the debris was not cleared away. These poles were about 1^2 
inches in diameter. This wall, like the north wall, abutted on the east 
and west walls. 

The east wall had no doorways nor other openings in its surface. 
The masonry was the same as that of the east wall of Room 114, of which 
it is a continuation. The northern and lower part of the wall is in good 
condition, but the upper southern part has been exposed, as was the 
adjoining part of the south wall, and the strata of small stones had 
fallen out in some places, and in others were loosened from the washing 
out of the plaster. Otherwise, the wall was in good condition. 

The west wall is made of larger stones than the others, but as a rule 
the chinked layers are composed, of smaller and thinner pieces than those 
in the outer walls. There are no doorways nor openings in the surface, 
but there is a closed doorway in the lower central part of the wall. In 
closing it the different horizontal strata were carried out, and it has the 
appearance of having been closed when the wall was made; simply built 




Fig. 142. Pottery Vessel. 




Fig. 143 (9780). Handle of Pottery Incense Burner showing how Bowl was attached, Room 141. 



335 






13 m$Wf$M*<\< 

}■■■ ■ ■ r . - / ' ! ' "" , #'/-^X 

\\\ -V, 





Fig. 145. Interior of Kiva showing Ventilator, Room 162. 



337 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 339 

in to be used later if necessary. The wall around this doorway is weak- 
ened and some of the stones have fallen out. This wall is more broken 
in the upper central part than at the ends where it stands to the height of 
the north and south walls. 

Rooms 116 to 190. 
Minor excavations were made in a number of rooms ranging from 
Rooms 116 to 190. Nothing of special interest was developed in these 
excavations aside from the specimens shown in Figs. 138 to 154. 

FIELD NOTES FOR EXCAVATIONS IN BURIAL MOUNDS. 

June 1st. Commenced work on a mound situated on the southern side of Chaco 
Canon and southwest from Pueblo Chettro Kettle. 

The first find was a small pitcher on the north line in Section 1, 4 feet 4 inches 
from the eastern end of the section. Further digging revealed the skeleton of a child. 
The body was lying northwest by southeast, the head toward the southern point. 
The cranium was 2 inches below the surface and from the frontal bone to the eastern 
stakes was a distance of 3 feet 8}i inches. The distance from the pelvic bone to the 
top of the cranium was 1 foot 3 inches, and from one elbow joint to the other 11}£ 
inches — the cup rested upon the left elbow. The leg bones could not be found. From 
the position of the skeleton, the head being the uppermost part, the bones should 
have been in place, but there is a possibility of their having been washed out. 

Skeleton 2 was discovered six inches below the surface in Section 2. The right 
temporal bone was 1 foot 6% inches, from the eastern part of the section. The north- 
ern line of operations crossed the skeleton 1 inch below the clavicles where they were 
lying against the vertebrae. The skeleton was lying on its back with the knees bent 
upward and eastward; it was lying almost directly north and south, the head being 
at the latter point. The body measured 3 feet 4 inches in length as it lay in the ground. 
The skeleton was in such a condition that the bones could not be preserved. 

Skeleton 3 was found 3 inches beneath the surface in Section 3. The distance 
from the occiput to the northern trench line was 11 inches and this point was 2 feet 2 
inches west of the eastern line post. The skeleton was lying northeast by southwest, 
the head toward the northeast. The arm bones were lying close to the sides of the 
body, and the legs had been pressed up against the left side. Resting upon the right 
shoulder and against the upper jaw, was a bowl (H-49) 9 inches in diameter. It had 
been broken previous to interment as holes had been drilled in the several pieces in 
order to mend it — faint decorations on the interior were noticed. 

Inside of this bowl was found a square piece of pottery (H-50). Resting against 
the left shoulder was a pitcher 7 inches high and 3 inches in diameter at the top. It 
had a handle and was complete, — faint ornamentation on the exterior. 

Skeleton 4 was found in Section 4, 10 inches below the surface. The body, that 
of an adult, was lying on its back with legs drawn up toward the chin. It was lying 
east and west, the head toward the east. The distance from the eastern section stake 
to the left parietal bone, was 3 feet 4 inches, the greater part of the body was inside of the 
section, but the right shoulder and part of the ribs were outside, the head was crushed 
and the whole skeleton was very brittle. Resting against the left temple was a bowl 



340 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

5% inches in diameter, ornamented on the inside and of the usual whiteware (H-52). 
Almost touching the bowl was a pitcher (H-53), 5 inches high and 2% inches in diam- 
eter at the top. It has a corrugated handle and is ornamented on the outside. At 
the western part of the skeleton was a large bowl (H-54), part of the pelvis resting 
upon the rim. To the east of this bowl is a large stone that was probably placed in 
position beside the bowl. 

Skeleton 5 was discovered 1 foot 1 inch below the surface in Section 4. The 
body was extended, lying northwest by southeast. At the head was a large 
bowl and in this, was a smaller bowl and a pitcher; at the feet were large portions of 
the rim and sides of a large corrugated pot. The body was in an advanced stage of 
decay, in fact some of the bones had wasted away. The body measured 5 feet as it 
rested in the ground. The head was 4 feet west of the eastern section post and 5 feet 
south from the northern line. The large bowl (H-55) at the head measured 10% 
inches and had decorations on the interior. The smaller bowl (H-56), was 7 inches in 
diameter, decorated inside; the pitcher (H-57) was 6 inches high with a 3 inch open- 
ing. The corrugated jar (H-58) at the foot of the skeleton measured 8% inches. 
The skeleton protruded 1 foot into Section 5 and the feet were 3 feet 6 inches from the 
northern line. 

Skeleton 6 was found in Section 1, 4 feet below the surface. The body was lying 
on its back with the head resting on its left side, the right arm was folded across the 
body, and the left lay parallel with it, the femora were lying at right angles to the 
trunk. Five inches northeast of the upper jaw there stood a corrugated jar (H-59) 
5% inches high and 3}i inches in diameter at the top. Southeast of this jar was a 
water bottle (H-60) 8 inches high and 7}i inches in diameter in the middle. This 
bottle was broken, inside of it was a smaller one (H-61), also broken, 4% inches in 
diameter at the middle, and 4/2 inches high. The body was lying northwest by south- 
east, the head toward the former point. It was in the southern part of the first section, 
the head was 1 foot \)i inches from the southern section line, and 2 feet 6 inches from 
the western line. The calcaneum and a few of the other bones of the right foot extend- 
ed into Section 6. The body measured 3 feet 3 inches in situ. 

Skeleton 7 was found 8 inches below the surface in Section 6 . The body was lying 
upon its back, inclined a little on the right side. The left arm was folded across the 
breast, and the right was lying parallel with the side. The legs had been doubled up 
towards the chin and when the flesh decayed, fell a little outside of the body, i. e., 
to the south of it. The body measured 3 feet in length and was in fair condition com- 
pared with some of those near it. The body extended outward, to the east of the sec- 
tion, the part inside, the head, being 6 inches in length. From the northern section 
parts to the left temporal bone was 2 feet 5 inches. The body was lying almost directly 
east and west. Resting against the left ribs and almost touching the middle section 
of the left humerus, was a pitcher 6 inches high and 5 inches in diameter at the top. 
One peculiarity about this pitcher (H-62) is that the lines forming the ornamentation 
of the exterior are red, something never before observed on the pottery from this 
region. Resting against this pitcher and running south 10 inches from it was a 
rounded portion of a broken corrugated jar (H-63). 

Skeleton 8 was found in Section 1, 4 inches below the surface, i.e., measuring 
from the uppermost portion of the cranium, as all such measurements are made. 
The body was lying northwest by southeast, the head toward the latter point. The 
skeleton measured 3 feet 4 inches in situ, the head projecting outside of the eastern 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 341 

section line 7% inches. The distance from the southern section part on the eastern 
side to the left temporal bone, was 2 feet 7 inches. The femora had projected above 
the surface and were broken off about the middle. The body was greatly decayed, 
the face being entirely gone, and nothing was found with it. 

Skeleton 9 was found in Section 6, 3 inches below the surface. The body was 
lying upon its back with the legs drawn up across the trunk, it measured 2 feet 10 
inches in situ and was lying north and south, the head being toward the south. The 
head was 1 foot west of the eastern section line and 2 feet 7 inches from the northern 
line. Near the head of the northeastern side was a portion of a jar (H-64), the only 
pottery found with the body. Resting near the left femur was a bone awl (H-65). 

Skeleton 10 was found outside and to the east of Section 6, and 3 feet below 
the surface. From the eastern section line of Skeleton 6 to the lower jaw was 3 feet 
1 inch, and from the northern section line, carried out, 1 foot. The body was lying 
north and south and was decayed to such an extent that I had trouble in getting even 
its outlines for a photograph. It was the body of a child and resting against its frontal 
bone, was a pitcher (H-66) 4 inches high and 2 inches in diameter. At the opening, 
and just to the north of this was a fragment of a vessel showing part of the rim (H-67) . 

Skeleton 11 was found in Section 11 with the head 1 foot 2 inches below the sur- 
face. The body measured 5 feet 9 inches as it lay in the ground. It was lying on its 
back with the legs bent upward and the soil was so hard that the bones had preserved 
their upright position where the flesh had decayed. The arms were stretched at the 
sides and the body was lying about east and west, the head toward the latter point. 
The knees were 1 foot below the surface. The left temporal bone was 5 feet 4 inches 
from the northern section line and 2 feet 8 inches from the western section line was the 
occiput. 

A body was found in a narrow strip between two holes that had been dug by the 
Wetherill party during the winter of 1895-96. All that was found of the body was the 
upper portion of the cranium which was mashed almost flat. Near the fragments of 
the skull were found a broken jar of corrugated ware (H-72) and a fragment of another 
vessel (H-73). These were preserved, but no measurements were taken defining the 
position of the remains, as it was that part of the mound that had been dug out by 
other parties. About 3 feet away from the corrugated jar in the side of one of the 
holes, where a skeleton had been unearthed, was found a small bone celt (H-75) 
ornamented with lines running around the implement. Nothing else could be found 
in the vicinity. During the general digging a shell ornament (H-74) was found in the 
surface soil. 

Our next place of operation was a burial mound near the mouth of the canon 
that runs south from Chaco. It was on the right hand side facing south and is in 
reality in the Chaco limits. Richard Wetherill had done some excavating here. One 
of the peculiar things found during his digging was a stone grave, one stone of which 
was still in place. It was about 1 foot below the surface and consisted of two large 
flat stones placed on edge about 2 feet apart. Between these the body had been 
placed and the sod filled in upon it, then on the sand were placed a number of flat 
stones, but these were some inches above the upper edge of the grave stones. I 
mapped out a line 40 feet long and running about east and west. This was on the 
southern side of the mound. I divided this line into five parts and then squared each 
part, thereby giving me five sections, each 8 feet square. These sections were 
numbered, commencing from the eastern end. 



342 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

Skeleton 12 was found in Section 4 and was 3 feet 3 inches below the surface. 
The skeleton was lying west-northwest and east-southeast and measured 3 feet 3 
inches in situ. From the southern section line to the top of the skull was 4 feet 4 inches 
and from the lower jaw to the eastern section line was 5 inches. The body was lying 
upon its back with the head facing east. The body was lying with its head toward the 
northwest point of the above position. The bones were the softest we had encoun- 
tered and it was therefore hard to get them uncovered for photographing. About 1 foot 
6 inches above the body a mass of stones was found, some of them being 3 feet long 
by 2 feet wide. They were quite thin but had not been dressed in any way. There 
were seven or eight, which made quite a layer over the body. About half the body 
extended into Section 3. 

Skeleton 13 was found in Section 7, about 9 inches below the surface. The bones 
lay about and were greatly disconnected. The head was 2 inches north of the south- 
ern section line and 5 inches east from the western section line. The body was lying 
northwest by southeast, the head toward the northwest. The head, indicated by a 
single piece, was just northwest of the large bowl (H-77), and probably the bowl 
rested against it. Three feet from the large bowl was a smaller one (H-78) broken, 
and about 6 inches south of this was a sandstone gourd (H-79), broken in half, that 
may have been used. About 8 inches of the skeleton, the femora, etc., projected 
south into Section 2. The body was 3 feet 10 inches long as it lay in the grave. 

Skeleton 14 was found in Section 6 with the head 2 feet below the surface. It 
was enclosed in a stone grave. The head was lying under a large flat stone and had 
been flattened by it. From the southern section line to the skull was 8 inches and 
10 inches east from the western section line. The large flat slab was facing due north- 
east and was standing on end inclined toward the north. It was 1 foot 8 inches long 
and the same in width. It had no doubt originally rested in a horizontal position, but 
had settled to its present position, either through the natural settling of the sand or 
from being undermined by rats. The stones as they lay formed a pyramidal space, 
the base being toward the north. The side along the large slab measured 1 foot 10 
inches, the opposite side, which was formed by a stone that had been used to grind 
axes, measured 1 foot 9 inches and the base was 1 foot 3 inches long. The place worn 
in the stone where axes had been ground was 9 inches long, 4 inches wide, and about 
1% inches deep in the center. The grave was photographed, before the stones were 
removed, and a photograph was also taken showing the head as it rested under the 
large slab. 

In Section 5 a rubbing stone (H-80) was found. It was 3 feet below the surface, 
4 feet north of the southern section line, and 6 inches west of the eastern line. 

A bowl (H-81) was found in the northern part of section 4; it was 1 foot below 
the surface, 2 feet 4 inches west of the eastern line, and 7 inches south of the northern 
section lines. It was broken into small pieces, probably from the weight of the earth. 

A pendant made from a piece of red pottery (H-83), possibly a handle, that has a 
hole drilled through the narrow end, was found 6 inches below the surface in the center 
of Section 8. 

A shell ornament (H-84) was found near a piece of a child's skull, 2 feet below the 
surface in Section 7. It was 1 foot south of the northern section line and 5 feet west 
of the eastern section line; no other bones were found near it. 

Skeleton 15 was that of a small child, measuring 1 foot 10 inches as it lay in the 
grave. It was found in the northwestern part of Section 6 and projected into Section 




Fig. 148. Pictograph on Rock in Chaco Canon. 




Fig. 149. Outer North Wall of Bonito, looking northwest from Within, showing Junction 
of Old and New Walls. 



344 




Fig. 150. A Closed Doorway. 




Fig. 151. A Corner Doorway. 



345 




Fig. 152. A Partly Closed Doorway. 




Fig. 153. An Open Doorway. 



346 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 347 

7. It was 1 foot 7 inches below the surface and was in the gravel bottom, whereas all 
the other skeletons were in the sub-soil. The body was lying northwest by southeast, 
the head toward the former point. The body was lying upon its back with the arms 
at the side; the legs were at right angles to the trunk, the right femur being across the 
pelvis. 

Skeleton 16 was found 1 foot below the surface in Section 9. In a caving of the 
bank the face was brought to view and when the earth fell it carried with it the greater 
part of two pieces of pottery that had been buried with the skeleton. One piece of the 
large bowl (H-85) was left in the bank, and the balance with the corrugated jar (H-86), 
was among the clods of earth below it. The head was uncovered enough to show its 
position, and the bank, pottery and all, was left just as it was when the bank fell. 
The head was 1 foot 10 inches from the northern line of Section 9 and 3 feet 7 inches 
from the western line of the same section. The pottery had rested against the lower 
jaw, as the piece in the bank shows. The fragments of a red bowl (H-91) were found 
under the corrugated jar mentioned above. 

Skeleton 17 was found in a fragmentary condition just east of Skeleton 15. It 
was in Section 6 and was lying 8 inches below the surface. The bones looked as though 
they had been thrown into the hole and no definite direction could be ascertained 
from the few bones that remained. 

Skeleton 18 was found 1 foot 6 inches below the surface in Section 12. Only a few 
teeth and portions of the ribs were found in position. In the surrounding soil, in rat 
holes, were found fragments of vertebrae and other bones. The body was probably 
lying northwest by southeast, the head toward the former position, for at that point 
some teeth and fragments of the skull were found. Seven inches south of the teeth 
was a corrugated jar (H-88) 6 inches deep and 4% inches in diameter at the top. One 
foot one inch east of this jar was a bowl 4% inches deep and 8 inches in diameter, 
ornamented on the interior with a design composed of broad lines (H-89) . 

The bone awl (H-90) was found 3 feet deep in Section 9; it was 3 feet south of 
the north section and 1 foot east from the western section line. 

A portion of a red bowl (H-91) found under the corrugated jar (H-86) when the 
pottery was removed from the place where it fell is mentioned under the description 
of Skeleton 16. 

In Section 11 there were some pieces of bone and there had probably been a 
skeleton there, but as there were no vessels nor any implements near the place, we 
could not be certain that it had been an entire body. 

Skeletons 13, 14, 15 were unproductive and as there was no evidence of other 
remains, which we ascertained by sounding in various places, I concluded to stop 
operations in this part of the mound, so mapped out another section having a front- 
ing of 40 feet facing the west. It was on the same side of the hill but further to the 
north. 

The new trench line was mapped out so that it ran directly north and south. We 
commenced at the foot of the hill, which was toward the east, and worked in a westerly 
direction. 

The first skeleton, 19, was found 1 foot below the surface in Section 1, this being 
the one at the southern end of the trench. 

The body was that of an adult, probably a male, and was lying on its back; the 
right hand was lying across the abdomen and the left arm was stretched along the 
side of the body. The femora were standing in a perpendicular position and no 



348 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History . [Vol. XXVII, 

tibiae or fibulae could be found, and only fragments of the foot bones. The left side 
of the superior maxillary was missing and was possibly carried away by rats. The 
bones of the body were better preserved than any we had found before, but the 
cranium was in a very bad condition. The body was lying north and south, the head 
being toward the south. From the northern line of Section 1, to the pelvic bone was 8 
inches, and from the western stake line to the same point was 2 feet 5 inches. The 
body measured 2 feet 10 inches in situ. 




Fig. 154. Burial in Mound No. 2, Skeleton 20. 



Skeleton 20 was found 1 foot 6 inches below the surface in Section 4. The head 
was 2 feet south from the north line of the section, and 2 feet 5 inches east of the 
western line. The body was that of a young person, the skull was lying on its face 
and was in a very poor condition. Resting a little above and a little to the north of 
the skull was a bowl (H-92) 6 inches in diameter. It was ornamented on the interior 
and had a handle on either side. Just below this bowl was a pitcher (H-93) 4% inches 
high and 2 inches in diameter at the top. Just I elow the large bowl was a frag- 
mentary bowl (H-94) which had a peculiar interior ornamentation. About on a level 
with the skull, and a little to the east of it, was a grooved stone (H-95); it had three 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 349 

grooves on the angular ridge, and in the east would be termed a net-sinker. About }{ 
foot above the head of the skeleton was a fragment of a bowl (H-96) but only a portion 
of the rim could be made out. The direction of the skeleton could not be ascertained 
as rats had scattered the bones in all directions. 

Skeleton 21 was found in Section 6. The head was 1 foot 8 inches below 
the surface, 7 inches south of the northern section line and 3 feet 4 inches 
west from the eastern line. The body measured 4 feet 2 inches in situ and projected 
about 10 inches into Section 1. The body was lying east and west, the head being 
toward the latter point. About 3% inches north of the head was a portion of a red 
bowl (H-97) 9% inches in diameter and 4% inches deep. It was ornamented on the 
interior. Inside of this redware bowl was a fragment of a white bowl (H-98) and 
under this was the bowl of a ladle (H-99), having a heavy pattern on the interior. 
Lying between the femora was a portion of a corrugated jar (H-100), and just east of 
the body and a few inches below it was another fragment of the same jar (H-101), 
its uppermost part almost touching the tibia. The body was in a very poor condition. 

Skeleton 22 was found 1 foot below the surface in Section 7 and only a few bones 
were intact to show that there had been a body there. It was lying with the head pos- 
sibly toward the west, as a bowl was at that point; it was 1 foot 2 inches west of the 
eastern line of Section 7 and 2 feet 4 inches south of the northern line. About 4 feet 
west of the nearest bone was a white bowl (H-102) 10% inches in diameter, orna- 
mented on the interior. The few bones that remained were not in good condition nor 
were they in their proper relation to each other to give a clew as to the direction or 
position of the body. 

Skeleton 23 was found 10 inches below the surface in Section 8. Skeleton 98 
was that of a child and the bones were in a very poor condition. The skull was 1 
foot 3 inches west of the eastern section line and 2 feet 5 inches north of the southern 
line. The body was lying east and west, the head toward the latter point. Leaning 
against the cranium and to the south of it was a fragment of a large bowl (H-103), 
and inside of this was a bowl-shaped jar (H-104), with an opening about 1 inch in 
diameter, and a perforated handle on either side. The body measured 1 foot 5 inches 
as it lay in the grave. 

Skeleton 24 was found 10 inches below the surface in Section 8, the head being 
on the same level as that of Skeleton 23 and only Q}i inches to the northeast of it. 
The body was lying on its back, inclined a trifle to the right side, the legs had been 
drawn up, as is usual in most of the burials. It was lying northwest by southeast, the 
head toward the latter point. The head was 8 inches west of the eastern section 
line, and 3 feet 6 inches south from the northern line. It measured 3 feet 4 
inches in situ. Lying to the northwest of the cranium and 4 inches from it, was a 
portion of a bowl (H-105), that was part of the bottom of a larger one. Inside of it 
was a corrugated jar 5% inches high and % inch in diameter at the top (H-106); 
between the bowl and its cranium was a bone awl (H-107). The cranium was broken 
into bits and the whole skeleton was greatly decayed. 

Skeleton 25 was found 10 inches below the surface in Section 9. It was that of a 
young person; the bones were badly decayed and had been scattered about by rats. 
The body was lying north and south, the head being toward the latter point. The body 
measured 1 foot 9 inches as it lay in the grave. From the eastern section line to the 
head was 3 feet 2 inches and 1 foot 3 inches from the northern section line to the same 
point. About 4 inches south of the head and 2% inches below it was a red bowl 
(H-108), measuring i% inches in diameter at the top. 



350 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

The bone awl (H-109) was found 1 foot below the surface in the central part of 
Section 10, and almost against the eastern section line. 

Skeleton 26 was found in the middle of Section 7, all that could be found in a 
sufficient state of preservation to allow of being uncovered was the upper jaw. This 
piece was lying 1 foot 6 inches below the surface; it was 3 feet north from the southern 
section line, and 3 feet 4 inches from the eastern line. A fragment of a bowl (H-110) 
was lying just below it, about 2 inches, and a little to the eastward of it, a large frag- 
ment of a white bowl (H-lll), was lying 6 inches west of the jaw, and just below this 
piece on the southern side, and with the edge lying under the whiteware bowl men- 
tioned above, was a very peculiar bowl (H-112); it was 4% inches in diameter and 
2% inches deep. It was heavily ornamented on the interior and about % inch below 
the rim were four perforated handles, placed at equal distances from each other. 
Three inches south of this bowl was a ball-shaped corrugated jar (H-113). It was 
2% inches in diameter at the top and 3 inches deep. Two inches further south, was a 
large fragment of a corrugated jar (H-114). Four inches west of this corrugated jar 
was a fragment of a red bowl (H-115). The body had completely wasted away so 
that the position in the grave could not be ascertained. 

Skeleton 27 was found in Section 8, it was 1 foot 3 inches below the surface. 
The body was greatly decomposed, only a portion of the head, the occiput, remaining. 
The legs were drawn up and the vertebrae were so soft they crumbled when even a 
brush was applied. The body was lying north and south, the head being toward the 
latter point, and measured 3 feet 5 inches in situ. From the eastern section line to the 
head was 3 feet, and from the head to the south section line was 2 feet 10 inches. 
Five inches northwest from the head was a fragment of a bowl (H-116) and 2 inches 
north of this was a water jar 6 inches high and 1% inches in diameter at the mouth. 
There was a corrugated handle on either side (H-117). 

Skeleton 28 was found 10 inches below the surface in Section 10. All that could 
be measured for photographing were the legs and front of the pelvis, the other bones 
had entirely wasted away. The leg bones were in a very poor condition, their surfaces 
being greatly weathered. From the southern section line was 5 inches and from the 
western line, 2 feet 7 inches, from the point of the bended knees to the end of the pelvic 
bone, 2 feet 5}i inches. The skeleton probably lay north and south, the head being 
toward the south and no doubt extended some distance into Section 9, but no bones 
were found in this section. The bones were very large, the perfect femur was 1 foot 
6)2 inches long and the outer tibia was 1 foot 2% inches. No vessels were found with 
the body. 

Skeleton 29 was found 1 foot 1 inch below the surface in Section 10, the head 
being 11 inches north of the leg bones of Skeleton 28. The body was lying northeast 
by southwest, the head being toward the latter point. The body was probably that 
of a woman, and lay on its back, the head being some inches higher than the rest of the 
body. The skull was crushed and the teeth of the upper jaw were missing from age. 
Only five teeth remained in the inferior maxillary. The body measured 2 feet 8 inches 
in situ. The legs were drawn up across the body and some of the vertebrae and ribs 
were missing, probably the result of a rats' burrow. The head was 3 feet north from 
the south line and 3 feet 10 inches from the west line. A little to the west and slightly 
above the head was a fragment of a pitcher (H-118). 

Skeleton 30 was found 7 inches below the surface, all that was found of the skele- 
ton was the occiput and two femurs, which were crossed. The head was 9 inches 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 351 

east of the western line of Section 10, and 2 feet 10 inches north of the southern sec- 
tion line. The bones were 2 feet northwest of the head, and from the northern line 
to the point where the bones cross was 2 feet 11 inches. The femora were crossed on 
the section line, half of them thereby lying in Section 15. Resting against the cranium 
was a pitcher (H-119), it was 6 inches high and 3 inches in diameter at the top. Rest- 
ing against the pitcher on the northwestern side was a bowl 5 inches high and 4 inches 
in diameter at the opening, and heavily ornamented on the exterior. 



352 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 



TABULATED DATA. 

A general discussion of Bonito culture will be published later. In the meantime 
we present a table showing the dimensions of the rooms excavated and the approxi- 
mate distribution of artifacts. These will not only give an idea of the relative number 
of finds for each type of artifact but show their distribution in the ruin. The 
numerals under the various headings in the tables indicate the number of such artifacts 
rec ognized by the excavator, but in some cases the number of fragments and other 
insignificant forms was so large that no exact count was made. These are designated 
by an x. The dimensions of rooms are from inside measurements. The tables were pre- 
pared by Mr. B. T. B. Hyde. — Editor. 



1920. 



Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 



353 



Table 1. 
Dimensions of Rooms. 



a 

o 
o 


+3 

M 

'S3 


Jli 

u 

o 


O 
02 


CO 

cS 




CO 

3 ^ 

O C 

-8 .2 
S Q 

o 


+3 

CO 

e3 

CD 

,4 
-*^ . — > 

ol 

-i faC 

8 .2 
* Q 

(h 

O 






Ft. In. 


Ft. In. 


Ft. In. 


Ft. In. 


Ft. In. 


Ft, In. 


Ft, In. 




1 


6 


11 5 


11 5 


5 1 


5 9 








2 


6 3 


10 3% 


10 3% 


5 % 


5 4% 








3 


















4 


6 7 


11 5 


10 11 


5 5 


5 4 








5 


8 2 


10 9 


10 7 


8 3 


8 2 








6 


















7 




14 11 


12 7 


5 6 


3 4 








8 




7 


7 


6 8 


7 








9 




13 7 


14 8 


8 


7 








10 


7 


13 2 


12 6 


7 3 


8 4 








11 




13 5 


15 8 


7 9 


6 8 








12 


14 


12 6 


12 4 


9 


8 2 








13 




8 6 


8 4 












14 


















15 


















16 


















17 


















18 


5 7 


6 2 


2 6 


4 4 


7 2 








19 


















20 


12 


12 6 


12 3 


10 


10 7 








21 




10 2 


10 


10 


11 








22 




10 


10 


10 


10 








23 


















24 


16 


10 6 


12 


14 6 


12 2 






See Room 73 


25 




9 


8 1 


16 10 


18 10 


18 5 


21 




26 


















27 


















28 


14 


25 7 


25 


7 10 


7 8 








28a 


8 6 


13 


13 


7 10 


8 2 


14 10 


15 10 




29 


















30 


















31 


















32 


















33 




6 


6 3 


5 10 


6 10 








34 


6 


6 10 


6 8 


11 10 


11 8 








35 


6 2 


12 


11 11 


12 3 


12 5 









354 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 



Table 1 {continued). 
Dimensions of Rooms. 



a 

o 
o 


Height 


J3 
-^> 

J. 

O 


3 
O 


CO 
03 


CO 
03 


f Northeast-Southwest 
p 1 (Diagonal) 


CO 

03 

CD 

-ti bC 

S -2 
* Q 
+= 

Si 

o 
Ft. In. 






Ft. In. 


Ft. In. 


Ft. In. 


Ft. In. 


Ft. In. 




35a 


5 


6 6 


6 


10 2 


10 6 




36 


7 


11 9 


12 10 


12 4 


12 1 


17 2 


17 3 




37 


6 6 


10 7 


11 3 


11 11 


12 2 


15 5 


16 2 




38 


6 


32 2 


27 8 


10 2 


13 9 


33 4 


30 5 




39 




21 1 


20 3 


9 8% 


8 3 


22 10 


21 10 




39a 


5 9 


7 8 


7 6 


8 10 


8 5 


12 


11 




39b 


6 


7 4 


7 6 


8 7 


8 10 


11 7 


11 3 




40 


6 


22 6 


22 6 


11 


11 










11 


22 6 


22 6 


11 


11 








41 


5 9 


7 9 


7 11 


13 6 


11 4 








42 




14 




9 5 


9 10 


14 5 


16 10 




43 




5 


5 8 


6 4 


7 1 


8 3 


8 3 




44 




13 10 


14 


5 1 


5 2 


14 8 


14 6 




45 




19 


17 8 


7 5 


6 10 


19 7 


19 2 




46 


6 2 


5 6 


5 


7 2 


7 2 


9 5 


9 3 




47 


i 


6 


6 




10 9 


11 1 


12 




48 


12 


13 5 


11 


7 11 


6 10 


15 7 


15 7 


Lower Room 


48 


5 


8 6 


8 2 


7 5 


7 3 


11 2 


11 7 


Upper Room 


49 


6 


9 


9 


1 10 


2 








50 


7 


4 3 


4 8 


7 9 


7 8 


8 10 


8 11 




51 




11 6 


10 9 


9 2 


8 4 


14 10 


13 9 




51a 


5 7 


7 9 


6 


8 2 


8 2 


10 7 


10 8 




52 




9 3 


9 6 


5 11 


6 4 


10 3 


12 4 




53 




11 6 


10 5 


14 2 


13 5 


17 10 


17 5 




54 




24 7 


25 3 


10 


8 5 


27 


26 2 




55 


6 5 


7 2 


6 4 


8 


7 3 


10 10 


10 




56 


5 8 


6 7 


5 3 


16 3 


13 10 


17 4 


16 10 




57 


7 10 


7 8 


6 10 


7 


7 


10 


10 6 




58 




6 


6 


5 7 


2 


8 11 


8 3 




59 




10 10 




6 6 








Kiva 


60 




15 5 


6 5 


13 5 


10 








60a 




7 


5 3 


6 










61 


6 3 


11 1 


9 4 


11 6 


10 4 


15 6 


14 4 




62 


8 


19 11 


20 9 


7 5 


10 


22 2 


22 9 


• 


63 


7 7 


6 2 


5 9 


16 1 


16 1 


17 1 


17 1 




64 



















Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 



355 



Table 1 {Continued) . 
Dimensions of Rooms. 



s 

o 
o 


43 

.bfi 

W 


„d 

O 


-a 
o 

GO 


4J 

OS 

03 


Ft. In. 


CO 

3 03 

O fl 

OQ O 

', b£ 

« .3 
% Q 

43 --' 

o 


CO 

03 
CD 

43 

+3 . — - 
Si 

a? o 
-i be 

5 -3 

6 Q 

43 ^ 

+3 

Si 

o 






Ft. In. 


Ft. In. 


Ft. In. 


Ft. In. 


Ft. In. 


Ft. In. 




65 




11 7 


12 7 


10 3 


11 9 


15 4 


14 6 




66 




11 1 


9 9 


9 4 


9 9 


14 2 


13 11 




67 
















Kiva 


68 




14 


13 8 


14 2 


11 10 


18 6 


18 6 




68a 


















69 




18 


18 7 


10 6. 


9 10 


20 


20 6 




70 


5 


6 1 


11 10 


6 10 


8 5 


12 8 






71 




18 8 


15 11 


8 4 


10 2 


19 3 


19 7 




72 




5 3 


2 8 


10 3 


20 7 








73 




15 11 


18 


13 6 


9 3 


20 10 


21 2 




73ne 






8 9 


5 7 


6 2 


10 3 


10 6 




73se 




7 6 


5 9 


9 3 


10 6 


11 0i 


12 1% 








9 4% 


9 3 


11 


9 5 


13 


14 6 




74 


















75 
















Kiva 


76 


9 


16 1 


16 1 


7 5 


7 5 








77 




5 8 


6 7 


10 3 


10 3 


12 2 


11 9 




78 




21 


18 9 


8 2 


8 11 


21 7 


22 8 




79 


















80 




18 5 


18 5 


9 11 


10 2 


21 9 


20 




81 


















82 




11 9 


10 9 


10 


10 


15 2 


15 




83 


6 


20 8 


18 


10 7 


11 9 


21 8 






84 




10 3 


9 7 


9 7 


9 2 


13 9 


13 9 




85 


















86 




15 


14 6 


8 8 


9 2 


18 10 


18 7 




87 


10 


17 2 


17 


8 4 


8 10 


19 8 


18 3 




88 


9 2 


16 10 


17 2 


8 


8 2 


19 6 


17 11 




89 




16 9 


16 9 


7 11 


7 11 


19 2 


17 9 




90 




18 5 


18 6 


10 1 


10 3 


21 8 


20 8 




91 




13 


12 


14 11 


14 10 


19 7 


19 5 




92 




14 6 


13 7 


5 6 


9 9 


14 10% 


16 9 




93 


7 8 


19 4 


15 8 


7 2 


5 11 


20 2 


20 




94 




21 5 


20 9 


5 11 


4 8 


21 11 


21 10 




95 




17 4 


16 11 


6 7 


6 8 


17 9 


18 6 




96 




6 3 


6 2 


19 7 


20 2 


20 6 


21 





356 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History ■. [Vol. XXVII, 



Table 1 (continued). 
Dimensions of Rooms. 



a 

o 
o 




43 
Sh 

o 


43 

O 
GO 


+3 

on 
H 


West 


Northeast-Southwest 
(Diagonal) 


Northwest-Southeast 
(Diagonal) 






Ft. In. 


Ft. In. 


Ft. In. 


Ft. In. 


Ft. In. 


Ft. In. 


Ft. In. 




97 




14 6 


13 3 


6 5 


10 2 


15 


17 




98 




17 1 


16 11 


8 8 


8 3 


19 3 


18 8 




99 




14 11 


17 2 




8 9/ 2 


17 7 


19 4 




100 




4 2 


4 6 


17 


16 


17 10 


16 




101 




14 18 


12 4 


5 10 


2 9 


14 11 


13 




102 




18 6 


16 5 


8 2 


9 6 


19 2 


18 9 




103 


11 


16 10 


16 5 


8 5 


8 4 


17 9 


19 




104 




4 2 


3 2 


5 8 


6 9 


7 4 


7 2 




105 




10 


12 2 


12 5 


16 8 


21 2}i 


17 10# 




106 




13 7 


12 7 


16 10 


16 9 


23 , 


19 1 




106b 


















107 




10 9 


9 2 


7 7 


6 9 


12 3 


11 11 




108 


















109 


















110 




5 10 


5 7 


10 


11 4 


12 2 


11 11 




111 




6 


5 10 


13 6 


11 10 


14 6 


13 3 




112 


















113 


















114 


















115 


















116 




5 6 


5 9 


17 3 


18 6 


18 11 


19 




117 




9 


9 


18 


19 








118 




9 


9 


18 


19 








119 




9 


9 


19 


19 








120 




10 


10 4 


16 7 


15 4 


18 9 


19 




121 




9 


8 


16 


17 








122 




8 


8 


17 


16 








123 




7 


7 


16 


16 








124 




8 


8 


9 


9 








125 




9 


9 


10 


10 








126 




12 


12 


10 


10 








127 




13 


13 


10 


10 








128 




15 6 


15 6 


10 


10 








129 




16 


16 


10 


10 








130 
















Kiva 


131 




13 


13 


9 


9 









1920.1 



Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 



357 



Table 1 {continued). 
Dimensions of Rooms. 



"3 

W 


+B 

o 
Ft. In. 


3 
O 

m 


co 
03 
W 


CO 
CD 

Ft. In. 
9 


+3 

CO 
CD 

+= 

' ° Q 

^ I 

<D & 

t B 

o 


CO 

o3 
CD 

A 

+3 < — ~ 

°1 

v? 5 

S -S 
S Q 

+3 

(4 
O 

Ft. In. 


Ft. In. 


Ft. In. 


Ft. In. 
9 


Ft. In. 


10 


10 








11 


11 


9 


9 








11 


11 


9 


9 








10 


10 


9 


9 








10 


10 


9 


9 








15 


15 


9 


9 








8 


8 


8 


8 








8 


8 


6 


6 








11 6 


11 6 


9 


9 








13 6 


13 6 


9 


9 








19 


19 


9 


9 








6 


7 


16 


17 








6 


6 


16 


16 








7 


Kiva 
11 


11 


20 
10 








24 


Kiva 


18 


13 








10 6 


K4 


22 


17 








K 


9 


24 


15 








9 6 


10 


6 


6 








10 


12 


14 


13 








7 6 


8 


7 6 


7 6 








8 6 


8 6 


7 6 


7 6 








11 


11 


7 6 


7 6 








9 


9 


7 6 


8 6 








10 


10 


8 


10 








18 6 


18 6 


8 


8 6 








10 


5 


13 


11 6 








7 


15 


11 6 


13 








10 


11 


9 


9 








9 6 


10 


6 6 


6 6 








8 9 


9 


13 


13 




1 



Passageways 



358 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 



Table 1 (continued). 
Dimensions of Rooms. 



168 
169 
170 
171 
172 
173 
174 
175 
176 
177 
178 
179 
180 
181 
182 
183 
184 
185 
186 
187 



W 



Ft. In. 



Ft. In. 



18 6 

18 

17 

11 6 

15 

21 

16 6 

12 

10 

10 

9 

9 6 

9 6 
10 
10 
10 

9 6 









+3 


en 








05 


c3 








£ 


05 








-S -^ 


+3 ~ 


















3 oS 


n "^ 








O C 


C3 








m o 


co g 








i be 


-ti bXj 








to * 


03 Si 








3 5 


03 . -. 


pC 






A ■— 


-C --' 


+3 


+3 


CO 


+3 


+3 


O 


03 


05 

Ft. In. 


o 


o 
5? 


Ft. In. 
18 6 


Ft. In. 


Ft. In. 


Ft. In. 


12 


12 


18 


12 


12 






16 


19 


18 






13 


12 


11 6 






16 


12 


12 






21 6 


13 


13 






15 


12 6 


12 6 






12 


13 


13 






10 


13 


13 






10 


20 


18 






9 


1 8 


17 






9 6 


17 6 


18 






9 6 


16 6 


16 






10 4 


16 7 


15 4 


18 9 


19 


10 


19 


19 






10 


15 


15 






9 6 


13 6 


12 6 






8 


17 6 


17 6 






8 


19 


19 






8 6 


11 


11 







1920.1 



Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 



359 



Table 2. 
Distribution of Pottery. 



03 



2 
3 

4 
6 
9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

19 

20 

22 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

28a 

29 

31 

32 

33 

36 

38 

39 

39b 

40 

42 

44 

45 

48 

51 

51a 

52 

53 



O 



O 



Oh 



111 

3 

2 

19 



39 



15 

1 
1 



24 

10 
1 

1 



2 1 



^ 



>!0 



W 



0u 



w 



Oh 



PQ 



Ph « 






Oh 



Oh 



U 



oq 



O 



05 



02 



U 



o 



2 

77 
1 



66 



360 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII , 



Table 2 (continued). 
Distribution of Pottery. 



o 

o 

pj 

54 
56 

58 
59 
60 
62 
62 
64 
65 
66 
67 
68 
69 
70 
71 
72 
73 
74 
75 
76 
77 
78 
79 
80 
82 
83 
84 
86 
87 
88 
89 
90 
92 
93 
96 



O 



U 



i- 



> 











W! 










— 










Ph 


o 








O) 


U 








j3 


BJ 








T 










3J 


PEJ 








d 


[3 


0) 


a 

s 


-z 
d 

W 


01 

S 
d 
C 









44 










CJ 










71 




















pq 










-n 










d 




Ol 


44 




ed 




IS 


03 

3 


T3 

o 


— 
o 
pg 


3 

S3 


rn 


m 


tn 


T 


r. 


-TT 


T3 


—, 


—. 


TJ 


•— 




%- 


[h 


s- 


O 


OJ 


0) 


tu 


o 


^ 


-C 


— 


,4 


-a 


t/J 


OJ 


X 


7. 


t/J 


d d 


d 


d 


d 






cj oj d 


rt c3 






Ph 


HH 


Ph 


Ph 





43 >JS 43 43 -5 i O 



PhIO 



M 



pq 



O 



ps 



o 



PC 



Ph 



Q 



O 



22 



Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 



361 



Table 2 {continued). 
Distribution of Pottery. 

































M 


















































o 










m 








































03 










o 








































3 

•3 










C2 

s 

1 


■3 
03 
+= 






GO 
U 


in 




o 

PQ 






£ 
o 

HH 

£ 

s 
< 




03 

[h 








03 

"3 
h. 
Oj 

-C 


0) 
+5 

go 


03 

s 

03 


"3 

X 

03 


G 
e3 
i 

-3 

« 


to 

P3 


03 

■h- 

-G 


M 
o 
e3 

PC 


-3 
03 

X 


-3 
G 
s3 
i 

■3 
03 
PS 


£ 
03 
G 

Hi 

o 


-3 

J* 

H. 

o 




a 
u 


■3 

c3 


o 


T3 
o3 








~3 








X 

+3 

G 

o 


■3 

!-. 

03 

hG 


-3 

HI 

03 

-G 


-9 

-G 


-3 

S-. 

hG 


-3 

u 

03 

-G 


-3 

■P 

03 


"3 
0j 

-P 
o3 


-3 
03 

+3 
o3 


■3 
■(3 
03 


-3 
03 

■P 
o3 


-3 

-H- 

e3 


a 

o 
o 


-3 

a 


bO 

3 

S-. 
h. 

o 


Ph 

'3 


3 
G 
O 


-a 
o 
-Hi 


'3d 


"3 

to 

X 


05 

_c3 


3 

Oh 


03 

.2" 


u 


"3 
G 
88 


s 

a 
c 


X 

G 

'3 


X 

G 

'3 


X 

G 

'3 


X 

G 

'3 


X 

G 

'3 


b£ 

3 
- 
— 

C 


b£ 

3 
i- 

o 


M 

3 

!h 
HI 

O 


bC 
3 
t. 

HI 
O 


3 
H 

H. 

O 


3 

H. 
H. 

o 


<A 


O 


U 


Ph 


U 


ffi 


W 


> 


O 


X Ph 


s 


HI 


O 


Oh 


Ph 


Ph 


s 


pC 


U 


U 


O 


O 


U 


U 


97 




























4 


1 




















98 




























1 












1 










99 










12 




1 










2 




2 




3 








1 










101 




























1 


1 




















102 






1 




2 




1 














1 




2 








1 








2 


103 




























1 












1 








1 


105 


1 


2 


4 




5 




2 




1 


4 


2 


1 




2 




2 






1 


1 


2 








106 






2 


1 


6 


2 




1 


1 


1 


1 






1 




8 


1 




1 


1 








1 


107 




























3 


1 


2 




1 




2 










108 




























5 










2 


4 








17 


109 


1 


1 


3 


1 


2 


4 


2 








3 


8 




3 


1 


1 






5 


1 


2 






28 


109 






1 




2 










1 


1 


3 


1 


3 




3 






1 


1 


2 




1 




110 








1 




















1 






















111 
















1 


































122 




























1 




1 








1 










125 
















1 
















17 








1 










127 






1 






1 












1 




1 










1 




1 






1 


129 






















1 












• 




1 




1 








130 




1 










1 








1 


1 




3 


1 


1 








1 








2 


131 






















2 


1 




1 




1 






1 




2 








132 






2 












1 










1 






1 






1 








6 


134 










1 












1 
















2 


1 


3 






1 


136 


1 




1 




1 




























5 


1 


3 








137 
















1 






















1 




1 








140 




1 
























1 






1 








1 








141 




1 
























1 






1 




1 




1 








142 




























1 


1 


1 






1 


1 


2 






1 


143 






























1 


1 








1 






1 




144 




























1 


1 


1 








1 










146 




























2 


1 


1 








1 










,149 




























1 




1 






1 












!150 




























1 










1 




1 








153 




























1 










1 




1 








154 






















1 
















1 




1 








il58 


















1 










1 








1 















362 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 



Table 2 (continued). 
Distribution of Pottery. 



































M 


















































u 
oa 










^ 

o 








































CC 










ci 


T3 






































i 










3 


03 












•r. 






S 
o 












CO 


03 

+3 

'-2 

of 

-a 

M 
03 




T) 


d 

03 
I 


sc 


03 

+3 


M 




d 

03 


d 

c 

2 

03 

d 

O 
-r 

03 

+3 

oa 


T3 

03 




03 

■— 
03 

1-5 
U 
— 


oa 

oa 

►"5 

T3 
03 
-p 

7i 


DO 




o 
~z 

03 

■+3 

03 






"2 
2 
'2 




03 

oa 

03 








03 
,d 
X 

03 

d 

03 


oo" 

03 

A 


03 

af 

- 

03 

A 


03 

Pi 

of 

— 

03 

A 


d 
pq 

of 

~z 

■— 
03 
,4 


03 
+= 
08 


03 

c 

+s 

oa 


03 

a 
+= 


93 
03 

+5 

o3 


Si 

o 

Ti 

C3 
+^ 
o3 




bO 


— 


bO 


03 


oa 


- 




[3 




;-< 


03 


d 


X 


X 


X 


so 


X 


M 


b£ 


fcJD 


b£ 


M 


i£ 


a 

o 
o 





d 

C 


"cs 


3 
- 




3 

X 


09 
c3 


03 

ft 


03 
ft 
ft 


d 

03 


2 

a 


- 

'3 


d 

'2 


d 
'2 


d 

'2 


d 

'2 


3 
■— 
- 
C 


d 
- 

c 


c 
5 




S-c 




d 
•- 
i-i 

c 


rt 


o 


O 


PM 


O 


PM 


S 


> 


Q 


X 


ffi 


s 


H 


C 


5 


s 


£ 


~ 


PH 


O 


O 


o 


U 


U 


O 


159 










1 












2 






1 










1 


2 


1 








160 




1 


1 






3 


1 


2 






1 


2 




3 


1 


1 






2 










1 


161 






c 












1 


1 








3 




7 






2 


2 


2 








162 












1 






































163 


1 




1 


















1 




1 


1 


1 






1 


1 








7 


164 
































1 




1 














165 




























1 




1 








1 










168 






3 








1 








1 


1 




6 


1 


3 








3 


1 








169 




















1 


3 


6 




5 




3 






2 


2 








11 


170 






1 














1 


2 


6 




6 




1 




1 




3 








1 


171 






1 






3 






1 






1 




2 




1 








3 








2 


172 
























1 




1 




1 








1 


4 








173 






3 






9 












2 




8 




1 






5 


1 




1 




4 


174 




























1 




1 








1 










175 












1 
















1 




1 








1 










177 
























1 


























181 




























1 




1 










1 








188 














* 














1 














1 








189 






































1 













1920.1 



Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 



363 



Table 3. 
Distribution of Most Important Stone Objects. 



Pg 

1 

2 

3 

4 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 
12 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
28a 
29 
32 
33 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
39b 
40 
41 
42 
44 
45 
48 
51 
52 
53 



a 



o 



X 



22 



3 
3 

15 
1 



1 

54 

1 



O 



18 



75 
3 
1 
8 
2 

2 
9 
2 
1 

28 



3 
15 



4 

2 

30 

15 

1 

9 
142 

12 

7 



1 
14 

1 
2 
6 
1 

33 
4 



Ph 



a 







w 






0) 






G 






P 












Oj 






bfi 






d 








i- 




,r1 






-^ 


ft 


rfl 


o 


od 


O 





o 


rt 


s 


/. 


W 


7^ 



27 



19 
1 



1 

4 

10 
4 
1 
1 



364 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 



Table 3 {continued). 
Distribution of Most Important Stone Objects. 



54 
55 

56 
57 
58 
59 
60 
61 
62 
64 
65 
66 
67 
68 
70 
71 
72 
73 
75 
76 
77 
78 
79 
80 
81 
82 
83 
84 
85 
86 
87 
89 
90 
92 
96 
97 
98 
99 
100 

















~ 








0) 








-c 


02 


-2 


CO 


fl 


X 


eu 


o 


>-, 


< 


jaq 


u 


U 



o 



o 



57 



38 

20 

32 

1 

6 

2 
10 

2 
33 

6 

5 
5 
1 
2 
1 
1 



11 



Ph 



&H 



s 

8 3 



Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 



365 



Table 3 {continued). 
Distribution of Most Important Stone Objects. 



o 
Pg 

102 

103 

105 

106 

107 

108 

109 

110 

121 

122 

127 

129 

130 

131 

132 

134 

136 

137 

141 

142 

144 

151 

153 

154 

156 

159 

160 

161 

165 

168 

169 

170 

171 

172 

173 

174 

175 

180 



pq 



U 



>. ■ 

o 



o 



o 



12 
1 

2 

24 

2 



5 

1 

8 

16 

13 
3 

1 

10 
4 



2 
1 

15 
1 

4 
18 

16 
14 

7 

13 



eS 

J 

2 1 



Cu 



p. 



l 

22 



3 
19 



3 

10 
2 

3 
1 

4 
3 

2 

9 



12 
2 

50 



40 
17 
11 

7 
10 

3 

3 

1 

2 
2 
1 
1 
3 

3 

6 



366 



Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 



Table 4. 
Distribution of Worked Bone. 











73 

el 








as 
a; 




s 

o 

o 


03 
< 


GO 

a 
M 

•V 

o 
pq 


oo 
u 

CO 

ft 

03 
M 


s 

OS 

■ft 

a 


02 

PQ 




*s 


T3 

V 

O 


GO 

O 
H 


2 


1 






i 










2 


3 








i 










1 


8 














l 




1 


9 








i 










1 


10 


1 
















1 


11 


2 






i 










3 


12 


3 
















3 


19 


2 
















2 


20 


5 






i 






l 


11 


18 


24 


12 




1 


i 


4 


1 






19 


25 


14 




2 


4 


9 




2 


2 


33 


26 


15 








1 








16 


28 


2 






1 










3 


29 


3 
















3 


30 
















1 


1 


31 


1 
















1 


32 
















1 


1 


33 
















1 


1 


35 


3 
















3 


36 


3 
















3 


37 


3 
















3 


38 


3 
















3 


39 


5 




1 




1 


1 




1 


9 


39b 
















1 


1 


41 


2 
















2 


42 


8 




1 


1 










10 


45 


3 




1 


1 










5 


51a 


2 
















2 


51 


1 
















1 


52 


1 
















1 


54 


5 




1 












6 


55 


1 
















1 


58 


1 
















1 


59 


1 
















1 


60 


1 




1 


1 








1 


4 


61 


1 














1 


2 


62 


3 




1 




1 








5 


64 


7 






1 


1 






2 


11 


65 


9 




1 










1 


11 


66 


6 














6 


12 



Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 



367 



Table 4 {continued). 
Distribution of Worked Bone. 











CO 

c 








CO 
CD 
U 
CD 

S 




s 

o 

o 


co 

< 


co 

a 

o 


co 
<h 
CD 
Oh 
53 

u 

O 


CD 

s 

CD 

"ft 

a 


co 

CS 
CD 

PQ 


u 

s 


CD 

«4-H 

'3 
M 


T3 
CD 

o 


co 

o 
H 


67 


31 




6 


7 


1 






1 


46 


69 
















7 . 


7 


70 








1 










1 


71 


1 
















1 


72 


7 




1 












8 


73 


2 






1 










3 


74 


3 
















3 


75 


10 






1 








1 


12 


76 


12 




1 








~ 


15 


77 


2 
















2 


78 


13 




2 




12 








27 


80 


7 






1 








3 


11 


82 


6 














2 


8 


83 


2 




1 


1 




1 




1 


6 


84 
















1 


1 


85 


5 






1 










6 


86 


3 
















3 


87 


1 
















1 


89 


3 




2 


1 










6 


90 


6 








1 








7 


92 


2 
















2 


96 


3 










1 






4 


97 


4 








1 






1 


6 


99 


4 




2 




1 








7 


102 






1 












1 


103 


1 
















1 


105 


24 




1 




2 




1 


6 


34 


106 


13 






3 


1 






2 


19 


107 


3 






1 


1 






1 


6 


108 


2 






2 


1 








5 


109 


9 


13 


3 


2 


3 


1 




7 


38 


110 


3 


5 








1 






9 


122 










1 








1 


127 




1 




2 










3 


130 


1 






1 










2 


131 


3 


1 


1 


1 


2 






1 


9 


132 


2 


1 












2 


5 


134 






1 












1 


136 


1 




1 




1 








3 


140 


2 






1 










3 



368 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 



Table 4 (continued). 
Distribution of Worked Bone. 



s 

o 
o 


CO 
< 


'J2 

O 

pq 


03 
H 
CD 


02 

fl 

CD 

s 

S 


CO 

CD 

oq 


CD 

s 


a) 

'3 


CO 

CD 
U 
CD 

X! 
CD 

o 


co 
O 

H 


142 


3 


5 














8 


144 


1 














1 


2 


151 




2 














2 


153 




2 














2 


156 


1 
















1 


160 


6 


5 




2 








1 


14 


161 


26 


22 




2 


1 








51 


162 


2 
















2 


163 


6 


5 


1 


4 








1 


17 


165 










1 








1 


168 


3 


1 






1 








5 


169 


7 


2 




2 








1 


12 


170 


1 


1 




3 








4 


9 


171 


6 


7 


1 


1 


6 






1 


22 


173 


3 


9 


2 


2 


3 


1 






20 



Total 708 



Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 



369 



Table 5. 
Wooden Objects. 



a 

o 
o 


co 

o 

H 


CO 

o 

«** 

o 

co 

H 

03 
Pi 


GO 

CD 

a 

w 

o 
o 
Eh 


co 

e3 
o 
PQ 


co 
02 


co 

ID 
O 

a> 

s 

CD 
J* 
ft 

o 


Special Objects 


1 


3 








4 






2 


10 










194 


1 walnut. 3 reeds, 2 arrow points, game sticks 


4 










3 


5 


5 pointed sticks 


6 








7 


2 




10 torches 


6a 












17 


1 wooden dish, 1 fire stick 


8 


2 














10 












7 


1 ball, 2 painted sticks, 1 wound stick 


11 












3 


3 drilled sticks 


12 












2 




14 












1 


1 ceremonial stick 


18 












3 


2 ceremonial sticks, 1 implement 


24 




1 


1 




3 




1 knife, 1 fire stick, painted game stick 


25 




11 


2 




11 


3 


2 walnut drilled, 1 reed drilled, 3 arrow points 
1 reed bead, 1 cylinder 


28 










1 


1 




32 


37 


5 






2 


403 


1 painted slab, 1 flute, 2 slabs, ceremonial 
sticks, prayer sticks 


33 


2 


2 








51 


8 flutes, 43 ceremonial sticks 


35 










2 




ceremonial sticks 


36 












1 


pointed stick 


38 










4 






44 












1 


nut inlaid 


52 












1 




53 












3 


2 cradle boards 


54 






2 










55 












2 


2 ceremonial sticks 


60 










X 






61 










2 


1 




62 








1 


X 


5 


2 broken knives, 1 cylinder 


64 












1 




66 










1 






67 












1 




70 












7 


game, ceremonial, and kicking sticks 


83 












2 


implements 


85 




1 


1 






13 


1 knife, 3 slabs, 1 ceremonial stick, 2 flutes, 
implements 


92 










1 


4 


ceremonial stick 


95 


1 










1 




97 


1 










12 


8 sticks, 1 slab 



370 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 



Table 5 (continued). 
Wooden Objects. 



a 

o 
o 


oo 

o 
H 
< 


co 
& 

o 

O 
oo 

Ph 


CO 

a 

w 

'o 

O 

H 


CO 
Si 

c3 

O 

CO 


"•+3 


CO 

CO 

03 

u 
o 


Special Objects 


99 












4 


1 painted slab, painted sticks 


100 












3 




105 


1 








17 


11 


willows. — drilled walnut, fire sticks 


106 


1 










2 


walnut, game stick 


107 


2 


9 




2 


10 


4 




108 












7 




109 












9 


walnut, slabs, sticks 


110 








1 




7 




112 












1 


carved bird 


159 












5 




160 












8 




161 












2 




164 












1 




168 












3 




170 


1 








3 


14 


torch, disk 


171 


2 




1 






7 


walnut 


172 












2 


fire sticks 


173 












5 


board, ornament 


176 












1 


carved animal 



Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 



371 



Table 6. 
Distribution of Shell. 



o 
_& 

4 

6 

6a 

10 

12 

13 

14 

16 

17 

25 

28 

33 

35 

40 

67 

72 

74 

85 

86 

105 

107 

131 

161 

163 

164 

169 

N. of 63 









P. 

a 




CO 






-P 


03 


"3 
"3 

a 






CD 

o 




CO 


03 


© 


m 


s 


o3 


03 






a 




H 


o 


S-l 




!h 






CD 


u 


Ph 


H 


M 


m 


rt 


W 


Ph 



10 
2 
1 



13 
x 



137 

1 

60 

555 



1 

164 

2 

5 

831 



64 



2 
98 



104 



372 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 



Table 7. 
Distribution of Textiles and Feather-Work. 



CO 












0> 




03 


M 




T3 




C3 


a 


§ 


03 
CZ2 



1 

2 

25 

32 

35 

62 

85 

86 

92 

97 

98 

99 

110 

168 

170 

171 

173 



O 



2 


2 


6 


3 


1 


2 


1 






4 


2 


5 


1 


1 


4 

1 


2 






1 






1 




2 




2 


1 




1 






1 
1 





o 



2 
4 
8 
13 
2 
1 






23 



1920.1 



Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 



373 



Table 8. 

Distribution of Copper Objects. 

The copper objects found were as follows: Room 83, bell; Room 28, a fragment; 
Room 89, a fragment; Room 106, bell; Rooms 127 and 150, 2 fragments; Room 168, 
bell; and Room 179, fragment. 



Materials 
Azurite 
Calcite 
Chalk 
Coal 
Copper 
Crystal 
Ferris Oxide 
Galena 
Garnets 
Gypsum 

Hematite 

fron concretion 

Jet 

Kaolno 

Lignite 

Limonite 

Malachite 

Mica 

Obsidian 



Ocher 

Ore 

Paint (blue) 

Petrified wood 

Pink stone 

Pumice 

Pyrites 

Stag black 

Turquoise 



Table 9. 
Distribution of Artifact Materials. 
Rooms 
12, 65, 68, 73, 85, 108, 109, 110, 163, 164, 170, 175 
110 

76, 83, 105, 106, 161, 
54 
68 

6a, 12, 28 
67 

6a, 29, 32, 37, 45, 85, 107, 159 
10 

10, 12, 24, 38, 78, 83, 90, 106, 107, 109, 110, 130, 131, 132, 136, 
140, 144, 159, 160, 161, 165, 168, 170, 172, 173 

12, 25, 64, 67, 85, 106, 107, 109, 127, 131, 171 
107 

13, 33, 38, 78, 85, 105, 106, 110 
67 

67, 86, 90, 92 

109, 130, 131, 134, 142, 159 

24, 76, 83, 85, 106, 108, 109, 122, 131, 164, 168, 170 

28, 68, 90 

9, 10, 20, 24, 29, 67, 76, 83, 89, 90, 92, 98, 99, 105, 106, 109, 110, 

129, 131, 132, 134, 136, 140, 142, 144, 146, 160, 163, 165 

168, 169, 170, 171, 173 
83, 85, 86, 88, 97 
28, 106 
38 

10, 12, 61, 105, 106, 129, 131, 134, 140, 141, 142, 144, 160, 168, 170 
13, 20, 161, 173 
37, 170 
12, 65 
108 
6a, 10, 12, 13, 26, 28, 35, 37, 39b, 40, 42, 51, 53, 57, 68, 72, 78, 

85, 86, 99, 102, 109, 110, 127, 142, 164, 170, 173 



CONCLUSION. 

Architecturally, the large prehistoric dwellings of our great South- 
west present a fascinating study. From evidence at hand it would seem 
that the selection of material for house construction was governed al- 
most entirely by geological environment. In the Chaco Canon the 
cretaceous sandstones presented an admirable building material, readily 
acquired and easily worked. To this fact may be attributed the high 
degree of cultural development so strongly emphasized in the walls of 
the more recent parts of Pueblo Bonito. 

The older walls are of undressed stones and are purely utilitarian. 
The later ones, especially those in the northern part of the pueblo, are of 
carefully shaped blocks with faced surfaces and laid in varying combina- 
tions, some with alternating layers of thinner pieces, the evident intent 
being aesthetic. 

The various types of doorways, many of which were changed from 
time to time, either from choice or necessity, present a rich field of re- 
search for future investigators. 

The ceilings of the rooms show as marked an evolution as do the 
walls: those of the earlier type are of undressed branches and twigs, 
placed in sufficient numbers to form a firm foundation for the adobe 
floors, whereas the later ones demonstrate the efforts of the architects 
to construct a ceiling in keeping with the more ornate walls. 

The investigations in this prehistoric pueblo show conclusively that 
it was occupied for many years — perhaps centuries. The interlacing of 
walls under the rooms of the first story and the superimposing of estufas 
over the walls of others that had served their purpose and passed into 
disuse, are stepping-stones that may lead to a solution of the history of 
this old walled-in town. A methodical survey of this ruin, an exhaustive 
study of the architectural refinements, and a general study of the under- 
lying strata were planned as a part of the extension of the work, but, 
owing to circumstances beyond the control of those in charge, this most 
desirable phase of the investigations was impossible. 

As in most pueblos of this type the majority of the rooms were 
angular. Ceremonial rooms, in the form of circular estufas, were repre- 
sented by many examples and some of the smaller of these showed un- 
usual outlines. Judging by the ceremonial paraphernalia found in the 
angular living rooms, many of these were employed for ceremonial clan 
rooms or for clan ceremonies. The most striking example of this kind 
was Room 38, where were found the remains of macaws and a platform 

375 



376 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

on which rested encrusted objects and other ceremonial pieces that had 
no doubt been used by members of a macaw clan, a clan now represented 
among the Zufii and known as the Mulakwe. The great number of 
skeletons of the macaw that were found in the eastern end of the room and 
the finding of the remains of macaws beneath the floor are mute evidences 
of the reverence in which these birds were held. When we consider the 
distance that separated these birds from their natural habitat, in con- 
nection with the fact that very few bones of this bird were found in the 
other rooms of the pueblo, it is safe to assume that the macaw clan must 
have been in existence at this early period in the history of the South- 
western pueblos. 

The use of certain rooms for burial purposes seems to have been 
secondary, although intramural burial was not confined to this particular 
group as other bodies were found beneath the floors of some of the angular 
rooms at the sides of estufas. The inconsequential number of bodies 
found in Pueblo Bonito naturally prompts the question as to the general 
cemetery wherein were buried the hundreds who must have died there. 
From the character of the deposits in the series of burial rooms, of which 
Rooms 32 and 33 were a part, and from the accompaniments with the 
bodies, it is evident that these were members of the priesthood or, at 
least, people of great importance in the life of the pueblo. Buried with 
such great stores of treasure, it is but natural to suppose that they were 
placed in a position secure from the possibility of defilement or of theft. 

When the first general survey of the pueblo and the adjacent land 
was made, the writer was impressed with the possibility of finding the 
cemeteries in the mounds on the opposite side of the canon, but later 
investigations showed that these small places of interment were those 
belonging to the house groups that were found near them. Owing to 
the fact that the major part of the investigations was confined to the 
pueblo itself, no adequate tests were made in the area to the east and 
west of the building. As the present surface is covered with a deposit of 
silt and sand and, in view of the fact that the refuse heaps south of the 
ruin were not used for burial purposes, it is possible that the quest for 
the great cemetery may end at the places mentioned. An extensive 
cemetery has been found west of and near Pueblo Pintado, the eastern- 
most pueblo of this group. Similar conditions should obtain in the case 
of Bonito and the other large pueblos of the Chaco Canon. 

The artifacts from this pueblo cover the greater part of the activities 
that one would expect to find among a sedentary people who had reached 
the high plane of development that is shown by the architecture. The 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 377 

preservation of perishable objects is remarkable, especially when com- 
pared with the results of investigations of canon or mesa ruins that are 
known to be of a later period. Many of the ceremonial sticks were as 
firm as when they were deposited in the rooms and the preservation of a 
large bundle of arrows with reed shafts, wooden foreshafts, the sinew 
wrapping that binds the stone point to the foreshaft, in place, and even 
vestiges of the feathering, shows that in many of the sand-filled rooms 
the elements had but little effect in the way of decay and disintegration. 
These, with sandals, both woven and plaited, fragments of cloth, marked 
pieces of buckskin, fiber cords, and many other semi-perishable objects 
present for the student much tangible data that are lacking in most 
pueblos of this period. 

The aesthetic attainment of the old Bonito people is shown most 
forcibly by the designs in color on the wooden tablets and especially in the 
elaborately decorated stone mortar. Their mosaic and encrusted cere- 
monial pieces, as shown by the mosaic basket, the inlaid scrapers, the 
hematite bird, the lignite frog, and by mam'- other objects, is indicative 
of the skill of their artisans and the advance of the arts as applied to 
objects of a ceremonial nature. Nowhere in the Southwest have there 
been found such masses of turquoise beads, pendants, and inlays as were 
uncovered in Room 33. Living but a short distance from Los Cerillos, 
where most of the turquoise was no doubt obtained, the supply was un- 
limited and love of this particular stone prompted the dwellers at Bonito 
to carry on extensive quarry work in this particular formation. 

The pottery of the pueblo shows a wide range of forms, but relatively 
few types that were of a definite ceremonial form. The majority of the 
vessels found in the rooms were of the usual corrugated type of cooking 
jars and the gray ware with geometric designs in black such as are found 
throughout the Chaco region and in many parts of New Mexico and Ari- 
zona. Fragments of vessels of human form show that this rather ad- 
vanced form of the potters' art was in evidence in the pueblo, but the 
motive was no doubt received from the south and had not been developed 
to any great extent. The finding of cylindrical jars in Room 28 added a 
new type to the ceramics of the Southwest. Deposited in one of the 
group of ceremonial rooms and next to the one containing the ceremonial 
sticks, these jars were undoubtedly used in certain ceremonial observe 
ances and may have been made for the express purpose of holding the 
ceremonial sticks as part of altar paraphernalia. 

The stone and bone implements, although representing a wide range 
of form and uses, present no series worthy of special note other than the 



378 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII. 

descriptions as given in the notes relating to the rooms in which they 
were found. Objects of a ceremonial nature, fashioned from both of 
these materials, were found, including the decorated stone mortar, a 
large metate with a scroll design pecked about the surface surrounding 
the grinding trough, and with the trough itself covered with red paint, 
and other smaller metates that, judging from their form, must have been 
used for the grinding of pigments for ceremonial purposes. The cere- 
monial use of pulverized white sandstone had reached such proportions 
that a special room for the preparation of such material became a neces- 
sity and this room presented one of the few large stone mortars and the 
only one that was found in place. Belonging to the same series of rooms 
was the one containing the compound metates in situ in which, no doubt, 
meal for ceremonies was ground. ■ Opposed to this was the long row of 
mealing bins in one of the northern rooms. In the arrangement of the 
bins and the slope of the supports for the individual metates this utili- 
tarian type practically duplicates similar milling places in some of our 
modern pueblos. Owing to the fact that these bins were found in one of 
the later portions of the pueblo and in view of the lack of such rows of 
bins in the older rooms, it is possible that this type of multiple mealing 
places was a development of the last few years of occupancy. 

Of the bone objects, the most elaborate were the inlaid scrapers 
found in Room 38. Many other scrapers of similar form, but with no 
attempt at decoration save an occasional figure scratched near the handle 
end, were found in varying parts of the pueblo. There was no evidence 
of human bones having been employed in the preparation of ornaments 
or implements. The finding of cracked and calcined human bones in 
some of the rooms brings up the question of the eating of human flesh 
by the people of this pueblo. There was no evidence of human bodies 
having been buried in rooms above the first floor and only portions of 
skeletons were in evidence in Rooms 61 and 80 which contained broken 
and charred bones. During the period of our work in Pueblo Bonito 
some of our Navajo workmen cleaned out a number of rooms in Penasco 
Blanco and in one of these a great many human bones were found. 
Some of these, including portions of the skull, were charred, and the 
majority of the long bones had been cracked open and presented the 
same appearance as do the animal bones that have been treated in a 
similar way for the extraction of the marrow. It would therefore seem 
that these Pueblo Indians, either through stress of hunger or tor religious 
reasons, had occasionally resorted to the eating of human flesh. 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 379 

The utilization of shell for ornaments and for other purposes is shown 
by the fragments of shell mosaics, entire abalone shells used as receptacles 
for turquoise and shell ornaments, shell bracelets, pendants, and beads 
and shell trumpets made of the entire shell of a univalve. 

Their basketry was represented by many examples, but this 
particular group suffered more through decay than any of the other 
groups mentioned. Various sizes of the bowl type were found and a 
general deposit of large and small baskets accompanied the pottery 
vessels in the bins that were found under the floors in Room 62. These 
bins, with stone sides and bottoms, filled with pottery and baskets, and 
partly covered with large tray-shaped baskets, remind one of similar 
deposits found in the Basket Maker region of southern Utah and north- 
ern Arizona. As the southern range of this seemingly restricted people is 
not known, it is impossible to state how near to the Chaco their southern- 
most boundaries extended, but it is possible that groups or individuals 
of this interesting tribe may have joined the people who occupied Pueblo 
Bonito and that their former practices are reflected in this series of 
deposits. 

An exhaustive comparative study of the artifacts from this ruin must 
be left for the future student but it is the hope of the writer that the 
recording of these unembellished field notes may be of some assistance to 
others who may elect to carry on investigations in the Chaco Canon and 
especially in Pueblo Bonito. 



NOTES ON PUEBLO BONITO. 

By N. C. Nelson. 



381 



NOTES ON PUEBLO BONITO. 

At the suggestion of the Editor, I have attempted below to summar- 
ize the results of some preliminary observations made under the auspices 
of the American Museum in July, 1916, when I spent two weeks at 
Pueblo Bonito. During the preceding fall I accidentally traversed the 
Chaco Canon, and naturally look rough notes, plots, and photographs 
covering the principal ruins. My interest was immediately excited by 
the refuse heaps at Penasco Blanco, Bonito, Chettro Kettle, and Alto, 
with the result that permission was sought to test them out. This 
permit was granted but was later restricted to Pueblo Bonito, to which 
I accordingly limited my attention. The actual work done may be dealt 
with under four separate heads: the test sections of the refuse heaps, 
pottery samples from the Chaco ruins, observations on the architectural 
development of Pueblo Bonito, and, finally, some notes on the rather 
remarkable piece of engineering work connected with the detached 
eliff block back of the ruin. 

The Refuse Sections. 
In spite of the comparatively uniform character of the broken pot- 
tery scattered about all but one of the ruins of the Chaco region, it 
seemed a, priori impossible that stylistic changes should not have taken 
place during the long interval of occupation suggested by the size of 
the refuse heaps. It was with some confidence, therefore, that small 
trial sections were made of each of the two somewhat distinct heaps lying 
in front of Pueblo Bonito. These sections measured 2 by 4 feet on the 
horizontal and reached a depth of 11 feet 6 inches in the eastern heap 
and slightly over 16 feet in the western. The broken sherds found were 
segregated for each 6-inch level and totaled 1040 and 1083 for the 
respective sections. Mr. Earl H. Morris assisted with the work, which 
occupied about five days. The results were thoroughly disappointing 
— so disappointing that I have not hitherto considered it worth while to 
publish the data until I could section the mounds on a larger scale. The 
fact seems to be that, as was also discovered long ago by Mr. Pepper, the 
mounds are not made up exclusively of household refuse, but include a 
good deal of broken rock as well as adobe mortar. In other words, the 
mounds have accumulated at a more rapid rate than has ordinarily been 
the case. In my sections this rock and adobe material was especially 
excessive in the middle third and probably has intimate connection with 
changes or restorations that took place in the great communal house. 

383 



384 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

At the present time, when it seems likely that investigation of the 
Chaco ruins is to be carried forward by other institutions, and when con- 
sequently my chances of following up the subject any further come to an 
end, it seems proper that I should submit such results as I have. Per- 
haps they may encourage others to carry the study to completion. The 
pottery fragments have accordingly been tabulated and the results, while 
unsatisfactory, are not so absolutely useless as at first appeared. In 
effecting the tabulations the sherds were segregated into major groups, 
as follows: corrugated, black-on- white, red, and shiny black wa,res. 
Each group was further subdivided according to the type of decorative 
element or combination of elements exhibited. This subdivision, in the 
case of the black-on-white ware alone, yielded more than twenty varia- 
tions. No account has been taken of the nature of the vessels repre- 
sented, only of the general type of the ware and its particular style of 
decoration. 

By comparing the two tables consistent agreement is found on the 
following points: — 

1. Corrugated ware is present from top to bottom, constituting in 
one section a fourth and in the other section something less than a third 
of the whole. 

2. Red ware occurs very sparingly and, what is more to the point, 
is either exceedingly scarce or altogether absent in the lower half and 
grows numerically stronger toward the top. 

3. Shiny black ware, of the type at home in the Tularosa Valley 
region, is somewhat more plentiful, but this also is either very scarce or 
totally absent at the bottom, though well represented in the upper levels. 

4. The most typical varieties of the black-on-white ware, such as 
those with hachured ornamentation, combined solid and hachured, plain 
solid pattern, solid figures (or lines) edged with dots, widely spaced 
parallel thin lines, checker patterns, and interlocking curvilineal ele- 
ments, occur either steadily or sporadically from top to bottom. The 
first-mentioned, i. e., the hachured variety, is throughout the sections 
numerically about as strong as all the other varieties combined. This is 
one of the surprises, for I had expected that type of decoration to have 
been most popular in late times and the ware having the solid figures 
(or lines) with dotted or escalloped margins to have been comparatively 
common in early times. 

5. The fine, smooth-surfaced variety of black-on-white ware that 
is most easily recognized as typical Mesa Verde appears first toward the 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 385 

middle of the sections and shows distinct signs of weakening again toward 
the top. 

6. All groups and varieties of wares tend to be numerically strong 
in the upper third, weak in the middle third, strong again at the top of 
the lower third, and, finally, weak again near the bottom of both sec- 
tions. The explanation of this lies no doubt largely in the presence or 
absence of the rock-and-adobe debris before mentioned. 

7. Judged by the relative positions in the two sections at which cor- 
responding changes in the ceramics and the rock-and-adobe features 
take place, it would seem probable that the eastern mound was started 
at a somewhat later date than the western. 

It is not my purpose to discuss further the significance of the preced- 
ing inductions, tempting though it is in connection with points 2, 3, 
and 5. The sporadic gaps in the tables for several varieties of decoration 
that actually range from top to bottom of the refuse clearly show that 
my sections were too small and that therefore any conclusions based on 
the available results would have to be regarded as purely tentative. The 
undertaking was designedly preliminary and as such, I should say, is 
sufficiently promising to warrant investigation on a larger scale. 

Pottery of the Chaco Region. 

Having thus failed to obtain decisive results about the time distri- 
bution of the different pottery styles represented in the Bonito refuse 
sections, there still remains the possibility of gaining some light on the 
subject from the broken sherds gathered on the surface about the various 
ruins of the locality. 

The data available for such study consist of sherds collected by my- 
self in 1915, together with some additions obtained by Dr. Brdlicka 
and by the Hyde Expedition in former years. The sites represented by 
these collections include all the larger and many of the smaller ruins 
ranging from Pueblo Pintado on the east to Penasco Blanco and Kin- 
benaiola on the west and thence south as far as Crown Point. Other 
ruins characterized by the Chaco types of pottery exist in distant parts, 
east, south, and west — not to mention intermixture on the north — but 
of these more at some future time. 

The data unfortunately are not of a character to yield reliable quan- 
titative results, such as could be reduced to a percentage basis after the 
manner employed by Professor Kroeber and Dr. Spier. My own material 
was gathered with no statistical objects in view. At the time, the aim 
was simply to obtain as full a record as possible of the presence or 



386 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

absence of the various styles of decoration. In consequence of this, 
duplicates of any given style were not picked up in unlimited numbers; 
and, besides, in the preliminaiy grouping of the sherds — done on the 
spot — the more imperfect examples were left behind. Nevertheless, 
the amounts gathered vary directly with the richness of the sites and 
the samples thus procured range from 25 pieces at Pueblo del Arroyo to 
191 at Pueblo Pintado. In the case of the small-house ruins, the samples 
taken were proportionately smaller, and wherever these small ruins 
occurred in groups the pottery samples taken were lumped together. I 
take pains to state all these conditions so that the future student who 
attempts to apply statistical methods may profit by the neglects and 
errors here noted. But while the resulting analysis of the material at 
hand will thus have doubtful quantitative value, the qualitative char- 
acter remains unimpaired — in fact is heightened — and should serve as an 
ultimate check on the findings in the refuse sections. 

The table devised covers nineteen lots of sherds, tabulating some 
1250 pieces. The same method of classification was followed as in the 
case of the section material dealt with above. The results, it may be 
stated at once, are in all their broader aspects remarkably like those 
observed in the refuse heaps and would therefore seem to confirm the 
essential validity of those findings. That is to say, while there is much 
irregularity in the occurrence of many of the less conspicuous types of 
ware, those wares most typical of the Chaco are present almost every- 
where. The few points perhaps worthy of note are the following: — 

1. Corrugated wares with decorative designs, punched or incised, 
appear to be absent in the small-house ruins. 

2. A certain style of black-on-white ware, the decoration on which 
consists of straight lines each crossed by a zigzagging line, resulting 
in two opposed series of small alternating triangles, is confined almost 
entirely to the small-house ruins. 

3. True Mesa Verde ware occurs at only seven sites, and ware 
resembling that of the Mesa Verde is found at five additional places. 
The absences are noticeably confined to the small-house sites and to the 
distant ruins at Crown Point. 

4. Pueblo Wejegi alone yielded no straight-line hachured decora- 
tion, while, on the other hand, decorative elements with dotted margins 
are well represented. This condition is so singular and unexpected that 
for the present I hesitate to accept it as anything but an accident. 
Wejegi, because of its comparatively excellent state of preservation, I 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 387 

have been inclined to regard as of late date. Moreover, I have thought 
it a pueblo which was never brought to completion. At any rate, it 
certainly was not inhabited for any length of time because, for one thing, 
pottery fragments are scarce in its vicinity, only thirty-six pieces being 
picked up. 

5. The shiny black ware of Tularosa origin is completely absent ex- 
cept for a single piece, found at Pueblo Pintado. This remarkable con- 
sistency shows with what caution statistical results based upon limited 
data must be regarded; for while this Tularosa ware is doubtless scarce 
in the Chaco region, and while not a single fragment was found among the 
242 picked up on the surface about Pueblo Bonito, yet in the Bonito 
refuse this ware ranged as high as eighteen percent in the upper levels of 
the sections. 

There are other points of more or less significance, but as it is ob- 
vious that our data, if not exactly inadequate, at least require extended 
treatment, we may as well stop at once. Summing up, as far as we have 
gone, therefore, it may be stated that the Chaco ceramics underwent no 
such complete revolutionary changes as have taken place in the Rio 
Grande region and elsewhere. At the same time it is safe to affirm that 
several minor changes — the disappearance of certain design elements 
and the appearance of others — did take place during the long course of 
occupation. There remains but to add that these minor changes dealt 
with on a strictly quantitative basis would undoubtedly yield chrono- 
logical results such as should enable us to arrange the Chaco ruins in their 
approximate relative order of antiquity. This work could probably best 
be done on the ground and in view of the facts presented by point 5 
would have to be tolerably exhaustive. 

Architectural Features of the Bonito Ruin. 
Never having seen a satisfactory plot or groundplan of Bonito, I 
took occasion for my own satisfaction to make one, devoting some three 
days to the task. My only means were a table, a compass, a steel tape, 
and some stakes; but I venture to hope that the general outline of the 
ruin as a whole, and also the really visible details of it along the southern 
and eastern sides, may be found to be tolerably correct. For although 
not made with this publication in mind, the plot has served, at least in 
part, as the basis for the appended groundplan, Mr. B. T. B. Hyde 
having, I believe, made some slight modifications as well as some addi- 
tions based upon Mr. Pepper's photographs, in that way making the 
groundplan exhibit features that are not now exposed to view. However. 






388 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

as the appended groundplan differs in several minor particulars from 
mine, e.g., in the vicinity of Room 76, I do not wish to be held entirely 
responsible for notable errors that may be discovered. 

In connection with this plotting, the various types of masonry, as 
well as the independent systems of walls to be seen in different parts of 
the ruin, forced themselves upon my attention. Doubtless the author of 
the paper has already treated the subject at length, he having had 
opportunity to see much more of the evidence during the process of ex- 
cavation than is now visible, and 1 need not trespass on his territory 
beyond merely indicating the general nature of my observations and the 
conclusions drawn from them. 

Briefly stated, then, and in words written on the spot, one cannot 
view the remains of Pueblo Bonito for long without becoming aware that 
the place has had an exceptionally long and interesting history. Noth- 
ing short of the complete clearance of the ruin will enable us to tell the 
details of that history, but some of the facts are obvious at the present 
moment. Bonito was not originally conceived as a complete unit struc- 
ture, as was the case probably with some of the other ruins in the Chaco, 
its present size and shape having been the result rather of many altera- 
tions and additions. The evidence for this is twofold. First, the excava- 
tions have revealed in several places ancient substructures that form no 
part of the later pueblo. The deeply buried walls are not sufficiently 
massive and besides do not conform to the final groundplan. Second, the 
superstructure itself, or the finally completed Pueblo Bonito as we see 
it above the ground level, is made up of two, perhaps four or five, dis- 
tinctly different types of masonry, presumably not all of the same date. 

The most ornate, if not the most substantial of the masonry, viz., 
that made of surfaced blocks laid in fairly regular horizontal courses and 
spaced both horizontally and sometimes vertically by two or more courses 
of fine chinking, would seem to be of comparatively ancient date. Of 
later date, undoubtedly, is the unchinked masonry, laid up with little 
or no mortar and for the most part composed of small and thin rough- 
surfaced slabs, but also often interspersed with more or less regular 
courses of fair-sized blocks. Finally, there is a degenerated form of the 
last-mentioned type of masonry, the courses of which are laid rather 
irregularly, often of sharp-edged slabs, spaced with a good deal of mortar. 
This masonry, which I venture to guess to be the latest of all, is especially 
noticeable in the northwest portion of the ruin, though it is not at all 
abundant. My reason for believing the chinked masonry to be the oldest 
is that it is characteristic of the central portion of the ruin, in particular 



1920.] Pepper, Pueblo Bonito. 389 

of the back wall, beginning off Room 15 and running southwest beyond 
Room 116, where it swings into the interior of the structure and is lost 
track of finally in the vicinity of Rooms 23 and 25. In the opposite 
direction another trace of this masonry appears in the interior, as, for 
example, in Room 60. What the groundplan of the Bonito just preceding 
the present one was like is uncertain, perhaps will always remain so; 
but I should not be surprised to learn that it had been oval, or essentially 
of the same nature as that of Penasco Blanco. In any case, it is hardly 
to be disputed that the southwest corner, and also nearly the whole 
eastern wing, were comparatively late additions. 

The manner of joining the chinked and unchinked masonry in the 
rear wall off Room 15 forms an interesting study, particularly with 
respect to the slant of the joint and the introduction of nearly regularly 
spaced binding timbers. From the slant of the joint I was at first dis- 
posed to conclude that the unchinked masonry must be of late date, and 
was greatly puzzled until Mrs. Nelson called my attention to the un- 
chinked masonry forming the top story a little to the west, above the 
Wetherill cabin. One point especially worthy of notice is that the old 
outer wall of chinked masonry contains several doorways, a fact not 
generally observed in the other types of masonry. But here again 1 
am simply stating my impressions for what they may be worth, hoping 
that some one else may find them useful as a starting point for exhaustive 
study. It would not seem too much to expect that further investigation 
of the masonry in all the Chaco ruins might lead to valuable conclusions 
in regard to their relative dates of occupation. 

Other points of interest suitable for consideration are the apparent 
eastward extension of the front wall, the many evidences that Bonito 
was in part destroyed by fire, and so on; but these matters may better 
be left for the future excavator. 

The Shored-Up Cliff Block. 
The vertical canon wall directly behind Pueblo Bonito has suffered 
a number of fractures, with the result that several great blocks have 
been detached from the main cliff. These blocks still stand erect, but 
have settled more or less into the alluvium of the canon floor. One of 
them has been considerably broken up, the fallen sharp-edged bowlders 
having rolled away from the cliff base almost across the ninety-foot 
interval to the wall of the pueblo. Whether this collapse happened 
during the occupation of the village is an interesting problem; but at 
any rate it is certain that the inhabitants were fully aware of the damag- 
ing possibilities of these blocks and took precautions accordingly. 



390 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 

The easternmost, and probably also the largest of these detached 
blocks, has a visible height of about 100 feet, is 150 feet long, and aver- 
ages perhaps 20 feet in thickness ( I have lost some of my measurements) . 
In other words, the block is an immense thing, weighing not less than 
twenty thousand tons. As a result of erosion and the falling away of the 
lower front portion, up to a particular cleavage plane some 26 feet above 
the canon floor, this block has assumed a wedge-like shape, and unsup- 
ported would be in imminent danger of toppling over. If this had hap- 
pened, it would have meant certain destruction to the adjacent portion 
of the pueblo and doubtless considerable loss of life. It is most interest- 
ing, therefore, to see how the "ancient engineers" met this emergency. 

What they did was to support the block with a series of heavy timber 
props, which they further reinforced by an extensive terraced masonry 
pier. Precisely how much labor was expended on the undertaking is 
uncertain, because only excavation can reveal how much of a cavity was 
eroded in the front base of the block and likewise how deep the supporting 
masonry may extend into the alluvium of the canon floor. Superficial 
indications are that they built a foundation pier of solid masonry more 
than 12 feet high and from 18 to 26 feet or more broad, along the whole 
extent of the 150-foot block. At this 12- foot level they left a terrace, or, 
in other words, drew in the width of the pier to a line lying just outside 
the plane of the upper front face of the cliff block. The face of this sec- 
ondary pier slopes gently toward the block, and at a height of 14 feet 
doubtless met the front and top of the overhang, i.e., the cleavage plane 
before mentioned, which marks the upper limit of erosion in the block. 
Embodied in this upper masonry pier are the nearly upright timber 
supports above referred to. The half dozen props still visible are placed 
from 6 to 15 feet apart and are logs of spruce or pine 10 to 12 inches in 
diameter. Neither the masonry nor the props reaches the shoulder of 
the cliff block at present, and there is even some doubt that the upper 
part of the masonry in question ever was a solid mass, filling out the 
cavities in the cliff block; possibly it was a wall with a number of rooms 
behind it. 

Whatever the case, there is no evidence that the great cliff block 
has settled subsequent to the construction of the pier, for had it so much 
as begun to lean on the wooden props the weight would undoubtedly 
have split them. Nevertheless, though the threatening danger may not 
really have been imminent during the lifetime of Pueblo Bonito, it seems 
probable that the sensible procedure of the great builders of the Chaco 
will save the cliff block indefinitely, simply by preventing further ero- 
sion- at its base. 






I 



. y, Univ. or 

r 

North Carolina 



INDEX 



Adobe, floors of, 31, 70-71, 178, 216, 217, 

298, 322, 326, 328. See also, Floors. 
Altar, in kiva, 82; painting, 68-C9; sand, 

112; slab, design board possibly an, 

159. 
Animal, bones, possible use of, 37, 43, 47, 

55-56, 67; claws, ends of ceremonial 

sticks, 142-146; figures, modeled in 

pottery, 100-101; form, stone, 174; 

form, stone pipe in, 192; head, quart- 

zite pebble resembling, 140. 
Antler, bodkins of, 103; implements of, 

103; object of, 56; prong of, 66; 

remains of implements of, 126; work 

in, 93. 
Architecture, description of, 31-32, 71; 

north central part of pueblo, 29, 387; 

prehistoric Southwestern dwellings, 

375. See also, Doorways, Ceilings, 

Floors, Walls. 
Arrow points, chalcedony and cbsidian, 

207; notched, 196-197; sacrificial 

breaking of, 56; stone, 37; types of, 68. 
Arrows, compound reed, 159-161; reed, 

ends of, 31; reed, feathering and 

painting, 36-37; reed, fragments of, 

97; sections of reed, 109. 
Arrow-smo ether, 92. 
Art, advanced stage of, 377. 
Artifacts, range of, 376. 
Awls, bone, 55, 65, 92, 103, 111, 126; 

bone, in burial mound, 347, 350. 

Balls, sandstone, 138. 

Bandelier, A. F., cited, 14, 26. 

Basket, inlaid with turquoise, 164, 169, 
173; mosaic of shell and turquoise on, 
174-175; of yucca leaves, 96. 

Basket Maker People, 379. 

Basketry, coiled and twilled, 107; ex- 
amples of, 36, 69, 379. 

Baskets, found in pockets, 234, 235; 
fragments of, 162. 

Beads, bird bone, 103; forms of, in kiva, 
84; shell, 53, 69, 70, 83, 125, 210, 213; 
stone, 69; turquoise, 53, 83, 125, 210, 
213. 



Beams, description of ceiling, 129, 199, 
204, 215, 218, 222, 232, 284, 285, 290, 
293, 298, 300, 304, 317, 318, 319, 320, 
325, 326, 330; floor, description of, 
31-32, 70, 107, 223, 297, 298, 326, 328; 
protruding from walls, 224, 229, 232; 
supports of, 210, 215, 218, 219, 231- 
232, 239, 298, 299, 306, 322, 323, 329. 

Bell, copper, 83, 2c9, 324-325. 

Bench, construction of, 328; description 
of, 207-208, 263, 292, 307, 314, 318; 
in kiva, 81, 82, 251, 269; sandstone, 
199. 

Bin, description of, 308; U-shaped, 256. 

Bins, angular, 254-255; construction of, 
200,295-297; double tier, 281; indica- 
tion of use of, 280; multiple mealing, 
378; storing grain, 85, 270, 273, 279- 
283; under floors, 379. 

Bird, figure, in pottery, 100, 101; form, 
of hematite, 134-135; skeletons of, 
195. 

Blackware, bowls, 38; shiny, proportion 
in Bonito refuse heap, 384. 

Black-on-white ware, 386; varieties of, 
384, 385. 

Bodkins, of antler, 103; bone, 92, 98. 

Bone, celt in burial mound, 341; imple- 
ments made of, 92, 98, 105, 237, 377- 
378; objects of, 37; ornament of, 333; 
worked, distribution of, 366-368. 

Bones, animal, 37, 43; animal, use of, 55- 
56; animal and bird, 47, 67, 91, 298; 
human, possible use of, 378. 

Bowls, blackware, 38; broken, 138; 
grayware, 139-140, 190; pottery, 118, 
119; redware, 221. 

Brush covering, for ceiling poles, 217. 

Buckskin, attached to ceremonial sticks, 
146; marked with red paint, 96; pieces 
of, 31 ; sticks probably used in cutting, 
35, 48, 108; worked pieces of, 103, 105. 

Building materials, influenced by geo- 
logical environment, 375. « 

Burden band, cotton, 108. 

Burial customs, 264, 267; mounds, exca- 
vation of, 26-27, 339-342, 347-350; 



391 



392 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vcl. XXVII, 



rooms, 138, 163, 376, 378. 
Burials, of macaws, 194-195. 

Cages, for macaws, 194. 

Cannibalism, possible evidence of, 378. 

Carved animal claws, on ceremonial 
sticks, 145-146. 

Cedarbark, tied with yucca cord, 297. 

Ceiling, beams, 129, 199, 204, 215, 218, 
222, 232, 284, 285, 290, 293, 298, 300, 
304, 317, 318, 319, 320, 325, 326, 330; 
construction, 15, 44, 45, 79-80, 164, 
217, 318, 331; supports, 40, 200, 206. 

Ceilings, evolution of construction, 375. 

Celt, bone, 341. 

Cemeteries, 376. 

Ceremonial, deposit in kiva, 83-84, 
251-253; metate, 59; mortar, 58; 
object, problematic, 108-109; objects, 
59, 61, 378; rooms, 84, 195, 251-253, 
375; stick, 36, 66, 69-70, 108, 147; 
stick, antler and cottonwood, 157; 
stick, fragment of, 162; sticks, 31, 
48-49; sticks, carved ends, 143-145; 
sticks, decoration of, 55; sticks, 
description of, 61, 86, 129, 188; sticks, 
fine state of preservation, 377; sticks, 
probable use of, 145, 146, 157; sticks, 
type 1, 143-145; sticks, type 2, 145- 
146; sticks, type 3, 146-147; sticks, 
type 4, 148, 157-158; sticks, types of, 
140-158; stone, 58. 

Ceremonies, feathers used in, 30; 
materials probably used in, 62; room 
for, 112, 129; room for grinding 
materials used in, 84-86; specimens 
possibly used in, 47-48, 53. 

Ceremony, indications of house-building, 
253; pipe probably used in, 65; pot- 
tery object possibly used in, 80, 267, 
268. 

Chaco Canon, geographical position of, 
13. 

Chalcedony, beak-like object of, 190-191 

Circular stone, description of, 187. 

Clan, ceremonies, angular room for, 375. 

Cliff, block, shored-up, description, 389- 
390; profile, 25. 



Cloisonne work, on sandstone, 51-52, 53. 

Closet, description of, 239, 268. 

Closet-like opening, 207. 

Cloth, 136; cotton, 107-108; object 
covered with, 161; yucca cord, 138. 

Club, elk antler, 161. 

Concretion, limonite, used as pestle, 125. 

Concretions, chalcedony, 47, 48, 63; 
of various stones, 66. 

Construction, of houses, materials for, 
375; of rooms, 212, 213, 215, 262. 
See also, Walls. 

Copper, bell of, 106, 269, 324-325; ham- 
mered, 117, 122; native, 37. 

Cord, attached to feather sticks, 146; 
cotton, 96, 148, 157; knotted, for 
feathering of ceremonial sticks, 188; 
methods of attaching to feathers, 29- 
30; yucca fiber, 31, 43, 144, 146, 148; 
yucca and human hair, 49; yucca, two- 
strand, 96. 

Corn, remains of, 298; silk, probable use 
of, 37. 

Corrugated, grayware, 183, 190; jar, 221; 
olla, 112; redware, 133; ware, cooking 
jars, 377; ware, proportion of, in refuse 
heap, 384; wares, with decorative 
designs, 386. 

Cupboards, 256. . 

Curved sticks, 157-158; ceremonial, 108. 

Cylindrical jars, 117, 198-199, 210; 
extremes of size of, 121; grayware, 
133, 134; pottery, Cakchiquel com- 
pared with that of Bonito, 121; pot- 
tery, 119, 120-122; probably for 
ceremonial use, 377. 

Deadfall trap, 108. 

Debris, character of, 32, 35; depth of, 
112, 117. 

Decoration, angular type ceremonial 
stick, 158; Cakchiquel cylindrical 
pottery, 122; cylindrical jars, 121; 
grayware bowls, 190; grayware jar, 
139; grayware pitcher, 139; gray- 
ware pottery, 93; on metate, 90; 
on pipes, 50; of pottery, 38-39, 66, 70, 
100, 119, 384; on pottery fragments, 



1920. 



Index. 



393 



67-68; on pottery pipe, 54, 65; 
pottery in shape of frog, 91; on shell, 
69; on squash form vessel, 122. 

Design, on basket, 107; board, 158-159; 
on cloisonne object, 52, 53; cylindrical 
grayware jar, 133, 134; geometrical, 
on wooden slab, 159; on grayware 
bowl, 131, 132, 136; on grayware 
dipper, 95; on grayware mugs, 129- 
130, 136; on grayware pitchers, 133, 
136, 140; grayware pottery, 377; 
grayware water jar, 132; interlocking, 
on grayware bowls, 139-140; on 
pitcher, 133; on pottery bowl, 95; 
stamped, yucca cord cloth, 138; on 
whiteware jar, 130; wooden tablets 
and stone mortar, 377; woven sandal, 
95. 

Dice, wooden, 108. 

Dimensions, of Pueblo Bonito, 16; of 
rooms, 32, 43, 44, 45, 46-47, 49, 50, 61, 
62, 67, 81, 86, 89, 92, 93, 95, 98, 112, 
127-128, 162, 163, 178, 180, 183, 184, 
195, 197, 198, 199, 200, 204-205, 206, 
207, 208, 209, 210, 213, 215, 216, 217, 
218, 219, 220, 221, 222-223, 229-230, 
233, 234, 235-236, 243, 248, 255, 256, 
257, 258, 262, 263, 267, 268, 317, 353- 
358; sections in refuse heap, 383. 

Dipper, fragments of, 99; grayware, 136; 
with mended handle, 101; pottery, 
38. 

Distribution, by rooms, pottery types, 
359-362; stone objects, 363-365; 
worked bone, 366-368. 

Dodge, Richard E., survey of ruin by, 
23-25. 

Dog, remains of found, 184, 197. 

Door, opening, 300-301. 

Doorstep, of flat stones, 222. 

Doorway, broad type, 295, 299; circular, 
183; closed, 61, 65, 129, 195, 218, 222, 
231, 241, 282, 284, 297, 303, 334, 339; 
closed, rectangular, 33, 207, 255, 308, 
311, 314, 316; closed, T-shaped, 292; 
construction of, 242, 279-280, 281; 
corner, 316; description of, 43, 44, 
45, 47, 89-90, 129, 163, 203, 206, 207, 



217, 224, 286, 290, 321, 334; form of, 
162-163, 178; narrow, 302-303, 304; 
old, 315; rectangular, 183, 198, 205, 
206, 215, 220, 221, 256, 284-285, 291, 
293, 294, 295, 299, 300, 301, 309, 314, 
315, 324, 327, 328; rounded, rectangu- 
lar, 309; sealed, 127, 205; square, 
231, 233, 284, 298, 297, 301; T-shaped, 
127, 179, 309; wide-topped type, 293- 
294. 

Doorways, construction of, 127, 238- 
239, 263, 270,331-332; description of, 
71, 79, 98, 180, 184, 186, 196, 203, 209, 
210, 236, 254, 256, 257, 258, 264, 283, 
314-315, 322-323; rectangular, 208-209, 
221, 284, 290, 305, 317, 319, 325, 329, 
330; T-shaped, 199; types of, 375. 

Drainage, at Bonito, 25. 

Drill, chalcedony, 66. 

Dry paintings, sandstone possibly used 
for, 112. 

Dumb-bell form ceremonial stick, 158. 

Dump, study of sections in, 24. 

Effigy, jars, 100-101; pottery, 192; 

pottery, distribution of, 194. 
Estufas, see Kiva. 
Excavations, details of, 29-351; depth 

of, 69, 90, 320; in refuse heap, 383. 

Feather, bands, fragments of, 30-31. 

Feathers, on arrows, 36-37; methods of 
attaching to arrows, 109, 111, 160; 
evidence of attachment to ceremonial 
sticks, 144-145, 146. 

Feather-work, description of, 29-30, 

Fetich, quartzite pebble as, 140; sand- 
stone, 105. 

Fewkes, J. W., cited, 253. 

Finger marks, on plastered wall, 304. 

Fire, destruction of rooms by, 92, 127, 
128; effects of, on specimens, 127; 
evidences of, 69, 208, 209, 221, 229, 
238, 269, 270, 281, 283, 284, 295, 316. 

Firedrill, 48, 108. 

Fireplace, below buried floor, 243, 244; 
below floor, 243; central in kivas, 84; 
circular, 194; construction of, 221, 257, 



394 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 



263, 270, 299; description of, 40, 178, 
254, 256, 269, 286, 289, 308, 325; 
irregular, 197, 244-245; pan-shaped, 
198; a possible, 203; shallow rect- 
angular, 248. 

Fire stick, 180. , 

Flageolets, description of, 164. 

Flattened end ceremonial sticks, 146, 148. 

Floors, adobe, 29, 31, 70-71, 178, 217, 
298, 322, 328; adobe and cedarbark, 
216, 326; beams, 297, 298; buried 
233-234, 243; construction, 178- 
179, 297, 331; depressions and pits in, 
203; description of, 126, 224, 236, 263, 
283, 290, 301, 311, 316, 324; of kiva, 
251, 269; levels, 316; method of 
strengthening, 163-164; plastered, 302, 
320; resting on cross beams, 223. 

Flutes, wooden, 109. 

Foreshafts, of arrows, 37, 160, 326, 327. 

Form of rooms, 32, 45, 49, 50, 86, 89, 
92, 93, 178, 180, 184, 195, 200, 204, 
205, 206, 207, 209, 210, 221, 236, 237, 
256, 257, 258, 262, 264, 268, 375. 

Foundations for walls, 216, 219, 317, 318, 
328. 

Frog, jet, with turquoise inlay, 186; 
pottery vessel in shape of, 91. 

Gambling stick, 53. 
Game, stick, 103, 157, 184; Zufii, 147. 
Gamirg sticks, 35, 36, 48, 108, 147. 
Geographical conditions, changes in at 

Bonito, 23-24. 
Geological survey, Chaco Can on, 1, 23- 

24, 25. 
Graves, description of, 217; stone, in 

burial mound, 341, 342. 
Gray ware, bowls, 38, 66, 131, 136; with 

designs in black, 377; mugs, 129-130; 

pitcher, 136; pottery, 53, 95, 101, 

136, 139, 183, 190; pottery showing 

modeling, 100. 
Gregg, Josiah, description of Bonito by, 

13, 14. 
Grinding, room, 84-86; slabs, sandstone, 

105, 137; stones, 58, 112. 
Grooved stone, in burial mound, 348- 

349. 



Groundplan, of Bonito, construction of, 

23, 387-388. 
Gypsum, used on walls, 93. 

Hachured designs, black-on-white ware, 

384. 
Hammer, double-pointed, 60. 
Hammers, grooved, 187. 
Hammerstones, 38, 53; grooved, 60-61. 
Hammond, J. H., description of room 

by, 15-16. 
Handle, dipper, mended, 333; of pitcher, 

133. 
Handles, cylindrical grayware jar, 133- 

134; pottery vessels, development of, 

120-121; pottery vessels, types of, 

139, 140. 
Hand stones, in grinding of sandstone, 

187. 
Height, of Pueblo Bonito, 14; height of 

walls, see Walls. 
Hematite, ornament of, 134-135. 
Hoe, sandstone, 188; stone, 67. 
House-building ceremony, Hopi, 253. 
Human, form, pottery in, 377; remains, 

evidences of, 24. 
Hyde, B. Talbot B., cited, 1, 23. 
Hyde, Frederick E., Jr., cited, 1. 

Implements, of bone, 92, 98, 103, 237, 

377-378; sandstone, problematic, 183- 

184; sandstone, for wood working, 86; 

stone, 66, 105, 206, 211, 213, 267. 
Impressions, hand on walls, 304. 
Incense burner, pottery vessel suggesting, 

208, 209. 
Inlays, jet, 125; jet and turquoise, 69; 

for making mosaics, 66; pebble drilled 

for, 46. 
Irrigation, in Chaco Canon, Navajo 

tradition of, 26. 

Jackson, William H., cited, 13, 16-18. 

Jar, covers, sandstone, 38, 122, 125, 128, 
134, 137, 139, 140, 183, 188; cover, 
stone, 118, 120; cylindrical grayware, 
140; grayware, 101, 139; rests, yucca 
leaf, 96; rests, 107. 

Jars, 120. 



1920. 



Index. 



395 



Jet, frog, with turquoise inlay, 186; in- 
lays, 69, 125; ornament of, 137, 332; 
tablet of, 186. 

Kicking, game, 36; stick, 97, 108, 162. 
Kilt, woven cotton, 107. 
Kinbenaiola, 385. 
Kiva, buried, 111; descriptions of, 15, 18, 

221, 251-254, 264, 269, 375; detailed 

description of excavation of, 81-84; 

posts, offerings in, 1 ; typical, 262. 
Knife, chalcedony, 37; chalcedony, 

sacrificial breaking of, 56; stone, 

hafted, 326. 
Knives, wooden, 97. 
Knots, kinds used in feather-work, 144. 

Ladder, portion of, 198. 

Lapstone, 58, 86; black slate, 187; sand- 
stone, 53, 91-92. 

Lintels, description of, 33, 79, 90, 183, 
205, 218, 221, 222, 233, 258, 291, 293, 
295, 299-300, 303, 305, 309, 313-314, 
315, 322, 323, 324, 328, 332, 334. 

Logs, protruding, 315; source of, used in 
building Bonito, Navajo tradition, 26. 

Loop, of wood, 222. 

Macaw, remains in ceremonial room, 
375-376; skeletons, 194-195. 

Manos, descriptions of, 43, 53, 61, 85, 91, 
187. 

Masonry, descriptions and types of, 17- 
18, 29, 32, 47, 50, 54, 71, 89, 98, 99, 
112, 183, 196, 199, 200, 203, 205, 206, 
209, 210, 215, 216, 218-219, 220, 222, 
224, 229, 232, 236, 238, 241, 242, 254, 
255, 256, 257, 258, 262-263, 264, 268- 
269, 270, 289, 290, 291, 293-294, 297- 
298, 299, 300-301, 302-304, 305, 308- 
309,311, 313-316, 317, 318, 319, 321, 
322, 323, 324, 325, 326, 328, 329, 330, 
331-333, 334, 339, 388, 389. 

Matting, over roof of kiva, 252; im- 
print on adobe, 107; mesh, 94; reed, 
36, 223; rush, 93. 

Mauls, stone, 187. 

Metate, broken, 90; ceremonial, 58-59, 



378; descriptions of, 84-86, 257, 258, 
295; sandstone, 132, 137. 
Miscellaneous specimens, found in vari- 
ous rooms, 31, 38, 45-46, 47, 48, 50, 
56, 58, 61, 63, 65-67, 68, 81, 89, 91, 
96-97, 111, 122, 125-126, 128, 135- 
138, 161-163, 179, 180, 184, 188, 196- 

197, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 
210, 213, 216, 218, 219-220, 221, 223, 
237, 247-248, 253-254, 256, 257, 258, 
262, 263, 264, 267, 289; state of 
preservation of, 377. 

Moccasin-shaped stone, 66-67. 

Modeling, fragments of pottery showing, 
100. 

Mortar, ceremonial, 58; fragments of, 
105; painted stone, 264, 265, 266-267; 
stone, 112. 

Mosaic basket, 377. 

Mosaics, inlays for making, 66; turquoise 
on basket, 164. 

Mounds, burials found in, 376; composi- 
tion of, 383; excavation of, 26-27; 
probable time relations of, 385. 

Mugs, grayware, 129-130, 135-136, 183. 

Nelson, N. C, survey of Bonito by, 23; 

notes on Pueblo Bonito by, 381-390. 
Niches, in walls, descriptions of, 40, 82. 

Occupation of Bonito, evidences of length 
of, 23, 270; probable length of, 375. 

Offerings, in kiva posts, 1; in logs sup- 
porting ceiling, 84, 252-253. 

Ollas, descriptions of, 95, 263. 

Ornament, of bone, 333. 

Paint, bowls, pottery, 66; kinds of, 37, 

135. 
Painting, of arrows, 160; of arrowshafts, 

37; of ceremonial sticks, 148. 
Partition walls, description, 179, 197- 

198, 208, 235, 238, 269, 324, 325, 326, 
331. 

Passageways, descriptions of, 40, 44, 45, 

89, 209, 243, 245, 257, 319. 
Pebble, drilled for inlays, 46; natural, 

use of, 62; with sides worn flat, 31. 



396 Anthropological Papers American Mvseum of Natural History. [Vcl. XXVII, 



Peg, of deer antler, 315. 

Penasco Blanco, 385. 

Pendant, pottery, 46, 342; shell, 83. 

Perforations, drilled in ends of ceremonial 
sticks, 143-144. 

Pestle, cylindrical painted stone, 237. 

Pigments, 59. 

Pinon gum, 37. 

Pipe, clay, 51, 111, 191; cylindrical, 191- 
192; grayware, 183; pottery, 54-55, 
63, 65; steatite, 50-51; stone, 51, 63. 

Pipes, sacrificial breaking of, 54. 

Pipestem, clay, 180; steatite, 183. 

Pitchers, 263-264, 316; found in burial 
mound, 339, 340; grayware, i 30, 133, 
136, 138-139, 140; pottery, 117, 118. 

Pit, made of metates, 203. 

Pits, in floor, 203. 

Plaster, of sand and adobe, 32. 

Plastering, of walls, 40, 45, 81, 85, 89, 
185, 186, 205, 207, 218-219, 220, 221, 
222, 224, 229, 231, 232, 236,238,239, 
241, 262, 268, 270, 280, 285, 293, 294, 
295, 297, 299, 300, 304, 305, 306, 313, 
314, 317, 320, 321, 323, 325, 326, 329, 
330, 332, 333. 

Platform, clay, 45; description of, 186, 
215. 

Pocket, basket covered, 234-235; in 
buried floor, 243-244; circular, 243; 
construction of, 231, 241, 242, 268; 
oval, 244, 264; in walls, 98, 178, 179, 
180, 195-196, 224, 229-230, 232, 234, 
236, 241, 245, 246-247, 248, 254, 
257, 294-295, 315, 316, 329; 

Posts, as platform supports, 215; sup- 
ports for, 308; in wall, 220, 285-286; 
for wall supports, 198. 

Pottery, arm or leg of, 53; broken, 234; 
cache, 117-120; corrugated, 91; dec- 
orated, in burial mound, 339; de- 
scription of, in burial mound, 340, 
341, 342, 347, 348, 349, 350, 351; 
distribution in ruin by rooms, 359-362; 
examples of, 38-39, 43, 129-134, 237, 
267, 335; foot, 49; forms, 119; frag- 
ments of, 67-68, 91, 95, 190; grayware, 
53, 66, 91, 92-93, 95, 99; paint bowls, 



66; pipes, 54-55, 63, 65; in pockets, 
235; range of form of, 377; square, 
in burial mound, 339; stylistic changes 
in, 383; types of, 164; white-ware, 
70, 340. 

Pot-holes, covered with baskets, 234, 
235; description of, 245; under floor, 
236. 

Potsherds, of the Chaco region, 385; 
proportions in sections of refuse heap, 
385; red and grayware, 190; in refuse 
heap, 384. 

Prayer sticks, ceremonial sticks similar 
to, 145. 

Preservation, state of, objects in ruin, 29. 

Problematic objects, 59. 

Publications, on Pueblo Bonito, 2. 

Pueblo Alto, 26. 

Pueblo Pintado, 385. 

Pueblo Wejegi, 386. 

Pumpkins, remains of, 97. 

Putnam, Prof. F. W., cited, 1. 

Quartz, crystals, 63. 
Quills, description of, 29-30. 
Quiver, of arrows, 160. 

Races, objects carried during, 184. 

Rasp, sandstone, 86. 

Rasping stones, 38. 

Rasps, for wood working, 187. 

Rattles, 103. 

Rattlesnake, rattle carved on ceremonial 
stick, 147. 

Rawhide, pieces of, 31. 

Re-building walls, evidences of, 217, 219, 
237, 256. 

Reconstructed part of Bonito, 264. 

Rectangular rooms, 32. 

Redware pottery, 99, 120, 131, 132, pro- 
portion of in Bonito refuse heap, 384. 

Reed, section as drinking tube, 162. 

Reeds, for arrows and gaming sticks, 
109. 

Refuse, deposit, 93; heaps, excavation 
of, 26, 3S3. 

Roof, of kiva, construction of, 84, 251- 
252. 



1920. 



Index. 



397 



Rooms, number excavated, 2; number in 

Pueblo Bonito, 14-15. 
Ruins, in Chaco Cafon, 13. 

Sacrificial, breaking of objects, 54, 56, 
58-59; offerings, beam supports of 
kiva, 252-253; pottery, 101, 103. 

Sand, drifted, 129; study of sections of, 
24. 

Sandals, fragmerts of carbonized, 93; 
yucca leaf, braided, 93-94, 162; yucca 
leaf, fragmentary, 36; yucca fiber, 
woven, 162. 

Sandstone, building material, 375; cere- 
monial use of pulverized, 378 ; grooved 
for ceremonial purposes, 112; slab, 
for grinding paint, 125. 

Scalp stretchers, ceremonial sticks as, 145, 

Scrapers, bone, 103, 111; inlaid, 193. 

Scraping tool, bone, 197. 

Sections, location by mapping, 24. 

Seed offerings, objects of unbaked clay, 
101, 103. 

Sharpener, sandstone, 92. 

Shelf, stone, 200. 

Shells, beads and pendants of, 173-174; 
ceremonial objects of, 61; fossil, 46, 
47, 53, 61-63; objects of, 125; orna- 
ments of, 379; ornaments of, in burial 
mound, 341, 342; worked, 62, 69. • 

Sill, of doorways, 90, 222, 313, 314. 

Simpson, J. H., description of Bonito by, 
14-15, 25. 

Sinew bindings, arrows, 160; ceremonial 
sticks, 148. 

Skeletal, remains, human, 134, 136, 210, 
216, 223, 263, 264, 267, 339; descrip- 
tion of, in burial mound, 340-342, 347- 
351 ; position in burial, 138. 

Skeleton, of dogs, 102; of parrots, 257; 
of rabbit, 39. 

Skin, work in, 103, 105. 

Slabs, sandstone, 128; wood, 97; wooden, 
use of, 162. 

Slag, glass-like, 191. 

Slip, white on grayware pottery, 140. 

Small-house ruins, pottery wares of, 386. 



Snowshoes, problematical, 96. 
Soil, fertility and cultivation of, 25. 
Squash, flower, symbolism of among 

Hopi, 65; form vessel, 122; remains of, 

97. 
Step, stone, 316. 
Steps, in doorway, 311, 313; stone, 281, 

285. 
Sticks, for cutting buckskin, 35, 48, 108; 

upright, embedded in kiva bench, 81. 

See also, ceremonial sticks, gambling 

sticks, gaming sticks, kicking sticks. 
Stone, cache of, 37; implements of, 377- 

378; objects of, 59-61; objects, distri- 
bution of most important, 363-365; 

rubbing, in burial mound, 342; work 

in, 85, 89, 105. 
Stones, ceremonial, 58; fragments of, 46; 

peculiar forms of, 63. 
Stopper, of wood, 101. 
Storage, bins, 85, 270, 273, 279-283; cage, 

remains of, 200; pocket, 195-196; 

rooms, 46, 207. 
Stratification, layers of debris, 137; sand 

in room, 316. 
Streams, mapping of surface, 25. 
Strings, yucca, pendent from ceiling, 80. 
Supports, for kiva, specimens found in, 

111. 
Symbolism, Hopi, 65. 

Textiles, 105, 106-108. 

Torch, cedar, 147; cedarbark, 36; Cot- 
tonwood, 138. 

Trade, Navajo and Bonito people, 26. 

Tradition, Navajo, with respect to 
Bonito, 25-26. 

Trumpets, murex shell, 190; shell, 69, 85. 

Turquoise, 37; deposit of, 173; found 
with pottery, 122; inlay in wood, 155; 
inlays, 69; jewel basket, in Navajo 
legends, 173; mosaic on basket, 164; 
ornaments and pendants of, 175, 186; 
quarrying of, 377. 

Two rod coil, tray basket, 36. 

Underground rooms, 39-44, 329. 



398 Anthropological Papers American Museum of Natural History. [Vol. XXVII, 



Vegetable foods, remains of, 37, 46. 
Ventilators, 309, 313. 

Walls, circular, 224; composition of, 29, 
32, 219; condition of, 49-50, 69, 128, 
284, 285, 293, 294, 295, 299, 300, 301- 
302; construction, 17-18, 47, 50, 52, 
62, 71, 79, 98, 99, 118, 126-127, 178, 
179, 180, 183, 185, 186, 198, 199, 200, 
205, 206, 207, 208, 215, 216, 217, 218- 
219, 220-221, 224, 236, 242, 256, 257, 
262-263, 264, 268, 270, 279, 280, 282- 
283, 289, 290-291, 292, 293-294, 295, 
297-298, 299, 300-301, 302, 305-306, 
308-309, 313-316, 316-318, 319, 320, 
321, 322, 323, 324, 325, 326, 328, 329- 
330, 331-333, 334, 339; description of, 
40, 43, 44, 70, 203-204; division, 32; 
height of, 86, 112, 127, 200, 203, 215, 
216, 220, 229; height of standing, 178, 
199, 203, 205, 210, 219, 220, 222, 231, 
233, 235, 241, 248, 290, 291, 292, 293, 
294, 298, 301, 302, 303, 309, 316, 317- 
318, 321, 323, 324, 329, 334; kiva, 81- 
82, 270; old, 248, 291; old and new, 



218, 305-306; old and new compared, 
375; outer, 319; plastered, 162, 163; 
state of preservation, 89, 221 ; systems 
of, 388; thickness of, 99, 206, 208, 238, 
263, 284, 289, 291, 292, 294, 297, 300, 
301, 302, 303, 304, 305, 313, 316, 318, 
320, 321, 324, 328, 329-330, 334; under 
floor of room, 257; wattle type, 306. 

Walnut, with turquoise inlay, 205. 

Walnuts, canon, drilled for suspension, 
108; worked, 97. 

Water-guides, pebbles used as, Zuni, 62. 

Water jar, grayware, 99, 131. 

Weaving, examples of, 107-108; of 
sandals, 94. 

Wetherill, Richard, cited, 1. 

Whiteware pottery, 70, 119, 130. 

Wood, implements of, 97; object of, 332; 
worked, 35-36; work in, 86, 92, 108- 
109. 

Workshop rooms, 39. 

Yucca, leaves, uses of, 93-94, 96, 162; 
loops, pendent, 45.